José Mariano Salas
José Mariano de Salas (11 May 1797 – 24 December 1867) was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico (1846 and 1859). He was also a member of the executive triumvirate of the Second Mexican Empire that invited Maximilian of Habsburg to take the throne.
José Mariano Salas
|16th President of Mexico|
5 August 1846 – 23 December 1846
|Preceded by||Nicolás Bravo|
|Succeeded by||Valentín Gómez Farías|
|Provisional President of Mexico|
by the Plan of Tacubaya
21 January 1859 – 2 February 1859
|Preceded by||Manuel Robles Pezuela|
|Succeeded by||Miguel Miramón|
|Member of the Regency|
of the Second Mexican Empire
11 July 1863 – 10 April 1864
|Monarch||Maximilian I of Mexico|
|Succeeded by||Maximilian I of Mexico|
|Born||11 May 1797|
Mexico City, Mexico
|Died||24 December 1867 (aged 70)|
Mexico City, Mexico
|Awards||Order of Guadalupe|
Salas entered the military in 1813 as an infantry cadet in the Regimiento de Infantes de Puebla, a Spanish royalist regiment. His first actions were against the insurgents in the Mexican War of Independence. He was with Antonio López de Santa Anna at the capture of Xalapa, Veracruz. In 1821 he accepted the Plan de Iguala for Mexican independence.
He was a defender of the government of President Guadalupe Victoria at the time of the revolt of Plan de Montaño in 1827. He fought in Tampico against the invasion of the Spaniard Isidro Barradas in 1829. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1832. He commanded one of the columns in the assault on the Alamo, and fought in the action at Llano Perdido. He covered the retreat of the Mexican forces to Matamoros.
On 15 July 1840, he took part the suppression of a revolt by soldiers at the National Palace. In 1844, he was exiled for his support of Santa Anna.
On 4 August 1846 from the Ciudadela in Mexico City, he revolted against General Mariano Paredes, who had just temporarily turned over the presidency to Nicolás Bravo to take the field against other rebels. Salas proclaimed the reestablishment of the federalist régime. (Paredes was a centralist.)
Salas was president from 5 August 1846 to 23 December 1846. He immediately re-established the federalist Constitution of 1824 and convoked a new Congress. He worked hard to enlarge the militia and raise money for the upcoming war with the United States. In December he turned over power to Santa Anna (as president) and Valentín Gómez Farías (as vice-president and acting president).
In 1847, Salas was promoted to general of division. As second in command of the Ejército del Norte (Northern Army), he fought the Americans in the Mexican–American War. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Contreras (Padierna) on 20 August 1847. After the peace treaty, he was named military commander and governor of Querétaro.
The War of the Reform and the Second EmpireEdit
He served a second term as acting president during the War of the Reform, from 21 January 1859 to 2 February 1859, while awaiting the return of Miguel Miramón. Miramón (and Salas as his substitute) claimed the presidency for the Conservative cause.
As commander of the garrison of Mexico City, on 1 June 1863 he formed part of the Executive Power of the Conservative government in the War of the Reform. This lasted until 21 June 1863, when the Regency of the Second Mexican Empire was formed. Together with General Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and Archbishop Antonio de Labastida he formed the triumvirate that exercised power during the Regency, under the protection of French arms (21 June 1863 to 12 June 1864). It was the Regency that sent representatives to Maximilian of Habsburg to offer him the imperial throne of Mexico. Maximilian assumed the throne on 12 June 1864. However, Benito Juárez remained as constitutional president throughout this period, and throughout the Empire.
- (in Spanish) "Salas, José Mariano", Enciclopedia de México, v. 12. Mexico City, 1996, ISBN 1-56409-016-7.
- (in Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrúa, 1984.
- (in Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.
- Juan Bautista Ormaechea replaced Labastida on the council after the latter was removed on 17 November 1863.