Keio University (慶應義塾大学 Keiō Gijuku Daigaku), abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a private university located in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo). It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy.
|Motto||Calamus gladio fortior|
Motto in English
|The pen is mightier than the sword|
|President||Prof. Akira Haseyama|
|full time 2,604|
|Athletics||39 varsity teams|
|Colors||Blue and Red|
|Affiliations||ASAIHL, Council on Business & Society|
The University has more than 350 student exchange programs with prestigious Institutions such as University of California, Brown University, University of Pennsylvania, Carnegie Mellon University, Dartmouth College, École normale supérieure (Paris) and Ecole Polytechnique. Moreover, Keio has 29 double degree programs with leading institutions such as Sciences Po, HEC Paris (both with the department of economics), University of Washington (Law School), and Mines ParisTech (Master, Sci.and Tech.)
The university is one of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's thirteen "Global 30" Project universities. Besides, Keio University is one of the member universities of RU11, and APRU.
Its list of alumni includes three former prime ministers, two astronauts, hour international honorary members of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a Wolf Prize winner, around 60 members of cabinet, 76 members of current Japanese parliament,  and the largest number of CEOs of companies listed with the first section of Tokyo Stock Exchange.
Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he changed the name of the school to Keio Gijuku and devoted all his time to education. While Keiō's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, and became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education. It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008.
Keio has leading research centers. It has approximately 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan. Keio University Research Institute at SFC (KRIS) has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C.
Fukuzawa stated the mission of Keio shown below, which is based on his speech at the alumni party on November 1, 1896.
Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution.
Its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue,
to make clear how it can be applied to its family, society, and nation,
and to take an actual action of this statement.
It expects all students being leaders in society by the practice of this mission.
Those sentences were given to students as his will, and considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission.
Contributor to Japanese modern education systemsEdit
Keio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education systems in Japan. The following are the examples:
- Keio is the earliest Japanese school that introduced an annual fixed course fee, designed by Fukuzawa.
- It initially introduced the culture of speech to Japan, which Japan had never had before. It built Japan's earliest speech house Mita Speech House in 1875 as well.
- It is regarded as Japan's first university to accept international students. Keio accepted 2 Korean students in 1881 as its (and also Japan's) first international students. 60 Korean students entered in 1883 and 130 Korean students in 1895.
Keio put "Independence and self-respect (独立自尊 Dokuritsu Jison)" as a foundation of its education. This is meant to be physically and mentally independent, and respect yourself for keeping your virtue. Independence and self-respect are also regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education.
Learning half and teaching half (半学半教 Hangaku Hankyo) is the other unique culture in Keio. During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools often used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio also had initially used this system. In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but also professors themselves. Hence there had been sometimes the occasions that students who had learned in advance had taught other students and even professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations have disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning, and knowing more things provides more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and put the rule in "Rules in Keio Gijuku (慶應義塾社中之約束 Keio Gijuku Shachu no Yakusoku)" that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners, and all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture in this university that all professors and lecturers are officially called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor".
Shachu no KyoryokuEdit
Collaboration in a company (社中の協力 Shachu no Kyoryoku) is also a uniqueness of Keio. Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, and "Collaboration in a company" originally came from this article. People in Keio often think that all of the people related to Keio (e.g. professors, students, alumni and their family members) are the part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been often seen especially in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai.
Keio University (慶應義塾大学 Keiō Gijuku Daigaku) was established in 1858 as a School of Western studies located in one of the mansion houses in Tsukiji by the founder Fukuzawa Yukichi. Its root is considered as the Han school for Kokugaku studies named Shinshu Kan established in 1796. Keio changed its name as "Keio Gijuku" in 1868, which came from the era name "Keio" and "Gijuku" as the translation of Private school. It moved to the current location in 1871, established the Medical school in 1873, and the official university department with Economics, Law and Literacy study in 1890.
Keio has been forming its structure in the following chronological order.
|1858||Keio Gijuku was established|
|1879||It rejected an offer to become a national university.|
Instead of that, it became a vocational school funded by daimyōs including Shimazu clan.
|1890||University department with Faculty of Economics, Faculty of Law, and Faculty of Letters was set up|
|1906||Graduate school was set up|
|1917||School of Medicine was set up|
|1920||It was authorized as a university in the prewar system|
|1944||Faculty of Technology was set up|
|1949||It was authorized as a university in the post-war system|
|1957||Faculty of Business and Commerce was set up|
|1962||Graduate School of Business Administration was set up|
|1981||Faculty of Science and Technology (reformed from Faculty of Technology) was set up|
|1990||Faculty of Environment and Information Studies and Faculty of Policy Management were set up|
|2001||Faculty of Nursing and Medical Care was set up|
|2004||Law School was set up|
|2008||Faculty of Pharmacy was set up|
|2008||Graduate School of Media Design was set up|
There have been several notable things in Keio's over 150-year history as shown below.
- Keio launched Hiromoto Watanabe as a first chancellor of the Imperial University (University of Tokyo) in 1886. He is the first chancellor of the officially authorized university in Japan.
- Keio sent 6 students to study abroad in 1899. In the same year, it accepted three international students from India, Qing-dynasty China, and Thailand. Eight international students entered from Taiwan (which had technically been a territory of the Japanese Empire since 1895) in the next year.
- Keio was visited by Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore where he made a speech in 1916.
- Keio was visited by Albert Einstein where he presented a lecture on the special theory of relativity in 1922.
- It started to accept female students in 1946.
- A paper written by Keio undergraduate student as the first author was placed in the research journal Science in 2006, which had rarely happened to any undergraduate students.
