Lady Jane Grey (c. 1537 – 12 February 1554), also known as Lady Jane Dudley after her marriage[3] and as the "Nine Days' Queen",[6] was an English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 to 19 July 1553.

Lady Jane Grey
The Streatham portrait, discovered at the beginning of the 21st century, is believed to be based on a contemporary woodcut.
Queen of England and Ireland
Reign10 July 1553 – 19 July 1553[1]
PredecessorEdward VI
SuccessorMary I
Born1536 or 1537
Possibly London or Bradgate Park, Leicestershire, England
Died12 February 1554 (aged 16 or 17)[2][3][4][5]
Tower of London, London, England
(m. 1553; died 1554)
FatherHenry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk
MotherLady Frances Brandon
SignatureLady Jane Grey's signature

Jane was the great-granddaughter of King Henry VII through his daughter, Mary Tudor, and was therefore a great-niece of King Henry VIII, and a cousin to Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. Under the will of Henry VIII, Jane was in line to the throne after her cousins. She had a humanist education; and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day.[7] In May 1553, she was married to Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward VI's chief minister John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. In June 1553, the dying Edward VI wrote his will, nominating Jane and her male heirs as successors to the Crown, in part because his half-sister Mary was Catholic, while Jane was a committed Protestant and would support the reformed Church of England, whose foundation Edward laid. The will removed his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, from the line of succession on account of their illegitimacy, subverting their lawful claims under the Third Succession Act. Through Northumberland, Edward's letters patent in favour of Jane was signed by the entire privy council, bishops, and other notables.

After Edward's death, Jane was proclaimed queen on 10 July 1553, and awaited coronation in the Tower of London. Support for Mary grew rapidly and most of Jane's supporters abandoned her. The Privy Council of England suddenly changed sides, and proclaimed Mary as queen on 19 July 1553, deposing Jane. Her primary supporter, her father-in-law, the Duke of Northumberland, was accused of treason, and executed less than a month later. Jane was held prisoner in the Tower, and in November 1553 was also convicted of treason, which carried a sentence of death.

Mary initially spared her life, but Jane soon became viewed as a threat to the Crown when her father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, became involved with Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary's intention to marry Philip of Spain. Jane and her husband were executed on 12 February 1554. At the time of her execution, Jane was either 16 or 17 years old.

Early life and education

Lady Margaret Wotton, Lady Mary Tudor and Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, Jane's paternal and maternal grandparents

Lady Jane Grey was the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, and his wife, Frances Brandon. The traditional view is that she was born at Bradgate Park in Leicestershire in October 1537, while more recent research indicates that she was born somewhat earlier, possibly in London, sometime before May 1537[8][9] or between May 1536 and February 1537.[10] This would coincide with the fact that she was noted as being in her seventeenth year at the time of her execution.[9][11] Frances was the eldest daughter of Henry VIII's younger sister, Mary. Jane had two younger sisters: Lady Katherine and Lady Mary. Through their mother, the three sisters were great-granddaughters of Henry VII; great-nieces of Henry VIII; and first cousins once removed of the future Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I.

Jane received a humanist education from John Aylmer, speaking Latin and Greek from an early age, also studying Hebrew with Aylmer, and Italian with Michelangelo Florio.[12] She was particularly fond, throughout her life, of writing letters in Latin and Greek.[13] Through the influence of her father and her tutors, she became a committed Protestant and also corresponded with the Zürich reformer Heinrich Bullinger.[14]

She preferred academic studies rather than activities such as hunting parties[15] and allegedly regarded her strict upbringing, which was typical of the time,[16] as harsh. To the visiting scholar Roger Ascham, who found her reading Plato, she is said to have complained:

For when I am in the presence either of father or mother, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it as it were in such weight, measure and number, even so perfectly as God made the world; or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yea presently sometimes with pinches, nips and bobs and other ways (which I will not name for the honour I bear them) ... that I think myself in hell.[17]

Around February 1547, Jane was sent to live in the household of Edward VI's uncle, Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, who soon married Henry VIII's widow, Katherine Parr. After moving there, Jane was able to receive educational opportunities available in court circles.[3] Jane lived with the couple at Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire as an attendant to Katherine, until Katherine died in childbirth in September 1548.[18][19] About eleven years old at the time, Jane was chief mourner at Katherine's funeral.[3] After Thomas Seymour's arrest for treason, Jane returned to Bradgate and continued her studies.[3]

