The lord privy seal (or, more formally, the lord keeper of the privy seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the lord president of the Council and above the lord great chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal (as opposed to the Great Seal of the Realm, which is in the care of the lord chancellor) until the use of such a seal became obsolete. Though one of the oldest offices in European governments, it has no particular function today because the use of a privy seal has been obsolete for centuries; it may be regarded as a traditional sinecure, but today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, and is sometimes referred to as a minister without portfolio.

Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Incumbent
The Lord True
since 6 September 2022
StyleThe Right Honourable
TypeGreat Officer of State
AppointerThe King
(on the advice of the Prime Minister)
Term lengthAt His Majesty's pleasure
Formation1307
First holderWilliam Melton

Since the premiership of Clement Attlee, the position of lord privy seal has frequently been combined with that of leader of the House of Lords or leader of the House of Commons. The office of lord privy seal, unlike those of leader of the Lords or Commons, is eligible for a ministerial salary under the Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975.[1] The office does not confer membership of the House of Lords, leading to Ernest Bevin's remark on holding this office that he was "neither a Lord, nor a Privy, nor a Seal".[2][3]

During the reign of Edward I, prior to 1307, the privy seal was kept by the controller of the wardrobe.[4] The lord privy seal was the president of the Court of Requests during its existence.

List of lord keepers of the privy seal Edit

Lord Keepers of the Privy Seal (c. 1307–1714) Edit

Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Lord Keeper Term of office Monarch
(Reign)
William Melton 1307 1312 Edward II
 
r. 1307–1327
Roger Northburgh 1312 1316
Thomas Charlton 1316 1320
Robert Baldock
Archdeacon of Middlesex
1320 1323
Robert Wodehouse 1323 1323
Robert Ayleston 1323 1324
William Ayermin 1324 1325
Henry de Cliff 1325 1325
William Herlaston 1325 1326
Robert Wyvil 1326 1327
Richard Airmyn 1327 1328 Edward III
 
r. 1327–1377
Adam de Lymbergh 1328 1329
Richard Bury
Bishop of Durham
1329 1334
Robert Ayleston 1334 1334
Robert Tawton 1334 1335
William de la Zouch 1335 1337
Richard Bintworth 1337 1338
William Kilsby 1338 1342
John de Ufford 1342 1344
Thomas Hatfield 1344 1345
John Thoresby
Master of the Rolls
1345 1347
Simon Islip
Archbishop of Canterbury
1347 1350
Michael Northburgh
Archdeacon of Suffolk
1350 1354
Thomas Bramber 1354 1355
John Winwick 1355 1360
John Buckingham
Bishop of Lincoln
1360 1363
William of Wykeham
Archdeacon of Lincoln
1363 1367
Peter Lacy 1367 1371
Nicholas Carew
MP for Surrey
1371 1377
John Fordham 1377 1381 Richard II
 
r. 1377–1399
William Dighton 1381 1382
Walter Skirclaw
Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield
1382 1386
John Waltham
Bishop of Salisbury
1386 1389
Edmund Stafford
Bishop of Exeter
1389 1396
Guy Mone 1396 1397
Richard Clifford
Bishop of Bath and Wells
1397 1401
Henry IV
 
r. 1399–1413
Thomas Langley 1401 1405
Nicholas Bubwith 1405 1406
John Prophet
Dean of York
1406 1415
Henry V
 
r. 1413–1422
John Wakering
Bishop of Norwich
1415 1416
Henry Ware 1416 1418
John Kemp
Bishop of Rochester
1418 1421
John Stafford 1421 1422
William Alnwick
Bishop of Norwich [nb 1]
1422 1432 Henry VI
 
r. 1422–1461
William Lyndwood
Bishop of St David's [nb 2]
1432 1443
Thomas Beckington
Bishop of Bath and Wells
1443 1444
Adam Moleyns
Bishop of Chichester [nb 3]
1444 1450
Andrew Holes
Archdeacon of York
1450 1452
Thomas Lisieux
Dean of St Paul's
1452 1456
Laurence Booth
Bishop of Durham [nb 4]
1456 1460
Robert Stillington
Bishop of Bath and Wells [nb 5]
1460 1467
Edward IV
 