- Keio was visited by Prince Charles in 2008.
Since the president system was established in 1881, there have been 18 presidents in Keio's history.
|1.||Sadashiro Hamano||1881–1887||7.||Shinzo Koizumi||1933–1947||13.||Saku Sato||1969–1973||19.||Akira Haseyama||2017-|
|2.||Nobukichi Koizumi||1887–1890||8.||Seiichiro Takahashi||1946–1947||14.||Hiroshi Kuno||1973–1977|
|3.||Tokujiro Obata||1890–1897||9.||Kouji Ushioda||1947–1956||15.||Tadao Ishikawa||1977–1993|
|4.||Eikichi Kamata||1898–1922||10.||Fukutaro Okui||1956–1960||16.||Yasuhiko Torii||1993–2001|
|5.||Ichitaro Fukuzawa||1922–1923||11.||Shohei Takamura||1960–1965||17.||Yuichiro Anzai||2001–2009|
|6.||Kiroku Hayashi||1923–1933||12.||Kunio Nagasawa||1965–1969||18.||Atsushi Seike||2009– 2017|
In 2011, there are 33,825 students in Keio University, with 28,931 undergraduate students and 4,894 graduate students. Although two third of student body are male students, this ratio highly depends on the major (63% of students are female in the Faculty of letters, for instance).
There are 1072 international students in May 2011, with 438 undergraduate students (1.5% of total undergraduate students), 480 graduate students (9.8% of total graduate students) and 90 students in the exchange program. Korea is the country which provides the most number of international students with 381 students, followed by China (300), Taiwan (57), France (42), Indonesia (27), USA (27) and Germany (22).
In Japanese universities, there are student societies called "circles". Although the exact number is not clear, there are over 410 circles in Keio.
Keio holds school festivals every year in each campus. The main festival is called "Mita Sai" on Mita campus, which is usually held in late November. Mita Sai includes various activities for not only entertainment but also academic purposes. It is also a research workshop for students on Mita campus. Approximately 200,000 people visit Mita Sai every year.
Edward Bramwell Clarke and Tanaka Ginnosuke first introduced Rugby union to Japanese students at Keio University. (The game had been played in the treaty ports of Yokohama and Kobe before that, but not between Japanese teams.)
The interest of Keio's students in baseball stretches back to the early years of the 20th century; and the history of exhibition games was reported internationally. In 1913, an American professional team made of players from the New York Giants and the Chicago White Sox played the Keio team in an exhibition game. In a 1932 exhibition game, the Keio team beat the University of Michigan team which was then touring Japan. Keio's baseball team plays in the Tokyo Big6 Baseball League (six prominent universities in the Tokyo area).
Keio University association football (soccer) team is currently the most successful team in the Emperor's Cup, despite their last triumph was in 1956. They have won nine times, a number no professional team had ever achieved in the tournament.
Traditionally, there has been a strong rivalry between Keio and Waseda University. There are annually many matches between 2 universities in several sports, such as baseball, rowing and rugby. These games are called "Kei–So Sen (慶早戦)", or more generally "So–Kei Sen (早慶戦)".
The Kei-So baseball game is especially famous because of its over 100-year history and importance in Japanese baseball history. The most famous Kei-So baseball match was held on 1943/10/16, and it was made into a movie titled "The Last Game – the Final So-Kei Sen -" in 2008.
There are 2 Kei-So baseball game seasons every year and they are usually broadcast by NHK. There is no lecture on all campuses in Keio on the game day because of the students who want to watch this match. Japanese emperors visited Kei-So baseball games 3 times in 1929,1950 and 1994.
Keio and Waseda have been often compared to each other in other general topics, such as their popularity and alumni's successes. In fact, there are many books and magazine articles which compared with these universities.
Keio University is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. In World rankings, Times Higher Education estimates that Keio is 351–400th place in general academic rankings.
|Toyo Keizai National||General||2|
|T. Reuters National||Research||13|
|NBP Greater Tokyo||Reputation||3|
| QS Asia|
(Asian Ranking version)
|Social Sciences & Humanities|
|BE Success National||Qualification||3|
|BE Pass rate National||Qualification||1|
BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT
|Eduni MBA National||General||1|
|Eduni MBA World||General||75|
|CPA Success National||Qualification||1|
|Natural Sciences & Technology|
Keio ranks 9th in the world in the Times Higher Education's Alma Mater Index. It ranks 34th globally in the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) and 3rd in Asia. Keio is ranked at 58th of the Reuters Top 100 innovative universities worldwide. British Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) company estimates that Keio is ranked the 192nd in QS World University Rankings 2017/18. It is ranked the 45th in QS World University Ranking 2017/18 for Graduate Employability Ranking. In the Asian University Ranking (2015), Quacquarelli Symonds also ranked Keio as 37th in Asia. The Academic Ranking of World Universities (2015), which is compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, ranks Keio 301–400 in the world and 37 in Asia. Keio, with Waseda University, is one of the prominent private universities within Japan.
According to Thomson Reuters, Keio is the 10th best research university in Japan, and it's the only private university within Top 15. In addition, Weekly Diamond reported that Keio has the 8th highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program, and it's also the only private university within Top 10. Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Keio was ranked 2nd during 2005–2009. Accordingly, Keio is a prominent research university within Japan.
In Economics, According to Asahi Shimbun, Keio's been ranked 7th in Japan in the economic research ranking during 2005–2009. More recently, Repec in January 2011 ranked Keio's Economic department as Japan's 6th best economic research university. Keio has provided 3 presidents of Japanese Economic Association in its 42-year history, and this number is 5th largest.