Contracts for marriage

16th century portrait of a lady in the collection of Audley End House, labelled as Jane Grey, copy of the original at Syon House. Based on a portrait type identified as Lady Katherine Grey or Elizabeth I, it is believed that the Syon Portrait was created by William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset, with the help of his grandfather, Lady Katherine Grey's widower, who had also known Lady Jane Grey, tweaking the portrait type into a genuine resemblance of her.[20][21][22][23]

Lady Jane acted as chief mourner at Katherine Parr's funeral; Thomas Seymour showed continued interest to keep her in his household, and she returned there for about two months before he was arrested at the end of 1548.[24] Seymour's brother, the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, felt threatened by Thomas' popularity with the young King Edward. Among other things, Thomas Seymour was charged with proposing Jane as a bride for the king.[25]

In the course of Thomas Seymour's following attainder and execution, Jane's father was lucky to stay largely out of trouble. After his fourth interrogation by the King's Council, he proposed his daughter Jane as a bride for the Protector's eldest son, Lord Hertford.[26] Nothing came of this, however, and Jane was not engaged until 25 May 1553, her bridegroom being Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland.[27] The Duke, Lord President of the King's Council from late 1549, was then the most powerful man in the country.[28] On 25 May 1553, the couple were married at Durham House in a triple wedding, in which Jane's sister Katherine was matched with the heir of the Earl of Pembroke, Lord Herbert, and another Katherine, Lord Guildford's sister, with Henry Hastings, the Earl of Huntingdon's heir.[29]

Claim to the throne and accession

"My devise for the Succession" by Edward VI. The draft will was the basis for the letters patent, which declared Lady Jane Grey successor to the Crown.[30] Edward's autograph shows his alteration of his text, from "L Janes heires masles" to "L Jane and her heires masles".[31] Inner Temple Library, London.

The Third Succession Act of 1544 restored Henry VIII's daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, to the line of succession, although they were still regarded as illegitimate. Furthermore, this Act authorised Henry VIII to alter the succession by his will. Henry's will reinforced the succession of his three children, and then declared that, should none of them leave descendants, the throne would pass to heirs of his younger sister, Mary, which included Jane. For reasons unknown, Henry excluded Jane's mother, Frances Brandon, from the succession,[32] and also bypassed the claims of the descendants of his elder sister, Margaret, who had married into the Scottish royal house and nobility.

Both Mary and Elizabeth had been named illegitimate by statute during the reign of Henry VIII after his marriages to Katherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn had been declared void.[33] When the 15-year-old Edward VI lay dying in early summer 1553, his Catholic half-sister Mary was still his heir presumptive. Edward, in a draft will ("My devise for the Succession") composed earlier in 1553, had first restricted the succession to (non-existent) male descendants of Jane's mother and her daughters, before he named his Protestant cousin "Lady Jane and her heirs male" as his successors, probably in June 1553; the intent was to ensure his Protestant legacy, thereby bypassing Mary, a Roman Catholic.[31][34][35] However, his advisors told him that he could not disinherit just one of his half-sisters: he would have to disinherit Elizabeth as well, although she was also a Protestant like her half-brother. Possibly instigated by Northumberland, Edward decided to disinherit both Mary and Elizabeth, thus contravening the Succession Act of 1544, and choose Jane Gray as his heir.[36][37]

Edward VI personally supervised the copying of his will which was finally issued as letters patent on 21 June and signed by 102 notables, among them the whole Privy Council, peers, bishops, judges, and London aldermen.[38] Edward also announced to have his "declaration" passed in parliament in September, and the necessary writs were prepared.[37] The King died on 6 July 1553, but his death was not announced until four days later.[5] On 9 July, Jane was informed that she was now queen, and according to her own later claims, accepted the crown only with reluctance. On 10 July, she was officially proclaimed Queen of England, France and Ireland after she had taken up secure residence in the Tower of London, where English monarchs customarily resided from the time of accession until coronation. Jane refused to name her husband Dudley as king, because that would require an Act of Parliament.[39]

Aware of her half-brother's dying condition, Mary Tudor had a few days before Edward's death, moved to East Anglia, where she was one of the largest landowners.[40]