r. 1461–1470
Thomas Rotherham
Bishop of Rochester [nb 6]
1467 1470
John Hales
Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield
1470 1471 Henry VI
 
r. 1470–1471
Thomas Rotherham
Bishop of Lincoln [nb 7]
1471 1474 Edward IV
 
r. 1471–1483
John Russell
Bishop of Lincoln [nb 8]
1474 1483
Edward V
 
r. 1483
John Gunthorpe
Dean of Wells
1483 1485
Richard III
 
r. 1483–1485
Peter Courtenay
Bishop of Exeter
1485 1487 Henry VII
 
r. 1485–1509
Richard Foxe
Bishop of Winchester [nb 9]
1487 1516
Henry VIII
 
r. 1509–1547
Thomas Ruthall
Bishop of Durham
1516 1523
Henry Marney
1st Baron Marney
1523 1523
Cuthbert Tunstall
Bishop of London
1523 1530
Thomas Boleyn
1st Earl of Wiltshire
1530 1536
Thomas Cromwell
1st Earl of Essex
[nb 10]
1536 1540
William FitzWilliam
1st Earl of Southampton
1540 1542
John Russell
1st Earl of Bedford
[nb 11]
1542 1555
Edward VI
 
r. 1547–1553
Mary I
 
r. 1553–1558
William Paget
1st Baron Paget
1555 1558
Nicholas Bacon 1558 1571 Elizabeth I
 
r. 1558–1603
William Cecil
1st Baron Burghley
1571 1572
William Howard
1st Baron Howard of Effingham
1572 1573
Thomas Smith
MP for Essex
1573 1576
Francis Walsingham
MP for Surrey
1576 1590
William Cecil
1st Baron Burghley
1590 1598
Robert Cecil
1st Earl of Salisbury
1598 1608
James I
 
r. 1603–1625
Henry Howard
1st Earl of Northampton
1608 1614
Robert Carr
1st Earl of Somerset
1614 1616
Edward Somerset
4th Earl of Worcester
1616 1625
John Coke
MP for Cambridge University
1625 1628 Charles I
 
r. 1625–1649
Robert Naunton 1628 1628
Henry Montagu
1st Earl of Manchester
1628 1642
Lucius Cary
2nd Viscount Falkland
1643 1643
Edward Nicholas[nb 12] 1643 1644
Henry Bourchier
5th Earl of Bath
1644 1646
[nb 13]
Interregnum
Commissioners of Parliament's Great Seal
1646 1660 Charles II
 
Court in exile
John Robartes
2nd Baron Robartes
1660 1673 Charles II
 
r. 1660–1685
Arthur Annesley
1st Earl of Anglesey
1673 1682
George Savile
1st Marquess of Halifax
1682 1685
Henry Hyde
2nd Earl of Clarendon
1685 1687 James II
 
r. 1685–1688
Henry Arundell
3rd Baron Arundell of Wardour
1687 1688
George Savile
1st Marquess of Halifax
1689 1690 Mary II
 
r. 1689–1694
&
William III
 
r. 1689–1702
Thomas Herbert
8th Earl of Pembroke
1692 1699
John Lowther
1st Viscount Lonsdale
1699 1700
Ford Grey
1st Earl of Tankerville
1700 1701
John Sheffield
1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby
[nb 14]
1702 1705 Anne
 
r. 1702–1714
John Holles
1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne
1705 1711
John Robinson
Bishop of Bristol
1711 1713
William Legge
1st Earl of Dartmouth
1713 1714

