Bourne is a market town and civil parish in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. It lies on the eastern slopes of the limestone Kesteven Uplands and western edge of the Fens. The population recorded in the 2011 census was 14,456.
Bourne town centre
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The town is located on a Roman road now known as King Street. It was built around some natural springs, hence the name "Bourne" (or "Bourn"). which derives from the Anglo-Saxon burna or burne meaning "water" or "stream". It lies on the intersection of two main roads: the A15 and the A151. The civil parish includes the main township along with the hamlets of Cawthorpe, Dyke and Twenty. In former years Austerby was regarded as a separate settlement, with its own shops and street plan, but is now an area of Bourne known as The Austerby.( ).
The ecclesiastical parish of Bourne is part of the Beltisloe Deanery of the Diocese of Lincoln and based at the Abbey Church of St Peter and St Paul, in Church Walk. The incumbent is Rev. Chris Atkinson. Other religious congregations in the town include Methodist, Baptist, United Reformed and Roman Catholic churches.
The town's economy was based on rural industries until the railway opened up a market for bottled mineral water. Although it is still focused on agriculture and food preparation for supermarkets, there are also important light engineering and tourism activities. The district has a fast-growing housing market, with considerable new building taking place in Bourne in the 2000s. The population was 14,456 in the 2011 Census.
Sugar beet was first grown as an English crop in the Fenland east of Bourne by British Sugar Ltd. It had been developed in Germany and France in the early 19th century. Although Britain's demand for sugar was mostly fulfilled by European beet imports until shortly after 1900, the successful sugar beet production in areas such as that around Twenty, fulfilled the nation's sugar requirements during the 20th century's two world wars.
Much of Bourne's 19th-century affluence came from the corn-trade boom that followed the mechanisation of fen drainage. The production of wheat is still important. In the 21st century, hydroponic food production plants have been built on the edge of the fen.
Although the Autocast foundry has closed with the shrinkage of the British car industry, there are a number of small machine workshops in the south and east of the town. These include Pilbeam Racing in Graham Hill Way and Trackline International, manufacturers of "crawler undercarriage systems". Bourne has two printing companies and manufacturers of double glazing and fibreglass mouldings.
Warehousing and distributionEdit
In the same area are distribution warehouses for a large brewer and general transport and storage companies, and a game merchant operates from one of the smaller factory estates.
As well as town centre shops, there are garden centres in Cherry Holt Road, furniture and decorating shopping in Manning Road, and specialist suppliers of kitchen, decorative, catering and light engineering supplies. Bourne currently has a total 14 takeaway restaurants.
Lincolnshire County CouncilEdit
Bourne has two County Council divisions:
Bourne North and Morton:
Bourne South and Thurlby:
South Kesteven District CouncilEdit
This section needs to be updated.May 2015)(
Bourne has three District Council wards, two having two councillors and the new ward, Austerby, having three councillors:
- Councillor Bob Russell (Conservative)
- Councillor Judy Smith (Conservative)
- Councillor David Mapp (Conservative)
- Councillor Helen N J Powell (Lincolnshire Independent)
- Councillor Duncan Ashwell (Conservative)
- Councillor Jane Kingman (Conservative)
- Councillor Robert Reid (Conservative)
Councillor Matthew Lee is the current (May 2017) Leader of South Kesteven District Council.
Bourne Town CouncilEdit
Bourne Town Council has two wards which are identical to the South Kesteven District Council wards. Bourne East elects seven councillors to the town council and Bourne West eight.
From 1899 to 1974, Bourne had an urban district council in the former Parts of Kesteven. Under the Local Government Act 1972, Bourne UDC was dissolved into the newly formed South Kesteven district. Urban districts which disappeared in this way formed successor parishes and were given a dispensation to call their "parish" councils "town" councils, with their chairs to be known as mayor. These town councils were allowed to adopt the coat of arms granted to the former UDC.