In addition, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, and Keio was placed 8th (research planning ability 4th/informative ability of research outcome 3rd) in this ranking.
Keio ranks second in Japan, for the number of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies, according to Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities. Keio is also ranked 1st in Japan for the number of alumni generally holding executive positions (when positions like COO, CFO, CIO etc. are included along with the CEO position) in listed companies of Japan, and this number per student (probability of becoming an executive) is also top.
Keio Business School is Japan's first business school and one of only two Japanese schools holding The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation. Keio was ranked No. 1 in Japan by Nikkei Shimbun. Eduniversal also ranked Keio as top in Japan (75th in the world). In Eduniversal Keio is one of only 3 Japanese schools categorized in "Universal Business schools with major international influence". In 2012, the Keio Business School became founding member of the university alliance Council on Business & Society that consists of Tuck School of Business from USA, University of Mannheim Business School from Germany, ESSEC Business School from France, Fudan University from China, Fundação Getúlio Vargas from Brazil and Keio Business School.
According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings and the PRESIDENT's article on 16 October 2006, graduates from Keio University have the 3rd best employment rate in 400 major companies, and the alumni's average salary is the 3rd best in Japan.
As an extension of Keio's strong business focus, for over 30 years, Keio graduates have been ranked first in Japan in the number of successful national CPA exam applicants.
Keio has been influential in Japanese medical societies as well. In fact, there have been 4 presidents of Japan Medical Association related to this university (2 Alumni and 2 professors). This number is the 2nd largest among Japanese medical schools. Keio is one of 2 Japanese universities which provided a president of World Medical Association.
Keio's law faculty is typically ranked among the best in all of Japan along with the University of Tokyo, University of Kyoto, Chuo University, and Hitotsubashi University. In 2010 and 2015, Keio University Law School ranked highest among all Japanese universities for Bar Exam passage rate. Furthermore, the number of Members of Parliament who graduated Keio has been 3rd in Japan.
Popularity and selectivityEdit
Keio is a popular university in Japan, often considered one of Japan's top two private university alongside Waseda University, their eternal equal and rival. The number of applicants per place was 11.7 (48260/4098) in the 2011 undergraduate admissions. Its entrance difficulty is usually considered as top with Waseda among 730 private universities.
Nikkei BP has been publishing a ranking system called "Brand rankings of Japanese universities" every year, composed by the various indications related to the power of brand, in which Keio was top in 2014, and ranked second in 2015 and 2016 in Greater Tokyo Area. Webometrics (2008) also ranks Keio University as 3rd in Japan, 11th in Asia, and 208th in the world for quantity and quality of web presence and link visibility.
In a unique ranking, TBS ranked Japanese universities by the questionnaire of "Which university student do you want to have as your boyfriend?" to 300 girls in Shibuya, and Keio was ranked 1st in this ranking .
|Revenues||(yen in millions)||ratio||Expenses||(yen in millions)||ratio|
|Tuition and fees||49,204||24.97%||Compensation and benefits||65,270||33.12%|
|Investment return||4,170||2.12%||Education & Research||52,148||26.46%|
|National appropriation/Grants(Direct)||17,082||8.67%||Repayment of debt||13,236||6.72%|
According to Keio's financial report, there was operating revenue of 197 billion yen in 2010. The top 3 largest incomes were from "Tuition and fees", "Medical care" and "Capital gain", with 49 billion yen, 48 billion yen and 21 billion yen respectively. The amount of endowments in 2010 was about 5 billion yen. Keio is known as having one of the largest financial endowments of any Japanese university.
On the other hand, the top 3 largest expenses in 2010 were "Compensation and benefits", "Education & Research" and "Investment", with 65 billion yen, 52 billion yen and 33 billion yen respectively. The total asset value in 2010 was about 364 billion yen with increase of 5 billion yen. In addition, the total amount of assets under management was approximately 109 billion yen in 2010, composed by mainly cash, deposit with banks and marketable securities.
|Undergraduate||4 years in Total (yen)||Per year (yen)|
|Social Science & Humanities||4,440,000||1,110,000|
|Natural Science & Engineering||6,280,000||1,570,000|
|School of Medicine||14,440,000||3,610,000|
|Graduate||2 years in Total (yen)||Per year (yen)|
|Social Science & Humanities||1,380,000||690,000|
|Natural Science & Engineering||1,965,000||983,000|
|School of Medicine||2,625,000||1,313,000|
The university tuition fee system in Japan is different from other countries and very complicated. In the most Japanese universities, there are more payment requirements in the first year such as "entrance fees", and less in the rest of the years. There are several types of fees (some require to pay only once and some require to pay once or twice every year) and so-called "course fee" is officially only one of those fees.
In Keio University, Tuition fees vary and depend on the course. Social Science & Humanity studies require the least fees with approximately 1,110,000 yen per year, and School of Medicine requires the most expensive fees with about 3,610,000 yen per year. The tuition fees in graduate school are much less than those for undergraduate studies, as 690,000 yen per year for Social Science & Humanities and 1,313,000 yen per year for School of Medicine.
Although it is acceptable to pay twice with half in spring and half in autumn, the "entrance fee" is necessary to be paid before enrollment. The entrance fee for undergraduate study is 200,000 yen and the one for graduate study is 310,000 yen.
|2008||number of students||ratio||average amount (yen)|
|Total using scholarship/loan||9,764||30.25%|
|Total of using scholarship funded by Keio||3,000||9.30%||300,000|
|International students (undergraduate)||397||appx. 100%||259,942|
|International students (graduate)||359||appx. 75%||517,473|
Many students who receive additional financial support. For example, in 2008, there were 9,764 students (about 30% of all students) who used either scholarships or loans. Additionally, Keio funds over 3,000 students who receive, on average, scholarships of 300,000 yen.