Lord Keepers of the Privy Seal (1714–present) Edit

Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Lord Keeper Term of office Other ministerial portfolios held during tenure Party Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
  Thomas Wharton
1st Marquess of Wharton
[nb 15]
23 September
1714
31 August
1715
Whig Townshend George I
 
r. 1714–1727
  Charles Spencer
3rd Earl of Sunderland
31 August
1715
19 December
1716
  Evelyn Pierrepont
1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull
19 December
1716
6 February
1719
Stanhope–Sunderland I
Stanhope–Sunderland II
  Henry Grey
1st Duke of Kent
6 February
1719
11 June
1720
  Evelyn Pierrepont
1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull
11 June
1720
11 March
1726
Walpole–Townshend
  Thomas Trevor
1st Baron Trevor
11 March
1726
8 May
1730
George II
 
r. 1727–1760
  Spencer Compton
1st Earl of Wilmington
8 May
1730
January
1731
Whig Walpole
  William Cavendish
3rd Duke of Devonshire
12 January
1731
5 May
1733
Whig
  Henry Lowther
3rd Viscount Lonsdale
5 May
1733
16 May
1735
  Francis Godolphin
2nd Earl of Godolphin
16 May
1735
7 April
1740
  John Hervey
2nd Baron Hervey
7 April
1740
13 July
1742
  John Leveson-Gower
2nd Baron Gower
13 July
1742
10 December
1743
Tory Carteret
  George Cholmondeley
3rd Earl of Cholmondeley
10 December
1743
27 December
1744
  John Leveson-Gower
1st Earl Gower
[nb 16]
27 December
1744
8 June
1755
Tory Broad Bottom
(I & II)
Newcastle I
  Charles Spencer
3rd Duke of Marlborough
8 June
1755
22 December
1755
  Granville Leveson-Gower
2nd Earl Gower
22 December
1755
30 June
1757
Tory
Pitt–Devonshire
1757 Caretaker
  Richard Grenville-Temple
2nd Earl Temple
30 June
1757
5 October
1761
Pitt–Newcastle
George III
 
(1760–1820)
[nb 17]
  John Russell
4th Duke of Bedford
25 November
1761
22 April
1763
Whig
Bute
  George Spencer
4th Duke of Marlborough
22 April
1763
30 July
1765
Grenville
(WhigTory)
  Thomas Pelham-Holles
1st Duke of Newcastle
30 July
1765
30 July
1766
Whig Rockingham I
  William Pitt
1st Earl of Chatham
30 July
1766
2 November
1768
Whig Chatham
(WhigTory)
  George Hervey
2nd Earl of Bristol
2 November
1768
26 February
1770
Grafton
(WhigTory)
  George Montagu-Dunk
2nd Earl of Halifax
26 February
1770
22 January
1771
Tory North
  Henry Howard
12th Earl of Suffolk
22 January
1771
12 June
1771
  Augustus FitzRoy
3rd Duke of Grafton
12 June
1771
4 November
1775
Whig
  William Legge
2nd Earl of Dartmouth
4 November
1775
27 March
1782
  Augustus FitzRoy
3rd Duke of Grafton
27 March
1782
4 April
1783
Whig Rockingham II
Shelburne
(WhigTory)
  Frederick Howard
5th Earl of Carlisle
4 April
1783
23 December
1783
Fox–North
(WhigTory)
  Charles Manners
4th Duke of Rutland
23 December
1783
27 November
1784
Pitt I
  Granville Leveson-Gower
1st Marquess of Stafford
[nb 18]
27 November
1784
1794 Tory
  George Spencer
2nd Earl Spencer
1794 16 July
1794
Whig
  John Pitt
2nd Earl of Chatham
16 July
1794
14 February
1798
  John Fane
10th Earl of Westmorland
14 February
1798
5 February
1806
Tory
Addington
Pitt II
  Henry Addington
1st Viscount Sidmouth
5 February
1806
15 October
1806
Tory All the Talents
(WhigTory)
  Henry Vassall-Fox
3rd Baron Holland
15 October
1806
25 March
1807
Whig
  John Fane
10th Earl of Westmorland
25 March
1807
30 April
1827
Tory Portland II
Perceval
Liverpool
George IV
 