A Bourne Rural District also existed from 1894 to 1931, when it was abolished to form part of a larger South Kesteven Rural District. The parish of Bourne had formed part of Bourne RD from 1894 to 1899. South Kesteven RDC had its own coat of arms, which disappeared along with that of Kesteven in 1974. Very few copies of either remain in existence.
- Bourne Abbey Church of England Academy (primary)
- Bourne Grammar School (secondary, sixth form)
- Bourne Academy formerly Robert Manning Technology College (secondary, sixth form)
- Bourne Westfield Primary Academy (primary)
- Willoughby School (Special Educational needs)
- Bourne Elsea Park Primary Academy (primary)
Bourne Westfield Primary AcademyEdit
Built in the 1970s as part of the large expansion of housing to the west of the town, it has been twice enlarged to cope with increasing rolls. It has a current roll of 629. A November 2008 Ofsted inspection accorded the school a Grade 1 (outstanding). Some former pupils are scattered worldwide, as far as Australia. The school hosts its own pre-school facility, the Bluebird Pre-school Playgroup. In 2009, the school was an award holder in the schools section of the Clean Air Awards Scheme, under the auspices of Lincolnshire County Council. It was cited as a Flagship School for the Food for Life Partnership 2009–2010, achieving a bronze award, partly for its cookery club. In 2010 it won Best School Garden in the East Midlands and a gold medal with Britain in Bloom. In 2009 the school had won a silver gilt medal in the same competition. This was one of the first schools to be rated as a National Healthy School under the programme of the same name. It has been given the gold award for the quality and range of its sports provision under the Active Mark Scheme. A pupil at the school received The Local's Rose Award in 2009 for caring for his mother during illness. Local respect was demonstrated in 2008 for this school's educational and fundraising work, when its school fete received a flypast by a Spitfire and Dakota. In 2007 and 2008 pupils filled 200 shoe boxes with gifts for needy children under the Operation Christmas Child appeal. Pupils continue charity work outside the school; for example a pupil has contributed to the local newspaper's appeal to send gift boxes to military personnel serving abroad.
In line with Bourne's tradition of agriculture and horticulture, and to its site and environment as detailed, the school has gardening clubs and grows its own vegetables. It has organised voluntary pupil maintenance of public flower beds in Bourne since 2009. An orchard donated to the school is maintained by pupils with the aim of providing fruit to the school. Besides the Food for Life Partnership award and cookery club mentioned, the pupils cook pancakes for the Pancake Day celebrations. The school has a choir that also sings in Bourne Methodist Church. The choir has performed at local public events such as the ignition of the Christmas lights in Bourne in 2007, and charity events such as the 2008 Bourne Round Table dinner for pensioners. As Lincolnshire champions and representative of the East Midlands, the school's rugby team reached the finals of the Tag 2 Twickenham rugby tournament and competed at Rugby School in Warwickshire in 2009. Cycling has been supported with a six-week Go-Ride cycling skills programme held in 2008. Some pupils take part in other sports such as motocross and skateboarding; a pupil asked the council for a local skatepark in 2002; the idea was resurrected by the council in 2010. One pupil won three gold medals in the Cambridgeshire Gymnastics floor and vault competition in 2008.
Westfield archaeological siteEdit
The school was built on the site of Westfield. Between the 9th and 20th centuries, Westfield was a set of three fields arranged and used as an existing medieval agricultural three-field system, which was a form of crop rotation in use from the Middle Ages. It is this site which accounts for the name of the school. The site is close to and associated with Car Dyke, and this may imply a connection between the three-field system and the dyke, involving drainage, irrigation and transport of crops and materials. The historical association between Westfield and Car Dyke for crop and materials transport is a strong probability because droving roads and the later turnpikes were less viable than waterways until the A151 road was built. In the tradition of UK primary schools, the pupils are taught geography and history in the context of the school's site environment as well as contemporary and worldwide context. That is to say, the school's site and environment directly affects the education of the pupils.