Keio has ten undergraduate faculties, which cover a wide range of academic fields, with each operating independently and offering broad educational and research activities. The faculties are:
- Faculty of Letters (800)
- Faculty of Economics (1200)
- Faculty of Law (1200)
- Faculty of Business and Commerce (1000)
- School of Medicine (112)
- Faculty of Science and Technology (932)
- Faculty of Policy Management (425)
- Faculty of Environment and Information Studies (425)
- Faculty of Nursing and Medical Care (100)
- Faculty of Pharmacy (210)
- Graduate School of Letters
- Graduate School of Economics
- Graduate School of Law
- Graduate School of Human Relations
- Graduate School of Business and Commerce
- Graduate School of Medicine
- Graduate School of Science and Technology
- Graduate School of Business Administration
- Graduate School of Media and Governance
- Graduate School of Health Management
- Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Law School
- Graduate School of Media Design
- Graduate School of System Design and Management
Keio's Media Centers, with combined holdings of over 4.58 million books and publications, are one of the largest academic information storehouses in the country.
- Mita Media Center
- Hiyoshi Media Center
- Media Center for Science and Technology
- Shinanomachi Media Center
- SFC Media Center
Information technology centersEdit
- ITC Headquarters
- Mita ITC
- Hiyoshi ITC
- Shinanomachi ITC
- Science & Technology ITC
- Shonan Fujisawa ITC
- Keio Yochisha Elementary School
- Keio Futsubu School (Boys Junior High School)
- Keio Chutobu Junior High School
- Keio Shonan Fujisawa Junior and Senior High School
- Keio Senior High School
- Keio Shiki Senior High School
- Keio Girls Senior High School
- Keio Academy of New York (High School)
- Japanese Language Program
- Keio Foreign Language School
- Keio Marunouchi City Campus (KMCC)
Hospital and rehabilitation centerEdit
Keio University Hospital is one of the largest and most well-known general hospitals in Japan, the number of surgeries for carcinoma uteri in 2007 was top and the one for lung cancer was third among all university hospitals. and is also a famous teaching hospital. The number of trainee doctors who selected Keio as their first choice training hospital was 30 (33rd) among all Japanese teaching hospitals in 2010. Established in 1920, it has over 1,000 beds, a leading laboratory, and research and medical information divisions.
- Keio University Hospital (慶應義塾大学病院 or 慶應大学病院)
- Tsukigase Rehabilitation Center (月が瀬リハビリテーションセンター)
There are eleven campuses.
- Mita Campus (Mita, Minato, Tokyo)
- Hiyoshi Campus (Yokohama, Kanagawa), home of the Hiyoshi tunnels
- Yagami Campus (Yokohama, Kanagawa)
- Shinanomachi Campus (Shinjuku)
- Shonan Fujisawa Campus (Fujisawa, Kanagawa, aka SFC) designed by Fumihiko Maki
- Shiba Kyoritsu Campus (Minato ward, Tokyo)
- Shin-Kawasaki Town Campus (Kawasaki, Kanagawa)
- Tsuruoka Town Campus of Keio (Tsuruoka, Yamagata, aka TTCK)
- Urawa Kyoritsu Campus (Urawa, Saitama)
- Keio Osaka Riverside Campus (Osaka)
- Keio Marunouchi City Campus (Tokyo)
Alumni and ProfessorsEdit
Some of the prominent Keio alumni include: Japanese Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi (2001–2006), Ryutaro Hashimoto (1996–1998), and Tsuyoshi Inukai (1931–1932). Dozens of other alumni have been cabinet members and governors in the post-war period. Its alumni include 230 CEOs of major companies and 97 CEOs of foreign affiliated companies (both highest in Japan). Keio has over 320,000 alumni in 866 alumni associations.
- Junichiro Koizumi, the 87th/88th/89th Prime Minister of Japan (2001–2006), the 20th President of Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (Economics 1967)
- Ryutaro Hashimoto, the 82nd/83rd Prime Minister of Japan (1996–1998), the 17th President of Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (Law 1960)
- Tsuyoshi Inukai, the 29th Prime Minister of Japan (1931–1932), the 6th President of Rikken Seiyūkai
- Ichirō Ozawa, Former President of Democratic Party of Japan, Former Secretary General of Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (Economics 1967)
- Tamisuke Watanuki, President of People's New Party, Former Speaker of The House of Representatives of Japan (Economics 1950)
- Toshiko Hamayotsu, Minister for Global Environmental Issues and Director-General of Environment Agency of Government of Japan (1994).
- Kenji Kosaka, Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Law 1968)
- Jirō Kawasaki, Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare (Business and Commerce 1971)
- Andrew Thomson, Minister for Sport and Tourism and Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Sydney 2000 Games in the Australian Government 1997 – 1998
- Shigefumi Matsuzawa, Governor of Kanagawa (Law 1982)
- Akihiko Noro, Governor of Mie (Science and Technology 1969)
- Genjirō Kaneko, Governor of Nagasaki (Letters 1968)
- Hiroshi Nakai, Chairman of the National Commission on Public Safety, Minister of State for Disaster Management and the Abduction Issue (Economics 1969)
- Yūzan Fujita, Governor of Hiroshima (Business and Commerce 1972)
- Ryōzō Hiranuma, Mayor of Yokohama, Order of Culture
- Keiichi Inamine, Governor of Okinawa (Economics 1957)
- Ichiro Fujisaki, Chairman of Executive Committee of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Law Dropout 1969)
- Masaharu Ikuta, President of Japan Post, Former CEO of Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (Economics 1957)
- Yukio Ozaki, Mayor of Tokyo, Minister of Justice, Education, "Father of parliamentary politics" in Japan.