To claim her right to the throne, Mary began assembling her supporters in East Anglia. On 9 July, from Kenninghall, Norfolk, sent a letter saying that she was now Queen and demanding the obedience of the Council.[41][42] The letter arrived on 10 July, the same day as Jane's proclamation in London.[43] That same night, during dinner, the Duchess of Suffolk, Jane's mother, and the Duchess of Northumberland broke into tears, due to the arrival of Mary's letter, as the duchesses knew that they could be left in a vulnerable position if Mary triumphed and acceded to the throne.[44] Dudley interpreted the letter as a threat, although at that time he had not yet decided to take concrete action against Mary, since he needed at least a week to try to build up a larger force.[45] He was in a dilemma over who should lead the troops. He was the most experienced general in the Kingdom, but he did not want to leave the government in the hands of his colleagues, in some of whom he had little confidence.[46] Jane decided the issue by demanding that her father should remain with her and the Council.[47]

On 12 July, Mary and her supporters had assembled a large military force at Framlingham Castle, Suffolk, to eventually confront the forces led by Dudley.[48]

On 14 July Northumberland headed for Cambridge with 1,500 troops and some artillery, having reminded his colleagues of the gravity of the cause, "what chance of variance soever might grow amongst you in my absence".[46]

After marching to Cambridge, the Northumberland army spent a week practically without action, until on 20 July, the Duke learned that the previous day the Council in London had declared for Mary. Supported by the gentry and nobility of East Anglia and the Thames Valley, Mary's support grew daily and, through luck, came into possession of powerful artillery from the Royal navy. Given the circumstances and the fact that the Council had switched allegiance, the Duke considered launching a final campaign against Mary to be a counterproductive and desperate measure.[49] Northumberland proclaimed Mary Tudor himself at the marketplace and was arrested the next morning.[50] The Council switched their allegiance and proclaimed Mary queen in London, on 19 July. A majority of the councilors moved out of the Tower before switching their allegiance.[51] Becoming aware of his colleagues' change of mind, Jane's father abandoned his command of the fortress and proclaimed Mary I on nearby Tower Hill. The historical consensus assumes that this was in recognition of overwhelming support of the population for Mary. However, there is no clear evidence for that outside Norfolk and Suffolk, where Northumberland had put down Kett's Rebellion, hence where princess Mary sought refuge. Rather, it seems that Catholic Henry FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel, together with William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke orchestrated a coup d'état in the Privy Council in Northumberland's absence. Arundel, one of the leaders of the Conservative faction within the Council and a staunch opponent of the reformist religious policies of both the King and Northumberland,[52] had been imprisoned twice by Dudley for having sided with the previous Protector, Somerset; but it is not clear why Pembroke participated in the coup, especially since his son and heir Henry had married Jane's sister, Katherine, the same day as Jane and Guildford Dudley's wedding.[53] On 19 July, the Council met at Baynard's Castle, Pembroke's property, to end the claim of Lady Jane Grey to the throne and proclaim Mary as Queen of England.[54] That same day, a few hours before Queen Mary's proclamation in London, the baptism of one of the Gentlemen Pensioners' children took place. Jane had agreed to be the godmother and wished the child's name to be Guildford.[55] The Bishop of Winchester, Stephen Gardiner, who had been imprisoned in the Tower for five years, took great offence at this fact as he heard of it.[56]

Mary rode triumphantly into London on 3 August, on a wave of popular support. She was accompanied by her half-sister Elizabeth and a procession of over 800 nobles and gentlemen.[57]

The Execution of Lady Jane Grey, by the French painter Paul Delaroche, 1833. National Gallery

Jane is often called the Nine-Day Queen, although if her reign is dated from the moment of Edward's death on 6 July 1553, her reign could have been a few days longer.[58] On 19 July 1553, Jane was imprisoned in the Tower's Gentleman Gaoler's apartments, and Guildford was imprisoned in the Bell Tower. There he was soon joined by his brother, Robert.[59] His remaining brothers were imprisoned in other towers, as was Northumberland, who was for the moment the only prominent person to go to the scaffold. The Duke was executed on 22 August 1553. The day before his execution, Dudley renounced Protestantism and returned to the Catholic faith, much to the indignation of Jane, who was a fervent Protestant.[60] In September, Parliament declared Mary the rightful successor and denounced and revoked Jane's proclamation as that of a usurper.[61]