r. 1820–1830
  William Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck
4th Duke of Portland
30 April
1827
16 July
1827
Tory Canning
(CanningiteWhig)
  George Howard
6th Earl of Carlisle
16 July
1827
26 January
1828
Whig
Goderich
(CanningiteWhig)
  Edward Law
2nd Baron Ellenborough
26 January
1828
10 June
1829
Tory Wellington–Peel
  James St Clair-Erskine
2nd Earl of Rosslyn
10 June
1829
22 November
1830
Tory
William IV
 
r. 1830–1837
  John Lambton
1st Baron Durham
22 November
1830
3 April
1833
Whig Grey
  Frederick John Robinson
1st Earl of Ripon
3 April
1833
5 June
1834
Whig
  George Howard
6th Earl of Carlisle
5 June
1834
30 July
1834
Whigs
  Constantine Phipps
2nd Earl of Mulgrave
30 July
1834
14 November
1834
Whig Melbourne I
  James Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie
1st Baron Wharncliffe
15 December
1834
8 April
1835
Conservative Peel I
  John Ponsonby
1st Baron Duncannon
styled Viscount Duncannon
23 April
1835
15 January
1840
Whig Melbourne II
Victoria
 
r. 1837–1901
  George Villiers
4th Earl of Clarendon
15 January
1840
30 August
1841
Whig
  Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville
2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos
3 September
1841
2 February
1842
Conservative Peel II
  Walter Montagu-Douglas-Scott
5th Duke of Buccleuch
2 February
1842
21 January
1846
Conservative
  Thomas Hamilton
9th Earl of Haddington
21 January
1846
27 June
1846
Conservative
  Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound
2nd Earl of Minto
6 July
1846
21 February
1852
Whig Russell I
  James Gascoyne-Cecil
2nd Marquess of Salisbury
27 February
1852
17 December
1852
Conservative Who? Who?
  George Campbell
8th Duke of Argyll
4 January
1853
7 December
1855
Peelite Aberdeen
(PeeliteWhig)
Palmerston I
  Dudley Ryder
2nd Earl of Harrowby
7 December
1855
3 February
1858
Whig
  Ulick de Burgh
1st Marquess of Clanricarde
3 February
1858
21 February
1858
Whig
  Charles Yorke
4th Earl of Hardwicke
26 February
1858
11 June
1859
Conservative Derby–Disraeli II
  George Campbell
8th Duke of Argyll
18 June
1859
26 June
1866
Liberal Palmerston II
Russell II
  James Harris
3rd Earl of Malmesbury
6 July
1866
1 December
1868
Conservative Derby–Disraeli III
  John Wodehouse
1st Earl of Kimberley
9 December
1868
6 July
1870
Liberal Gladstone I
  Charles Wood
1st Viscount Halifax
6 July
1870
17 February
1874
Liberal
  James Harris
3rd Earl of Malmesbury
21 February
1874
12 August
1876
Conservative Disraeli II
  Benjamin Disraeli
1st Earl of Beaconsfield
12 August
1876
4 February
1878
Conservative
  Algernon Percy
6th Duke of Northumberland
4 February
1878
21 April
1880
Conservative
  George Campbell
8th Duke of Argyll
28 April
1880
2 May
1881
Liberal Gladstone II
  Chichester Parkinson-Fortescue
1st Baron Carlingford
2 May
1881
5 March
1885
Liberal
  Archibald Primrose
5th Earl of Rosebery
5 March
1885
9 June
1885
Liberal
  Dudley Ryder
3rd Earl of Harrowby
24 June
1885
28 January
1886
Conservative Salisbury I
  William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Midlothian
17 February
1886
20 July
1886
Liberal Gladstone III
  George Cadogan
5th Earl Cadogan
3 August
1886
11 August
1892
Conservative Salisbury II
  William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Midlothian
20 August
1892
10 March
1894
Liberal Gladstone IV
  Edward Marjoribanks
2nd Baron Tweedmouth
10 March
1894
21 June
1895
Liberal Rosebery
  Richard Assheton Cross
1st Viscount Cross
29 June
1895
12 November
1900
Conservative Salisbury
(III & IV)

