Bahadur Shah of Nepal
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|Prince Regent of Nepal|
|Born||16 June 1757|
|Died||24 June 1797 (aged 40)|
Aryaghat, Pashupatinath, Nepal
|Spouse||Vidya Lakshmi Devi|
|Issue||Ripu Mardan Shah|
Shatru Bhanjan Shah
|Father||Prithvi Narayan Shah|
|Mother||Narendra Rajya Lakshmi Devi|
Rajpratinidhi Mahila Sahibjyu
राजप्रतिनिधि माँहिला साहिबज्यू
|Chief Chautaria & Prince Regent of Nepal|
31 August 1778 – 20 June 1779
13 July 1785 A.D. – 6 June 1794 A.D.
|Preceded by||reinstated as Chief Chautaria|
|Succeeded by||Kirtiman Singh Basnyat as Chief Kazi|
|Nickname(s)||Fatteh Bahadur Shah|
|Battles/wars||Nepal Tibet War & Sino-Nepalese War |
He accompanied his father King Prithvi Narayan Shah on battlefields and in negotiations. Unike his brother Pratap Singh Shah (r. 1775–1777) who was a luxury-loving and indulgent king more interested in tantrism; Bahadur remained a disciplined and farsighted statesman.
He made Nuwakot his capital. Shah took a hardline approach to unification offering one of the options to state kings and princes: accept Gorkha sovereignty while continuing to rule themselves or battle to the death.
Many minor states accepted annexation with notable resistance from Jumla and Doti. The king of Jumla, Shovan Shahi, fled to China, later assisting China in the Sino-Nepalese War. The king of Doti fled to British India and assisted them in the Anglo-Nepalese War. The powerful kingdom of Palpa was made an ally and some territories were given to it as a reward.
Bahadur Shah crushed the Limbuwan rebellion on his eastern front and annexed Sikkim with Damodar Pande and Amar Singh Thapa as his military generals. Amar Singh Thapa annexed Kumaon kingdom upon invitation of its minister Hari Singh Dev. However, resistance followed and then a battle. Later the deposed Kumaoni king aided the British in the Anglo-Nepalese War but could not restore his Kingdom.
In 1788 Nepal attacked Tibet over issues of counterfeiting and granted asylum for Samarpa Lama (Karmapa Lama), who died during the war. His title was abolished and restored only in 2010. Chinese Amban stationes in Lhasa dragged China into war, turning it into Sino-Nepalese War in 1792. Nepal asked for British arms which mediator Colonel William Kirkpatrick refused. Nepal was defeated and a peace treaty was signed with China.
After the war, Garhwal submitted to Gorkhan sovereignty with its King continuing his rule. From then, Nepal began to see itself as the pan-Himalayan military Hindu kingdom demanding that hill Hindu kings surrender. However, as Kangra resisted with Sikh assistance, deposed kings began to ally with the British against Nepal.
Bahadur Shah's power and influence gradually declined so he retired to Bettiah once again. However, palace plotters invited him to Kathmandu where they imprisoned and executed him, accusing him of trying to declare himself King of Nepal. According to historian Baburam Acharya it was the king Rana Bahadur Shah himself who killed him by ordering hot oil to be poured on his body.