Trial and execution


Referred to by the court as Jane Dudley, wife of Guildford, Jane was charged with high treason, as were her husband, two of his brothers, and the former archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer.[62] Their trial, by a special commission, took place on 13 November 1553, at Guildhall in the City of London. The commission was chaired by Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, and Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. Other members included Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, and John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath. As was to be expected, all defendants were found guilty and sentenced to death. Jane's guilt, of having treacherously assumed the title and the power of the monarch, was evidenced by a number of documents she had signed as "Jane the Quene".[62] Her sentence was to "be burned alive on Tower Hill or beheaded as the Queen pleases" (burning was the traditional English punishment for treason committed by women).[63] The imperial ambassador reported to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, that her life was to be spared.[3]

Jane submitted a letter of explanation to the Queen, "asking forgiveness ... for the sin she was accused of, informing her majesty about the truth of events."[64] In this account, she spoke of herself as "a wife who loves her husband".[65]

In December, Jane was allowed to walk freely in the Queen's Garden.[66] Lord Robert and Lord Guildford had to be content with taking the air on the leads of the Bell Tower.[67] Jane and Guildford may have had some contact with each other,[68] and at some point Guildford wrote a message to his father-in-law in Jane's prayer book:

Your loving and obedient son wishes unto your grace long life in this world with as much joy and comfort as ever I wish to myself, and in the world to come joy everlasting. Your humble son to his death, G. Dudley[69]

Official letter of Lady Jane Grey signing herself as "Jane the Quene". Inner Temple Library, London

Mary initially spared the lives of Jane and Guildford, believing that they had been mere pawns in a much larger political game designed and orchestrated by Northumberland, and the Duke he was executed on 22 August 1553, a month after Mary's accession. However, the Wyatt's Rebellion in January 1554 against Queen Mary's marriage plans with Philip of Spain sealed Jane's fate. Jane's father along with Robert and Henry Dudley, Guildford's brothers, joined the rebellion, so the Government decided to go ahead with the verdict against Jane and her husband. It troubled Mary to let her cousin die, but she accepted the Privy Council's advice.[70] Bishop and Lord Chancellor Gardiner pressed for the young couple's execution in a court sermon,[71] and the Imperial ambassador Simon Renard was happy to report that "Jane of Suffolk and her husband are to lose their heads."[72] Their execution was first scheduled for 9 February 1554, but was then postponed for three days to give Jane a chance to convert to the Catholic faith. Mary sent her chaplain John Feckenham to Jane, who was initially not pleased about this.[73] Though she would not give in to his efforts "to save her soul", she became friends with him and allowed him to accompany her to the scaffold.[74]

The day before their executions, Lord Guildford asked Jane to have one last meeting, which she refused, explaining it "would only ... increase their misery and pain, it was better to put it off ... as they would meet shortly elsewhere, and live bound by indissoluble ties."[75]

On the morning of 12 February 1554, the authorities took Guildford from his rooms at the Tower of London to the public execution place at Tower Hill, where he was beheaded. A horse and cart brought his remains back to the Tower, past the rooms where Jane was staying. Seeing her husband's corpse return, Jane is reported to have exclaimed: "Oh, Guildford, Guildford."[76] She was then taken out to Tower Green, inside the Tower, to be beheaded.[77] According to the account of her execution given in the anonymous Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, which formed the basis for Raphael Holinshed's depiction, Jane gave a speech upon ascending the scaffold:

Good people, I am come hither to die, and by a law I am condemned to the same. The fact, indeed, against the Queen's highness was unlawful, and the consenting thereunto by me: but touching the procurement and desire thereof by me or on my behalf, I do wash my hands thereof in innocency, before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this day.[78]

While admitting to action considered unlawful, she declared that "I do wash my hands thereof in innocence".[79][80] Jane then recited Psalm 51 (Have mercy upon me, O God) in English, and handed her gloves and handkerchief to her maid. The executioner asked her for forgiveness, which she granted him, pleading: "I pray you dispatch me quickly." Referring to her head, she asked, "Will you take it off before I lay me down?", and the axeman answered, "No, madam." She then blindfolded herself. Jane then failed to find the block with her hands, and cried, "What shall I do? Where is it?" Probably Sir Thomas Brydges, the Deputy Lieutenant of the Tower, helped her find her way. With her head on the block, Jane spoke the last words of Jesus as recounted in the Gospel of Luke: "Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!"[78]