The original modern building was created in 1973 by a team of architects in Lincolnshire Council's building department. It was to have been a flat-roofed building. Since then, there have been several extensions which are now fused to form a cohesive unit. The most recent two projects on the site were designed by Wilson and Heath of Stamford, who built a covered courtyard and library at the school. This architectural firm has worked on Fishmongers' Hall in London and the University of Exeter, and has won a civic award in Stamford. Two more classrooms and a covered way are now being planned by the school, which is again using the same architects.
Bourne Market Place is at the crossroads of the A15 road and the B1193. Strictly speaking, it was a staggered pair of T-junctions where the A15 was met by the A151 from Spalding to the east and the B676 from the west (the article A151 road explains) before the B676 was renumbered as an extension of the A151 to Colsterworth. The A151 was diverted from the town centre via Cherry Holt Road and a newly opened relief road in 2005. When the rapid expansion of the town was first proposed in the early 1990s, development was scheduled to the north-east of the town, and part of this would have been a north/south bypass on the A15 under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990. However, the chosen site was shifted to the south-west of the town, and the proposed by-pass was lost. A large volume of traffic is generated within the town, with the result that the A15 between Bourne and Peterborough is one of the busiest roads in the county, Peterborough is the closest city to Bourne at 16.1 miles. To the west of the town, the A6121 branches from the A151 and takes traffic towards Stamford.
When the relief road opened, the section of the A151 in the town centre was renumbered. However, ever since then, some published road maps are incorrect. The A151 now follows Cherry Holt Road, it no longer continues to the town centre. The only reliable map is the Ordnance Survey:. The error seems also to affect satellite navigation systems, causing large lorries to attempt a tight corner in the town centre rather than keeping to the correct roads.
There is a bus station at the top of North Street. The town's bus services are provided by the family-owned company Delaine. There is a daily long-distance coach from Grimsby to London Victoria, which stops at Bourne bus station about 11.00. The return journey arrives just after 17.30.
Bourne Abbey, (charter 1138), formerly held and maintained land in Bourne and other parishes. In later times this was known as the manor of Bourne Abbots. Whether the canons knew that name is less clear. The estate was given by the Abbey's founder, Baldwin fitz Gilbert de Clare, son of Gilbert fitz Richard, and later benefactors. The abbey was established under the Arrouaisian order. Its fundamental rule was that of St Augustine and as time went on, it came to be regarded as Augustinian. The Ormulum, an important Middle English Biblical gloss, was probably written in the abbey in around 1175.
Bourne was an important junction on the Victorian railway system, but all such connections were severed after the Second World War (see Rail heading). The business stimulus it brought caused major development of the town, and many of the buildings around the medieval street plan were rebuilt, or at least refaced. Improved communications allowed a bottled water industry to develop, and to provide coal deliveries for the town's gas works.
The then local authority, Bourne Urban District Council, was very active in the interests of the town, taking over the gas works and the local watercress beds at times of financial difficulty and running them as commercial activities. Large numbers of good quality council houses were built by them in the early 20th century.
Bourne sent many men to both world wars, but was otherwise only lightly affected. During the Second World War a German bomber was shot down and crashed onto the Butcher's Arms public house in Eastgate. Nine people were killed, including the bomber's crew. In a separate incident, a number of bombs were dropped on the Hereward Camp approved school, a row of wooden huts adjacent to the woods that may have been mistaken for a military camp. Charles Richard Sharpe was injured in the second incident, but he was no stranger to fighting the Germans, having been awarded the Victoria Cross in the First World War.
Later Bourne had a railway station served by the Bourn and Essendine Railway (old spelling) line from Essendine to Sleaford and by the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway (M&GN) connecting the Midlands to East Anglia. Timetabled passenger services on both lines had ceased by the end of February 1959 and the lines were closed to occasional use by the Beeching Axe. With the exception of Red Hall, the main station buildings were demolished in 1964, a year after the Beeching Report. The main goods shed survived as an unusual edifice: a goods store of wooden construction. The mechanism of the locomotive turntable is now in use in the Wansford depot of the Nene Valley Railway.
The Bourne-Morton Canal or Bourne Old Eau connected the town to the sea in Roman times.