(Con.Lib.U.)
  Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
12 November
1900
July
1902
Conservative
Edward VII
 
r. 1901–1910
  Arthur Balfour
MP for Manchester East
14 July
1902
October
1903
Conservative Balfour
(Con.Lib.U.)
  James Gascoyne-Cecil
4th Marquess of Salisbury
17 October
1903
December
1905
Conservative
  George Robinson
1st Marquess of Ripon
10 December
1905
October
1908
Liberal Campbell-Bannerman
Asquith
(I–III)
  Robert Crewe-Milnes
1st Marquess of Crewe
[nb 24]
9 October
1908
October
1911
Liberal
George V
 
r. 1910–1936
  Charles Wynn-Carington
1st Earl Carrington
23 October
1911
February
1912
Liberal
  Robert Crewe-Milnes
1st Marquess of Crewe
13 February
1912
May
1915
Liberal
  George Curzon
1st Earl Curzon of Kedleston
25 May
1915
December
1916
Conservative Asquith Coalition
(Lib.Con.Lab.)
  David Lindsay
27th Earl of Crawford
15 December
1916
January
1919
Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)

(Lib.Con.Lab.)
  Bonar Law
MP for Glasgow Central
10 January
1919
March
1921
Conservative
  Austen Chamberlain
MP for Birmingham West
23 March
1921
October
1922
Conservative
Vacant October
1922
May
1923
Law
  Robert Cecil
1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
[nb 28]
28 May
1923
January
1924
Conservative Baldwin I
  J. R. Clynes
MP for Manchester Platting
22 January
1924
November
1924
  • Deputy Leader of the House of Commons
Labour MacDonald I
  James Gascoyne-Cecil
4th Marquess of Salisbury
6 November
1924
June
1929
Conservative Baldwin II
  Jimmy Thomas
MP for Derby
7 June
1929
June
1930
Labour MacDonald II
  Vernon Hartshorn
MP for Ogmore
5 June
1930
March
1931
Labour
  Tom Johnston
MP for West Stirlingshire
24 March
1931
August
1931
Labour
  William Peel
1st Earl Peel
August
1931
November
1931
Conservative National I
(N.Lab.Con.Lib.N.Lib.)
  Philip Snowden
1st Viscount Snowden
5 November
1931
September
1932
National Labour National II
(N.Lab.Con.Lib.N.Lib.)
  Stanley Baldwin
MP for Bewdley
29 September
1932
December
1933
Conservative
  Anthony Eden
MP for Warwick and Leamington
31 December
1933
June
1935
Conservative
  Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart
7th Marquess of Londonderry
7 June
1935
November
1935
Conservative National III
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
  Edward Wood
3rd Viscount Halifax
22 November
1935
May
1937
Conservative
Edward VIII
 
r. 1936
George VI
 
r. 1936–1952
  Herbrand Sackville
9th Earl De La Warr
28 May
1937
October
1938
National Labour National IV
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
  John Anderson
1st Viscount Waverley

MP for Combined Scottish Universities
31 October
1938
September
1939
Independent
(National)
  Samuel Hoare
1st Viscount Templewood

MP for Chelsea
3 September
1939
April
1940
Conservative Chamberlain War
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
  Kingsley Wood
MP for Woolwich West
3 April
1940
May
1940
Conservative
  Clement Attlee
MP for Limehouse
11 May
1940
February
1942
  • Deputy Leader of the House of Commons
Labour Churchill War
(All parties)
  Stafford Cripps
MP for Bristol East
19 February
1942
November
1942
Labour
  Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Viscount Cranborne
22 November
1942
September
1943
Conservative
  Max Aitken
1st Baron Beaverbrook
24 September
1943
July
1945
Conservative
Churchill Caretaker
(Con.N.Lib.)
  Arthur Greenwood
MP for Wakefield
27 July
1945
17 April
1947
Labour Attlee
(I & II)
  Philip Inman
1st Baron Inman
17 April
1947
7 October
1947
Labour
  Christopher Addison
1st Viscount Addison
7 October
1947
9 March
1951
Labour
  Ernest Bevin
MP for Woolwich East
9 March
1951
14 April
1951
Labour
  Richard Stokes
MP for Ipswich
26 April
1951
October
1951
Labour
  Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
5th Marquess of Salisbury
28 October
1951
7 May
1952
Conservative Churchill III
Elizabeth II
 