- Nobuteru Ishihara, Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Minister of State for Administrative and Regulatory Reform, Candidate for the LDP presidency 2008
- Heitaro Inagaki , Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (Economics, 1913)
- Banri Kaieda, Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (Law)
- Hirofumi Nakasone, Minister for Foreign Affairs
- Yoshio Sakurauchi , Minister for Foreign Affairs
- Eikichi Kamada, Minister of Education
- Hidenao Nakagawa, Chief Cabinet Secretary
- Mitsuo Horiuchi, Minister of International Trade and Industry
- Yoshiyuki Kamei, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
- Seiichi Ota, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
- Ryu Shionoya, Minister of Education, Science and Technology
- Kosuke Hori, Minister of Education
- Fusanosuke Kuhara, Minister of communications
- Shigeru Ishiba, Minister of Defense, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
- Kazuyoshi Kaneko, Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and Minister for Ocean Policy
- Takeo Kawamura, Minister of Education, Science and Technology and Chief Cabinet Secretary
- Koichi Yamamoto, Minister of Environment
- Akira Amari, Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry and Minister of State in charge of Administrative Reform
- Tatsuya Ito, Minister of State for Financial Services
- Tadamori Oshima, Minister of Agriculture
- Takeo Hiranuma, Minister of Transport and Minister of Economy, Trade, and Industry
- Akira Nagatsuma, Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, Minister of State for Pension Reform
- Masajuro Shiokawa, Chief Cabinet Secretary of Japan
- Heizō Takenaka , Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications (Emeritus Prof.)
- Wataru Takeshita, Minister for Reconstruction
- Jon Richards, Wisconsin legislator
- Sommai Hoonrakoon (Economics,1942), Minister of Finance (Thailand)
Public Servants, International Organizations etc.Edit
- Takeshi Kasai, WHO Regional Director of Western Pacific(Medicine),
- Kiyoko Okabe, the first woman justice of Supreme Court,Japan (Law)
Central Bank GovernorsEdit
- Shigeaki Ikeda, Minister of Finance, Commerce and Industry, Governor of The Bank of Japan
- Makoto Usami , Governor of The Bank of Japan
- Tarisa Watanagase (Thai), Governor of the Bank of Thailand, 2006–2010 (Economics)
- Taizo Nishimuro, Chairman and CEO of Tokyo Stock Exchange, Former CEO of Toshiba Corporation (Economics 1961)
- Koichiro Miyahara, Chairman and CEO of Tokyo Stock Exchange
- Atsushi Saito, chairman and CEO of Tokyo Stock Exchange,
- Shigeharu Suzuki, President and CEO of Daiwa Securities Group (Economics 1971)
- Tōru Shōriki, owner of The Yomiuri Shimbun (Economics 1942)
- Kazuhiko Torishima, president of Hakusensha (1978)
Other business peopleEdit
- Akio Toyoda, President and CEO Toyota Motor Corporation 2009–current
- Yutaka Asoh, later known as Yutaka Katayama, the first president of the U.S. operations of Nissan Motors (Economics 1935)
- Osamu Nagayama (born 1947), CEO of Chugai Pharmaceutical and Chairman of Sony Corporation
- Katsuaki Watanabe, President of Toyota Motor Corporation (Economics 1964).
- Yuzaburo Mogi, Chairman and CEO of Kikkoman Corporation (Law 1958)
- Shinzo Maeda, President and CEO of Shiseido (Letters 1970)
- Ichizō Kobayashi, Founder of Hankyu Railway and the Takarazuka Revue, Minister of Commerce and Industry in the 1940 Konoe Cabinet
- Nobutada Saji, Chief executive of Suntory Ltd., the wealthiest individual in Japan as of 2004 by Forbes
- Akira Mori, President and CEO of Mori Trust, the fourth-wealthiest person in Japan as of 2013 by Forbes
- Keiichi Ishizaka, chairman and CEO, Warner Music Japan Inc. (Business and Commerce, 1968) – 2009 Medal of Honor Awardee
- Lee Jae-yong, vice chairman of Samsung Electronics (MBA) – The 3rd wealthiest person in South Korea and the most powerful Korean by 2014's Forbes Magazine
- Teruaki Yamagishi, received the 4th Class, Order of the Rising Sun Gold Rays with Rosette in 2008
- Takeo Shiina, Chairperson of IBM,Japan, (Sci.and Tech.)
Dozens of alumni and Professors have been elected as academy members or been in important positions. Including,
- Yukichi Fukuzawa, First President of Japan Academy, (founder)
- Kitasato Shibasaburō, Member of Japan Academy, nominated for Nobel Prize (Dean of Keio University School of Medicine)
- Tokujiro Obata(politics), Member of Japan Academy ,
- Kiroku Hayashi(literature,1892), Member of Japan Academy ,
- Shinzo Koizumi(politics,1910), Member of Japan Academy,
- Shohei Takamura(economics,1929), Member of Japan Academy ,
- Seiichiro Takahashi(politics,1908), Member of Japan Academy, Minister of Education
- Kanetaro Nomura(economics,1918), Member of Japan Academy,
- Toshihiko Izutsu(literature,1937), Member of Japan Academy
- Akira Hayami(economics,1954), Member of Japan Academy , introduced the notion of "Industrious Revolution " (Economics)
- Tokuzo Fukuda, Member of Japan Academy (Prof.) 