Grave of Lady Jane Grey, St Peter ad Vincula

Jane and Guildford are buried in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula on the north side of Tower Green. No memorial stone was erected at their grave.[81] Jane's father, the Duke of Suffolk, was executed 11 days after Jane, on 23 February 1554.[82] Her mother, the Duchess of Suffolk, married her Master of the Horse and chamberlain, Adrian Stokes, in March 1555.[83] She maintained good relations with Mary who allowed her to live at Richmond and employed the Duchess's surviving daughters as maids of honour. She died in 1559.[84]



In 1911, the British historian Albert Pollard called Jane "the traitor-heroine of the Reformation".[85] During the Marian persecutions and its aftermath, Jane became viewed as a Protestant martyr,[86] featuring prominently in the several editions of Foxe's Book of Martyrs (Actes and Monuments of these Latter and Perillous Dayes) by John Foxe. The story of Jane's life grew to legendary proportions in popular culture, producing romantic biographies, novels, plays, operas, paintings, and films, such as Lady Jane in 1986.[87]

Family tree

Jane's relationship to the House of Tudor and other claimants to the English throne

Italics indicate people who predeceased Edward VI;
Arabic numerals (1–5) indicate Edward VI's line of succession at his death according to Henry VIII's will; and
Roman numerals (I–III) indicate Edward VI's line of succession at his death according to Edward's will.[88]

Henry VIIElizabeth of York
Henry VIIIMargaret TudorMary TudorCharles Brandon
Edward VIMary I
Elizabeth I
James V of ScotlandFrances BrandonHenry Grey
Mary, Queen of ScotsJane Grey
(3, I)
Katherine Grey
(4, II)
Mary Grey
(5, III)