Until the mid-19th century, the present Bourne Eau was capable of carrying commercial boat traffic from the Wash coast and Spalding. This resulted from the investment following the Bourne Navigation Act of 1780. Passage became impossible once the junction of the Eau and the River Glen was converted from gates to a sluice in 1860.
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Bourne Town Football Club, nicknamed "The Wakes", plays football in the United Counties Football League and the junior club runs teams for young people at all ages in local league competitions. Bourne Cricket Club is one of the strongest in the Lincolnshire ECB Premier League having won the competition three times since it started in 2000. The club often provides players for the Lincolnshire Minor Counties team. These teams play their home games at the Abbey Lawn, a recreation ground privately owned by the Bourne United Charities. Also at "The Lawn" are the tennis and bowls clubs, Bourne Rugby Club is based outside the town at Milking Nook Drove , with senior teams and thriving Junior and Mini sections – over 100 players are to be seen training and playing on Sundays from 10.30 am. The hockey club is obliged to play elsewhere, as there is not a suitable all-weather playing surface in the town. Bourne also hosts a number of other sporting clubs, particularly in the field of martial arts, and efforts to provide a skate park continue. The leisure centre is attached to Bourne Academy and caters for a number of indoor activities, including a swimming pool.
The racing-car marques English Racing Automobiles (E.R.A.) and British Racing Motors (BRM) were both founded in Bourne by Raymond Mays, an international racing driver and designer. E.R.A. started in 1934 and BRM's first car was unveiled in 1949 at Folkingham Airfield.
The former ERA and BRM workshops on Spalding road were being used in 2013 as an auction saleroom by Golding, Young and Mawer. They are adjacent to Eastgate House, the Mays' family home in the town's Eastgate. The achievements of Raymond Mays are commemorated in a Memorial Room at the town's Heritage Centre (Baldock's Mill in South Street) where many of his trophies are displayed, having been donated by his PA Trissie Carlton and her daughter Anne Boggitt. The room contains photographs, memorabilia and silverware won by BRM cars and drivers. A collection of BRM cars paraded around the town in August 1999 and a memorial to Raymond Mays was unveiled in South Street in 2003.
There are currently 71 listed buildings in the parish of Bourne, the most important being Bourne Abbey and the Parish Church of St Peter and St Paul (1138), which is the only one scheduled Grade I. The others are Grade II, the most colourful being the aptly named Red Hall (c. 1620), finished in red brick with ashlar quoins, many gabled and featuring a fine Tuscan porch. From 1860 to 1959, it was the town's railway station booking office and waiting room. At two stages, in the 1890s and 1960s, it came close to demolition, but the building is now well preserved by Bourne United Charities, whose offices it holds.
Baldock's Mill (1800), once a corn-grinding water mill, together with the miller's house, has been converted by Bourne Civic Society to serve as the town's Heritage Centre. It houses many interesting artefacts, most recently a water-wheel has been installed and a newly created replica of a Charles Frederick Worth dress is on display.
The Baptist Church dates from 1835, but the church itself was established there in the 1640s. This building, the Methodist Church (1841) and the United Reformed Church (1846) are all still in active use.
The Old Grammar School was a red-brick building with a Collyweston roof, built in the 17th century and largely rebuilt in 1738. The school closed in 1904, and the building, which stands in the Abbey churchyard, has since been used for a variety of purposes. The roof was condemned as unsafe in April 2003 but was repaired, although the building is no longer in regular use.
At the cemetery owned and run by the town council is a chapel built in 1855., In recent years, the building has not been used as a chapel, and the fabric has deteriorated. This is attributed to a lack of maintenance by the council due to financial constraints. However, the shallowness of the foundations is said to be the principal cause. The chapel now requires considerable expenditure if it is to survive, but on 23 January 2007 the town council took the decision to demolish it. In 2007, Bourne historian Rex Needle applied for and obtained a Grade II listing from the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, which secures the building from demolition for the foreseeable future. In 2008, the effort is now under way to identify a source of funding (estimated around £400,000) to render the building fit for long-term community use.