- Kazui Tashiro (ph.D in Economics), Member of Japan Academy,
- Junzaburo Nishiwaki, nominated for Nobel Prize, International Honorary Member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Economics)
- Tsuneo Tomita(Medicine, 1932), International Honorary Member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Member of Japan Academy,
- Osamu Saito (economics,1968), member of Japan Academy, International Honorary Member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Professor Emeritus of Hitotsubashi University ,
- Genichi Kato, Nominated for Nobel Prize, Member of Japan Academy(Prof.)
- Sahachiro Hata(Prof.), Nominated for Nobel Prize, , member of Japan Academy, 
- Eijiro Iwasaki, Member of Japan Academy (Emeritus Prof.)
- Masayuki Amagai, International Member of National Academy of Medicine(Medicine)
- Masaharu Tsuchiya(medicine,1953),member of Académie Nationale de Médecine,
- Ken Sakamura, Emeritus professor of University of Tokyo, Japan Academy Prize (academics) (Engineering)
- Toshio Ito(Medicine), best known for discovery of Ito cell, Japan Academy Prize (academics),,
- Toju Hata (medicine,1934), Japan Academy Prize (academics), best known for the discovery of Mitomycin C,
- Ryogo Kubo(prof.),the Boltzmann Medal, Order of Culture , member ofJapan Academy,
- Yoshitaka Tanimura,invented Hierarchical equations of motion with Ryogo Kubo, Professor of Kyoto University, Humboldt Prize Winner (Sci.and Tech)
- Keisuke Suzuki(science), Member of Japan Academy (prof.)
- Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Emeritus Prof. of The University of Tokyo ,first cloned in the world of the IP3 receptor in laboratory, which was found to play an important role in many biological functions such as body development and brain plasticity. Legion of Honor, Japan Academy Prize (academics) 
- Seiichi Takimoto, Japan Academy Prize (academics),(Alumni)
- Kuniaki Tatsuta, Japan Academy Prize (academics) (ph.D)
- Nobuyoshi Shimizu, Contributed to the analysis of 8th, 21st and 22nd chromosomes of human genome (Emeritus prof),
- Masayoshi Tomizuka, professor in Control Theory in Department of Mechanical Engineering, and director of Mechanical Systems Control Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley. He holds the Cheryl and John Neerhout, Jr., Distinguished Professorship Chair, and has supervised more than 90 Ph. D. students to completion, many of which have become professors in universities in USA, Taiwan, etc., prestigious for the research in the field of Mechanical Engineering. (B.S. and M.S. degrees, Mechanical Engineering, 1968 and 1970)
- Yoshiaki Kobayashi, Vice President of Science Council of Japan (Law)
- Yoko Ishikura, Vice President of Science Council of Japan (Alumni)
- Chuziro Nishino, Member of Japan Academy (Prof.)
- Itaru Watanabe, President of Science Council(Emeritus Prof.)
- Yoshio Higuchi, President of Japanese Economic Association (Economics)
- Masao Fukuoka, President of Japanese Economic Association (Economics)
- Kotaro Tsujimura, President of Japanese Economic Association (Economics)
- Michihiro Oyama, President of Japanese Economic Association (Economics)
- Taisuke Otsu, Professor of London School of Economics and Political Science (Economics),
- Hideyuki Okano, invented a quicker and easier way to generate iPS cells from people with Parkinson's disease, a discovery they claim will go a long way in developing a cure for the neurological disease. Also, He is to conduct the world's first clinical test in which artificially derived stem cells will be used to treat patients with spinal cord injuries.(Medicine, Prof.),
- Kenya Honda, Awarded Clarivate Analytics' "Highly Cited Reserchers" 4 years in a row (Prof.)
- Yasuhiro Matsuda, professor of international politics at the University of Tokyo (Law)
- Yoshihiro Tsurumi, professor of international business at Baruch College of the City University of New York (Economics)
- Jun Murai, "The Father of Internet" in Japan, Legion of Honor (2018) (PhD, Engineering)
- Kohei Itoh, Successfully generated and detected quantum entanglement between electron spin and nuclear spin in phosphorus impurities added to silicon with Dr. John Morton at Oxford University. This is the world's first successful generation.(Science and Technology)
- Yasuhiro Koike, Developed the High-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber.
He is thought as one of the Nobel Prize candidates in Physics in terms of the achievement of plastic optical fiber.(Sci. and Tech)
- Masaru Tomita, Established the metabolomics analysis by using the CE-MS.(Environment and Information Studies)
- Ryohei Yasuda, Research Group Leader, Scientific Director, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience (Ph.D)
- Eitaro Noro, Researcher in the field of Marxian Economics. Author of "History of the Development of Japanese Capitalism"(1930) (Native:「日本資本主義発達史講座」), Iwanami Shoten,Tokyo.
- Shotaro Yasuoka, Member of Japan Art Academy
- Yamamoto Kenkichi,Member of Japan Art Academy
- Hiroshi Sakagami, Member of Japan Art Academy
- Shusaku Endo, Akutagawa Prize, Order of Culture (Literature)
- Daigaku Horiguchi, Poet, Translator, Member of Japan Art Academy
- Tanaka Chikao, Member of Japan Art Academy(Literature)
- Gozo Yoshimasu, Member of Japan Art Academy
- Jun Etō, Member of Japan Art Academy , literary critic
- Mantaro Kubota, Member of Japan Art Academy
- Haruo Sato (novelist), Member of Japan Art Academy (Literature)
- Kafū Nagai, Member of Japan Art Academy, Order of Culture(Prof.)
- Shinobu Orikuchi, Ethnologist (Emeritus prof.)