  1. ^ Williamson, David (2010). Kings & Queens. National Portrait Gallery Publications. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-85514-432-3
  2. ^ Ives 2009, p. 36; Florio 1607, p. 68
  3. ^ a b c d e f Plowden, Alison (2004). "Grey, Lady Jane (1537–1554), noblewoman and claimant to the English throne". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8154. ISBN 0-19-861362-8. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. ^ "Lady Jane Grey | Biography, Facts, & Execution". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  5. ^ a b Potter, Philip J. (2014). Monarchs of the Renaissance: The Lives and Reigns of 42 European Kings and Queens. McFarland. pp. 83–84. ISBN 9780786491032.
  6. ^ Ives 2009, p. 2
  7. ^ Ascham 1863, p. 213
  8. ^ de Lisle 2008, pp. 5–8
  9. ^ a b Ives 2009, pp. 36, 299
  10. ^ Edwards, J. Stephan. "On the Date of Birth of Lady Jane Grey Dudley". Some Grey Matter. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  11. ^ Florio 1607, p. 68
  12. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 51, 65, Morrill 2021
  13. ^ "Page: A cyclopaedia of female biography.djvu/369" – via Wikisource, the free online library.
  14. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 63–67
  15. ^ Ives 2009, p. 51
  16. ^ Ives 2009, p. 53
  17. ^ Ives 2009, p. 52
  18. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 42–45
  19. ^ Dent, Emma (1877). Annals of Winchcombe and Sudeley. Sudeley Castle: J Murray. p. 186.
  20. ^ "Early Portrait Of Elizabeth I Sells For $158,661 At Butterscotch". Antiques and the Arts Weekly. November 2021.
  21. ^ "Children of England: The Heirs of King Henry VIII/The Children of Henry VIII (1996)". Alison Weir. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  22. ^ "Lady Jane Grey Revealed - The Syon Portrait". J. Stephan Edwards. 30 September 2010. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  23. ^ Edwards, J. Stephan (2015). A Queen of a New Invention – Portraits of Lady Jane Grey, England's 'Nine Days Queen'. Palm Springs, California: Old John Publishing. pp. 168–176. ISBN 978-0-9863873-0-2.
  24. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 45–47
  25. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 47–49
  26. ^ Ives 2009, p. 47
  27. ^ Loades 1996, pp. 238–239
  28. ^ Loades 1996, p. 179
  29. ^ de Lisle 2008, pp. 93, 304; Ives 2009, p. 321.
  30. ^ Ives 2009, p. 137
  31. ^ a b Alford 2002, pp. 171–172
  32. ^ Ives 2009, p. 35
  33. ^ A Constitutional History of Secession. Pelican. p. 38. ISBN 9781455602889.
  34. ^ Lindsay, Thomas Martin (1882). The Reformation. T. & T. Clark. p. 149.
  35. ^ Tallis, Nicola (2016). Crown of Blood: The Deadly Inheritance of Lady Jane Grey. Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781681772875 – via Google Books.
  36. ^ Loades 1996, p. 240; Alford 2014, pp. 75–56; Loach 2002, pp. 163–164
  37. ^ a b Dale Hoak: "Edward VI (1537–1553)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, online edn. January 2008, Retrieved 4 April 2010 (subscription required)
  38. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 145, 165–166
  39. ^ Ives 2009, p. 189
  40. ^ Loades 1996 pp. 257–258; Loach 2002 p. 170
  41. ^ Chapman 1962 p. 122
  42. ^ Loades 1996 pp. 259–261
  43. ^ Chapman 1962 p. 122
  44. ^ Chapman 1962 p. 122
  45. ^ Loades 1996 pp. 258–261
  46. ^ a b Loades 1996 p. 261
  47. ^ Ives 2009 p. 198
  48. ^ Porter p. 203; Waller 2006 p. 52
  49. ^ Ives 2009 pp. 209–212; Loach 2002 p. 172
  50. ^ Ives 2009 pp. 246, 241–242, 243–244
  51. ^ Ives 2009 p. 214
  52. ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 707.
  53. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 222–223, 225–227, 233–236
  54. ^ Stow, John. "Of Towers and Castels." A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Ed. C L Kingsford. Oxford: Clarendon, 1908. 44-71. British History Online. Web. 17 March 2023.
  55. ^ Ives 2009 p. 215
  56. ^ Ives 2009 pp. 184, 241
  57. ^ Waller 2006, pp. 57–59
  58. ^ Ives 2009, p. 1
  59. ^ Ives 2009 p. 249; Wilson 1981 p. 59
  60. ^ Ives 2009 p. 249
  61. ^ Potter, Philip J. (2014). Monarchs of the Renaissance: The Lives and Reigns of 42 European Kings and Queens. McFarland. pp. 88–89. ISBN 9780786491032.
  62. ^ a b Tallis, Nicola (2016). Crown of Blood: The Deadly Inheritance of Lady Jane Grey. Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781681772875 – via Google Books.
  63. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 251–252, 334; Bellamy 1979, p. 54
  64. ^ Ives 2009 p. 18
  65. ^ Ives 2009 p. 186
  66. ^ Ives 2009 pp. 252, 355
  67. ^ Nichols 1850 p. 33
  68. ^ Ives 2009 p. 252; Wilson 1981 p. 59
  69. ^ Ives p. 185
  70. ^ Porter 2007 p. 302
  71. ^ Ives 2009 p. 268
  72. ^ Chapman 1962 p. 190
  73. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 267, 268
  74. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 268–270
  75. ^ Ives 2009 p. 274
  76. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 274–275
  77. ^ Ives, Eric (2011). Lady Jane Grey: A Tudor Mystery. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444354263 – via Google Books.
  78. ^ a b Anonymous (1997) [1850]. "1554, The Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Lord Guildford Dudley". In Nichols, John Gough (ed.). Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary. The Camden Society; Marilee Hanson.
  79. ^ de Lisle 2008, p. 138
  80. ^ Ives, Eric (2011). Lady Jane Grey: A Tudor Mystery. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444354263 – via Google Books.
  81. ^ Tallis, Nicola (2016). Crown of Blood: The Deadly Inheritance of Lady Jane Grey. Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781681772875 – via Google Books.
  82. ^ Cokayne, George (1982). The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. Vol. 2. Gloucester: A. Sutton. p. 421. ISBN 0904387828.
  83. ^ Ives 2009, p. 38
  84. ^ Warnicke, Retha M. (2008). "Grey [other married name Stokes], Frances [née Lady Frances Brandon], duchess of Suffolk". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/65987. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  85. ^ Pollard, Albert J. (1911). The History of England. London: Longmans, Green. p. 111. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  86. ^ Marsden, Jean I. (2002). "Sex, Politics, and She-Tragedy: Reconfiguring Lady Jane Grey". Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900. 42 (3): 501–522. ISSN 0039-3657. JSTOR 1556177.
  87. ^ "Lady Jane". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  88. ^ Ives 2009, Figures 1–5


Lady Jane Grey
Born: 1537 Died: 12 February 1554
Regnal titles
Preceded byas undisputed king — DISPUTED —
Queen of England and Ireland
10–19 July 1553
Disputed by Mary I
Succeeded byas undisputed queen