In July 2008, the Ostler Memorial in the town's cemetery, an ornate Gothic water fountain originally erected in the market place in 1860 to the memory of local benefactor John Lely Ostler (1811–59), but neglected in recent years, was also given Grade II status by the DCMS bringing the total number of listed buildings in Bourne to 71.
- Bourne Wood; 400 acres (2 km²) of woodland which has been a resource since primeval times. There is now a sculpture trail and the wood forms part of the 19-mile Bourne Cycle Trail.
- Grimsthorpe Castle. A landed estate, large country house and tourist attraction. The castle's web site.
- Bowthorpe Oak, A tree old at the time of the Domesday survey. On private land, an admission charge is levied.
- Bourne is reputedly the birthplace of Hereward the Wake (in about 1035), although the 12th-century source of this information, De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis, refers only to his father as being "of Bourne" and to the father's house and retainers there. Charles Kingsley used the De Gestis text for his lively 1866 novel, which repeats the fundamental story with much descriptive embellishment.
- Orm (or Ormin) the Preacher (flourished 1180) worked at Bourne Abbey during the 12th century, about a century earlier than Robert Mannyng (see below) but his presence there has only been revealed by recent research. His collection of homilies known as The Ormulum has been well known to linguists and language historians since the 17th century, but its source in Bourne Abbey has only recently been established. Orm's language provides a glimpse of the English vernacular of the time, before it was strongly influenced by the Norman French. It is assumed that the manuscript remained at Bourne Abbey until the Dissolution of the Monasteries between 1536 and 1540 and after various owners, it is now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, where it is kept in conditions in keeping with its age and fragility.
- Robert Mannyng (1264–1340) is credited with putting the speech of the ordinary people of his time into recognisable form. He is better known as Robert de Brunne because of his long period of residence as a canon at Bourne Abbey. There he completed his life's work, popularising religious and historical material in a Middle English dialect that was easily understood at that time. His Handlyng Synne is acknowledged to be of great value for the glimpses it gives into the ways and thoughts of his contemporaries and shows us the language then in common use.
- William Cecil (1520–1598) became the first Lord Burghley after serving Queen Elizabeth I for forty years, during which time he was the main architect of Britain's policies, with a reputation for renaissance statecraft, diplomat, politician and administrator. He was born at a house in the centre of Bourne that is now the Burghley Arms. There is a plaque outside.
- Job Hartop (1550–1595) was a farmer's boy working on the land near Bourne, but he hankered after a life of adventure and ran away to sea when he was twelve years old. After a short apprenticeship with a gunpowder manufacturer in London, he signed on with the English admiral Sir John Hawkins and sailed the Spanish Main in the company of the young Francis Drake. He was captured by the Spanish on his third voyage and spent ten years as a galley slave and thirteen in a Spanish prison but escaped and returned to Bourne where he died, aged 45.
- Dr William Dodd (1729–1777), was an Anglican clergyman, man of letters and forger. He was also the son of the Rev William Dodd, Vicar of Bourne from 1727 to 1756. The younger Dodd graduated with distinction from Clare College, Cambridge, and then moved to London, where his extravagant lifestyle soon landed him in debt. This worried his friends, who persuaded him to mend his ways. So he decided to take holy orders and was ordained in 1751. He became a popular and fashionable preacher, but was always short of money, and in an attempt to rectify his depleted finances, forged a bond in the sum of £4,200. This was discovered and he was prosecuted, sentenced to death and publicly hanged at Tyburn on 27 June 1777.
- Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895), son of a solicitor, lived at Wake House in North Street, which is now a community centre. He moved to Paris and became a renowned designer of women's fashion and the founder of haute couture. The French government awarded him the Légion d'honneur and the President of the French Republic was among the 2,000 who attended at his funeral.
- Sir George White was a cobbler's son born above his father's shop in West Street, Bourne, in 1840. He left home at 16 to work at a boot and shoe factory in Norwich, but soon made his mark in business, the Baptist movement and public life, becoming an alderman and Sheriff of Norwich, and later MP for North West Norfolk, a seat he held for twelve years until he died in 1912, aged 72. He was knighted for public service in 1907.