- Takitaro Minakami, author (Economics)
- Yojiro Ishizaka, author (Literature)
- Sakutarō Hagiwara, Poet
- Yumeno Kyūsaku, Surrealistic detective novelist
- Kazuki Kaneshiro, Zainichi Korean novelist
- Kôhei Tsuka, playwright, theater director, and screenwriter
- Adebayo Adewusi, Lawyer and Public Administrator.
- Fumihiko Maki (Keio High school),International Honorary Member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences,Wolf Prize in Arts ,, 
- Theodor Holm "Ted" Nelson, Computer architect, visionary, and contrarian (PhD, Media and Governance, 2002)
- Taro Takemi, president of the World Medical Association and Japan Medical Association
- Yoshio Taniguchi, architect best known for his redesign of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City which was reopened November 20, 2004 (Mechanical Engineering)
- Yuichi Motai, professor of Virginia Commonwealth University(Computer Engineering>, NSF Career Award (2011)
- Ryuichi Kuki, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Governor of The Imperial Museum(now The Tokyo National Museum, Kyoto National Museum, and Nara National Museum), The Father of Syuzo Kuki
- Joi Ito, director of the MIT Media Lab, professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University
The only copy held outside Europe or North America is a first volume facsimile of the Gutenberg Bible (Hubay 45) at Keio University. Purchased by the university in 1996, from Maruzen booksellers who originally purchased the copy at auction in 1987 for US$5.4 million.
The Humanities Media Interface Project (HUMI) at Keio University is known for its high-quality digital images of Gutenberg Bibles and other rare books. Under the direction of Professor Toshiyuki Takamiya, the HUMI team has made digital reproductions of eleven sets of the bible in nine institutions, including in 2000, both full-text facsimiles held in the collection of the British Library.
- Keio Medical Science Prize
- Keio Media Centers (Libraries)
- Auto-ID Labs
- Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus
- Keio Shonan-Fujisawa Junior & Senior High School
- Sakura Tsushin ("Sakura Diaries"), a manga and anime series by U-Jin which prominently features Keio University.
- List of National Treasures of Japan (crafts: others)
- "Number of faculty member" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "Degree Student Head Count: May 2011" (PDF) (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- excluding master course students as students in "Doctorate (prior)"
- .Universities | Study in Japan(Japanese university) | Global30 Archived 2016-08-21 at the Wayback Machine. Uni.international.mext.go.jp. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
- http://www.ogi.keio.ac.jp/english/Keio-University-pamphlet.pdf Archived 2007-07-30 at the Wayback Machine (This link no longer exists. The paper-based pamphlet is only available. October 10, 2011)
- "W3C, Sep-9-1996 Press Release: Keio University joins MIT and INRIA in hosting W3C". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "The purpose of Keio University" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- In the Edo period, private schools normally collected money or properties with Noshi irregularly from students, but those fees highly depended on each student's economic circumstances. Fukuzawa thought such an unstable financial system prevented the modernization of educational institutions as well as professors' professionalism. Then he designed a rudimentary management system for the school's finances.
- Before the Meiji Period, Japanese people had thought the oral statement is not reliable enough for decision making, thus every time people had needed to state their opinions on paper when they had needed to decide something. Fukuzawa thought this culture would seriously prevent to introduce the modern parliamentary regime and the fair court system. Then he developed the art of speech by the arrangement of Western speech. 
- "The origin of accepting international students" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "Dokuritsujison" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- In fact, this phrase was also used for his Dharma name, which is a given name when people are dead, representing their nature.
- "Hangaku Hankyo" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Japanese people usually use "Kun" only between friends. This expression is normally considered as an informal expression and shouldn't be used for professors.
- Keio only use the honorific of "Teacher" or "Professors" officially when they refer Fukuzawa's name.
- "Shachu no Kyoryoku" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Hiromi Shimada (October 2007). Keio Mitakai (in Japanese). Sanshusha. ASIN 4384039417.
- "Dictionary of Keio No.4 The origin of Keio" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Although Shinshu Kan didn't have a direct relation to Keio, Many people who studied or managed there were involved with Keio later. In fact, all students from Nakatsu Domain moved to Keio when it was closed.
- 1868 is 4th year of Keio
- "Dictionary of Keio No.7 The root of the school name" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Although Keio had been already involved to the higher education, it had not had a university system before 1890. It was authorized by Japanese government as a university in 1920.
- See ja:慶應義塾大学 for detail
- In the beginning of Meiji period, there was an ethical sense that Samurai should not work for more than one master. Keio was established by the fund of Tokugawa shogunate, so it was hard to work for the new government in this sense. Fukuzawa in fact criticized severely Kaishū Katsu and Takeaki Enomoto who worked for both Tokugawa and the new government (see Fukuzawa Yukichi). His such strict viewpoint had prevented Keio to set up a political department, and kept many Keio graduate away from politics for a long time. It is also one of the clear difference from Waseda which has been positively involved to politics for a long time.