r. 1952–2022
  Harry Crookshank
MP for Gainsborough
7 May
1952
20 December
1955
Conservative
Eden
  R. A. Butler
MP for Saffron Walden
20 December
1955
October
1959
Conservative
Macmillan
(I & II)
  Quintin Hogg
2nd Viscount Hailsham
14 October
1959
July
1960
  • Minister of Science
Conservative
  Edward Heath
MP for Bexley
27 July
1960
October
1963
  • Deputy Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Conservative
  Selwyn Lloyd
MP for Wirral
20 October
1963
October
1964
Conservative Douglas-Home
  Frank Pakenham
7th Earl of Longford
18 October
1964
December
1965
Labour Wilson
(I & II)
  Frank Soskice
MP for Newport
23 December
1965
April
1966
Labour
  Frank Pakenham
7th Earl of Longford
6 April
1966
January
1968
Labour
  Edward Shackleton
Baron Shackleton
16 January
1968
April
1968
Labour
  Fred Peart
MP for Workington
6 April
October
1968
Labour
  Edward Shackleton
Baron Shackleton
18 October
1968
June
1970
Labour
  George Jellicoe
2nd Earl Jellicoe
20 June
1970
June
1973
Conservative Heath
  David Hennessy
3rd Baron Windlesham
5 June
1973
March
1974
Conservative
  Malcolm Shepherd
2nd Baron Shepherd
7 March
1974
September
1976
Labour Wilson
(III & IV)
Callaghan
  Fred Peart
Baron Peart
10 September
1976
May
1979
Labour
  Ian Gilmour
Baron Gilmour of Craigmillar

MP for Chesham and Amersham
5 May
1979
September
1981
  • Government spokesman in the House of Commons for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
Conservative Thatcher I
  Humphrey Atkins
MP for Spelthorne
14 September
1981
April
1982
  • Government spokesman in the House of Commons for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
Conservative
  Janet Young
Baroness Young
6 April
1982
June
1983
Conservative
  John Biffen
MP for North Shropshire
11 June
1983
June
1987
Conservative Thatcher II
  John Wakeham
MP for South Colchester and Maldon
13 June
1987
10 January
1988
Conservative Thatcher III
  John Ganzoni
2nd Baron Belstead
10 January
1988
28 November
1990
Conservative
  David Waddington
Baron Waddington
28 November
1990
11 April
1992
Conservative Major I
  John Wakeham
Baron Wakeham
11 April
1992
20 July
1994
Conservative
  Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Viscount Cranborne
20 July
1994
2 May
1997
Conservative
 
Major II
 
  Ivor Richard
Baron Richard
2 May
1997
27 July
1998
Labour Blair I
  Margaret Jay
Baroness Jay of Paddington
27 July
1998
8 June
2001
Labour
  Gareth Williams
Baron Williams of Mostyn
8 June
2001
13 June
2003
Labour Blair II
  Peter Hain
MP for Neath
13 June
2003
6 May
2005
Labour
  Geoff Hoon
MP for Ashfield
6 May
2005
5 May
2006
Labour Blair III
  Jack Straw
MP for Blackburn
5 May
2006
27 June
2007
Labour
  Harriet Harman
MP for Camberwell and Peckham
28 June
2007
11 May
2010
Labour Brown
  George Young
MP for North West Hampshire
12 May
2010
4 September
2012
Conservative Cameron–Clegg
(Con.L.D.)
  Andrew Lansley
MP for South Cambridgeshire
4 September
2012
14 July
2014
Conservative
  Tina Stowell
Baroness Stowell of Beeston
15 July
2014
14 July
2016
Conservative
 