- Frederic Manning (1882–1935) wrote what is considered to be one of the finest novels dealing with World War I of 1914–1918. Much of it was completed while staying at the Bull Hotel in Bourne, now the Burghley Arms. Manning was an Australian, who chose to live here after a spell at Edenham, where he stayed with the vicar, the Rev Arthur Galton, who had been his tutor. Her Privates We (Hogarth Press, ISBN 0-7012-0702-7) was at first published anonymously, to much critical acclaim, but eight years after his death, it was published in 1943 under his own name and is still in print almost 70 years later. In the book, Manning acknowledged his affection for this town by calling his hero Private Bourne.
- Lilian Wyles (1885–1975) was the first woman officer of the Metropolitan Police's CID in 1922. The only daughter of the Bourne brewer Joseph Wyles, she started her police career in the women patrols, assisting young girls at risk.
- Charles Sharpe (1889–1963) was a farmer's boy from Pickworth, near Bourne, who ran away from home and joined the army. In World War I he was awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest decoration for valour, and he subsequently inspired many young men to enlist. On returning to civilian life, he worked as a physical training instructor to boys at the Hereward Camp approved school.
- Raymond Mays (1899–1980), son of a local businessman, was a successful motor racing driver and manufacturer. His workshops in Bourne built the ERAs that raced in the 1930s. In 1945 he co-founded BRM, which won the world championship in 1962. Mays lived at Eastgate House and was honoured with a CBE in 1978 for his services to motor racing.
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- Rex Needle, A Portrait of Bourne – the history of a Lincolnshire market town in words and pictures (1998–2016), on CD-ROM, including more than two million words of text and over 6,000 photographs from past and present. This is the largest and most comprehensive archive of the town to date and embraces all previous publications, detailing the history of Bourne from the earliest times to the present day.
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- Rex Needle, The Ostler Memorial Fountain (2003)
- Rex Needle, A history of Bourne Hospital 1915-2003 (2003)
- Rex Needle, Letters from the Trenches – Bourne boys write home to their loved ones during the Great War (2004)
- Rex Needle, Dad's Army in Bourne – the story of the Home Guard (2004)
- Rex Needle, The Bourne Chronicle – the town's history in dates and events, people and places (2005)
- Rex Needle, Bourne's Outdoor Swimming Pool – a short history (2005)
- Rex Needle, The Life and Times of a remarkable medical man Dr John Galletly – 1899–1993 (2006)
- Rex Needle, Bourne House Hostel: Memories of children in care – 1957-85 (2006)
- Rex Needle, The Eastgate plane crash of 1941 (2006)
- Rex Needle, Bourne military hospital 1914–18 (2006)
- Rex Needle, The Vestry Hall – history of a Victorian chapel (2006)
- Rex Needle, Bourne cemetery chapel (2007)
- Rex Needle, Bourne Conservation Area and an illustrated survey of all 71 Listed Buildings (2008)
- Rex Needle, Magic and Make Believe – the life and work of Alfred Stubley 1859-1932 (2009)
- Rex Needle, Tales of Bourne from Past Times (2009)
- Rex Needle, Stamford, Bourne and The Deepings with artist Alan Oliver (2009) ISBN 978-1-900935-76-0
- Rex Needle, A History of the Red Hall (2009)
- Rex Needle, The Bourne workhouse – a story of social change (2009)
- Rex Needle, Brief Lives of Bourne People (2010)
- Rex Needle, Two hundred years of Methodism in Bourne (2010)
- Rex Needle, A Brief History of Bourne (2012)
- R. E. Pearson and J. G. Ruddock, Lord Willoughby's Railway (Willoughby Memorial Trust. 1986)
- John Rhodes, Bourne to Essendine (1986) ISBN 0-948017-03-1
- John T. Swift, Bourne and People Associated with Bourne (about 1925)
Media related to Bourne, Lincolnshire at Wikimedia Commons
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Bourne.|