- "Vol1. Famous Visitors to Keio University". Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "A paper written by the 4th year student of the Faculty of Science and Technology was placed in "Science"：Keio University Science and Technology". Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "A paper written by the 4th year student of the Faculty of Science and Technology was placed in "Science"：Keio University Science and Technology" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "Presidents in Keio" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "International Student Head Count: May 2011" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
- "Keio Campus city" (in Japanese). Campus city. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "Sai" means festival
- See Mita Sai
- "47th Mita sai" (in Japanese). Keio Journal. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- McGraw, John J. (December 8, 1913). "Americans Defeat Great Jap Pitcher; Sugase, Idolized at Keio University, Easy for Giants and White Sox". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "Michigan Nine, Touring Japan, Loses to Keio University, 2-1". The New York Times. September 11, 1932. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- 橘木俊詔 "早稲田と慶応 名門私大の栄光と影" 講談社 2008
- "早稲田と慶応義塾―人気・実力・スポーツどちらが上か" マガジンハウス 1996
- 三田英彬 "早稲田・慶応どちらが損か得か" 山手書房 1980
- "東京の大学―早稲田慶応" 河出新書 1956
- "Truly Strong Universities" (in Japanese). Toyo Keizai. 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Kawai 30 Top Japanese Universities". Kawaijuku. 2001. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Thomson Reuters 20 Top research institutions in Japan". Thomson Reuters. 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011. (this raking includes 5 non-educational institutions)
- "Employment rate in 400 major companies rankings" (in Japanese). Weekly Economist. 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Nikkei BP Brand rankings of Japanese universities" (in Japanese). Nikkei Business Publications. 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Nikkei BP Brand rankings of Japanese universities" (in Japanese). Nikkei Business Publications. 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "GBUDU University Rankings" (in Japanese). YELL books. 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "QS Asian University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- "THE World University Rankings". Times Higher Education. 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- "QS World University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. 2017. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- "ENSMP World University Rankings" (PDF). École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris. 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Asahi Shimbun University rankings 2010 "Publification rankings in Law (Page 4)" (PDF) (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Bar Exam Successful Applicants rankings" (in Japanese). Shikaku Seek. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Bar Exam Pass rate rankings" (in Japanese). Shikaku Seek. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Top 25% Institutions and Economists in Japan, as of January 2011". REPEC. 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Business School Ranking in Japan". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
"University and business school ranking in 5 palms (Top100)". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
"University and business school ranking in 4 palms (Top101-300)". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
"University and business school ranking in 3 palms (Top301-696)". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
"University and business school ranking in 2 palms (Top697-896)". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "CPA Successful Applicants rankings" (in Japanese). Yutaka Honkawa. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "QS topuniversities world rankings in Engineering field". Topuniversities. 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "THE Alma Mater Index（2013". timeshighereducation.co.uk. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-20. Retrieved 2015-08-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Ewalt, David. "Reuters Top 100 The World's Most Innovative Universities". reuters.com.
- "Keio University". Top Universities. Retrieved 2017-06-24.
- "慶応義塾大学 | 世界大学学術ランキング - 2015 | World University Rankings - 2015 | Shanghai Ranking - 2015". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
- "週刊ダイヤモンド" ダイヤモンド社 2010/2/27 http://web.sapmed.ac.jp/kikaku/infomation/0227daiyamondokiji.pdf
- "University rankings 2011" Asahi Shinbun
- "Within Country and State Rankings at IDEAS: Japan". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Japanese Economic Association". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "wHw͒i04.2.22j". Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- 出身大学別上場企業役員数ランキング (in Japanese). 大学ranking.net.
- 出身大学別上場企業役員数ランキング (in Japanese). 大学ranking.net.
- "AACSB International". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Recent News - Hitotsubashi University ICS - MBA Japan". Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "University and business school ranking in Japan". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- 図録▽大企業就職率大学ランキング (in Japanese). Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "年収偏差値・給料偏差値ランキング（2006・10・16）：稼げる大学はどれ？". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- Kitasato Shibasaburō, Taichi Kitajima, Taro Takemi and Toshiro Murase
- "Japan Medical Association report" (PDF) (in Japanese). Japan Medical Association.
- "世界医師会". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- 2010年(平成22年)新司法試験法科大学院別合格率ランキング -法科大学院seek. Laws.shikakuseek.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
- "閣僚経験者出身大学ランキング―有名人の出身大学ランキング". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
-  Archived March 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- National and Public universities apply different kind of exams. So it's only comparable between universities in a same category.
- e.g. Yoyogi seminar published Hensachi (the indication showing the entrance difficulties by prep schools) rankings "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2016-07-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Japanese journalist Kiyoshi Shimano ranks its entrance difficulty as SA (most selective/out of 10 scales) in Japan. 危ない大学・消える大学 2012年版 (in Japanese). YELL books. 2011. ASIN 4753930181.
- Ranking Web of World universities: Top Asia Archived 2009-10-04 at the Wayback Machine
- TV program "Rank Okoku" on 2010/2/6 http://blogs.yahoo.co.jp/jterasaka/40927577.html
- "Financial report : 2010" (PDF) (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
- e.g. Keio was top in 2007 and 2008 in terms of the amount of endowments.
- "Tuition Fees(undergraduate): May 2011" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
- "Tuition Fees(graduate): May 2011" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on September 20, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
- "Scholarship/loan : 2008" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
- "}^w}ّLO". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "病院.com". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "2010年度 初期臨床研修人気病院ランキング（大学病院編） - 病院情報局". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Alumni on the World Stage". Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "Encouragement of Learning Keio University,Japan". Keio University. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Ozaki, Yukio. (2001). The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in Japan, pp. 21-26; Encyclopædia Britannica: Ozaki Yukio.
- "Katsuaki WATANABE" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- "Physics News". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "OSA - High-Bandwidth Graded-Index Plastic Optical Fiber by the Dopant Diffusion Coextrusion Process". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "NHKアーカイブス保存番組検索結果詳細". Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
- "Gutenberg Bible: The HUMI Project". The Morgan Library and Museum. The Morgan Library and Museum. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Ellensburg Daily Record - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
- Pearson, David (2006). Bowman, J (ed.). British Librarianship and Information Work 1991-2000: Rare book librarianship and historical bibliography. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-7546-4779-9.
- The Keiogijuku University: a brief account of its history, aims and equipment. Keio Gijuku University. 1912.