Cameron II
 
  Natalie Evans
Baroness Evans of Bowes Park
14 July
2016
6 September
2022
Conservative May I
May II
Johnson I
Johnson II
  Nicholas True
Baron True
6 September
2022
Incumbent Conservative Truss
Charles III
 
(2022–present)
Sunak
Notes
  1. ^ Archdeacon of Sarum until 1426; Bishop of Norwich from 1426
  2. ^ Archdeacon of Oxford 1434–1442; Bishop of St David's from 1442
  3. ^ Dean of Salisbury until 1446; Bishop of Chichester from 1446
  4. ^ Dean of St Paul's until 1457
  5. ^ Archdeacon of Taunton until 1465; Bishop of Bath and Wells from 1466
  6. ^ Bishop of Rochester from 1468
  7. ^ Bishop of Rochester until 1472; Bishop of Lincoln from 1472
  8. ^ Bishop of Rochester 1476–1480; Bishop of Lincoln from 1480
  9. ^ Bishop of Exeter until 1492; Bishop of Bath and Wells 1492–1494; Bishop of Durham 1494–1501; Bishop of Winchester from 1501
  10. ^ Concurrently held the offices of Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1533, Secretary of State from 1534, and Lord Great Chamberlain in 1540
  11. ^ Baron Russell from 1539, created Earl of Bedford in 1551
  12. ^ Concurrently held the office of Secretary of State
  13. ^ Appointed in the controversial Oxford Parliament, Bourchier is sometimes regarded as holding the office for life. However, during the Interregnum Bourchier was identified as a Delinquent by Parliamentarians and use of the Privy Seal ended. Until the Restoration of Charles II the Great Seal was the primary seal of government, for which the custody held in commission.
  14. ^ Marquess of Normanby from 1694; created Duke of Buckingham and Normanby in 1703
  15. ^ Earl of Wharton from 1706; created Marquess of Wharton in 1715
  16. ^ Baron Gower from 1709; created Earl Gower in 1746
  17. ^ The Prince of Wales served as prince regent from 5 February 1811.
  18. ^ Earl Gower from 1754; created Marquess of Stafford in 1786
  19. ^ Served as President of the Board of Control from September 1828
  20. ^ Served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster October 1840 – June 1841
  21. ^ Served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from May 1894
  22. ^ Served as President of the Board of Trade from March 1905
  23. ^ Served as Leader of the House of Lords from April 1908
  24. ^ Earl of Crewe from 1895; created Marquess of Crewe July 1911
  25. ^ Served as Secretary of State for the Colonies until November 1910
  26. ^ Served as Secretary of State for India November 1910 – March 1911; and from May 1911
  27. ^ Served as President of the Air Board from May 1916
  28. ^ MP for Hitchin until 1923; created Viscount Cecil of Chelwood December 1923
  29. ^ Served as Leader of the House of Lords from April 1925
  30. ^ Served as Paymaster General July 1946 – March 1947
  31. ^ Served as Paymaster General July 1948 – April 1949
  32. ^ Served as Minister of Materials from July 1951
  33. ^ Served as Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations from March 1952
  34. ^ Served as Secretary of State for the Home Department from January 1957

Other countries Edit

See also Edit

Citations Edit

  1. ^ "Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  2. ^ Beckett, Francis (1997). Clem Attlee: A Biography. London: Richard Cohen. p. 285. ISBN 9781860661013.
  3. ^ Beckett, Francis (2000). Clem Attlee: A Biography. London: Politico's Publishing. p. 285 at archive.org. ISBN 9781902301709.
  4. ^ Sayers, Jane. "The English Royal Chancery" (PDF). Retrieved 3 January 2012.

References Edit