The 1780s (pronounced "seventeen-eighties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1780, and ended on December 31, 1789. A period widely considered as transitional between the Age of Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, the 1780s saw the inception of modern philosophy. With the rise of astronomical, technological, and political discoveries and innovations such as Uranus, cast iron on structures, republicanism and hot-air balloons, the 1780s kick-started a rapid global industrialization movement, leaving behind the world's predominantly agrarian customs in the past.

Storming of the BastilleRobert brothersGeorge Washington1783 Laki EruptionU.S. ConstitutionMontgolfier brothersThe Iron BridgeUranus
From top left, clockwise: The fall of the Bastille propelled the start of the French Revolutionary War, a war that will eventually influence global politics by the birth of democracy in governments, and conceive the idea of republicanism worldwide; The first hydrogen balloons flew successfully this decade by Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert; George Washington becomes president of the United States of America. His ascension into office marked him as America's first president; The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia, formally ending the American Revolutionary War against the United Kingdom; Uranus is discovered in 1781 by William Herschel, further expanding the global scientific consensuses and understanding on the Solar System, recognizing it as the seventh planet from the Sun; The Iron Bridge opens, making it the world's very first bridge made out of cast iron, ushering in the preliminary wave of the Industrial Revolution; The Montgolfier brothers manned the world's first hot-air balloon, which stayed afloat 2 kilometres above ground in its 1783 voyage; Icelandic volcano Laki erupted in 1783, unleashing an 8-month-long environmental destruction and widespread famine across Europe. Up to 33% of Iceland's population and tens of thousands more in Mainland Europe succumbed to the chain of disasters, leading the eruption to be dubbed as "one of the worst" in contemporary history.

Events

1780

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1781

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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September 5: Battle of the Chesapeake

October–December

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Date unknown

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1782

January–March

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April–June

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April 12: Battle of the Saintes.

July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1783

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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December 23: General George Washington Resigning His Commission

Date unknown

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1784

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1785

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1786

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Östersund

Date unknown

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1787


January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Date unknown

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1788

January–March

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April–June

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July–September

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October–December

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Undated

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  • Annual British iron production reaches 68,000 tons.

1789

 
French Revolution: June 20: Tennis Court Oath, drawing by David.

January–March

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April–June

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April 28: Mutiny on the Bounty.
 
April 30: First President of the United States, George Washington, inaugurated.

July–September

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July 14: Storming of the Bastille.

October–December

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Date unknown

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Births

1780

 
Carl von Clausewitz

1781

 
Swaminarayan
 
George Stephenson

1782

 
Philipp Franz von Walther born 3 January
 
Stephen Lushington born 14 January
 
Afanasy Grigoriev born 21 January
 
Daniel Auber born 29 January
 
Fyodor Tolstoy born 6 February
 
Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer born 8 February
 
Malla Silfverstolpe born 8 February
 
William Miller born 15 February
 
Johann Baptist Emanuel Pohl born 23 February
 
Louise Antoinette Lannes born 26 February
 
Marie Thérèse Haze born 27 February
 
Suzanne le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau born 1 March
 
Johann Rudolf Wyss born 4 March
 
Ferdinand Gottlieb von Gmelin born 10 March
 
Orest Kiprensky born 13 March
 
Aglaé Auguié born 24 March
 
Caroline Bonaparte born 25 March
 
María Antonia Santos Plata born 10 April
 
Prince Teimuraz of Georgia born 23 April
 
William Darlington born 28 April
 
Charles-René Laitié born 6 May
 
Marcia Van Ness born 9 May
 
Johan Gustaf Sandberg born 13 May
 
Johann Rombauer born 28 May
 
Charles Waterton born 3 June
 
Marie-Anne-Julie Forestier born 13 June
 
Olry Terquem born 16 June
 
Charles Floyd born 20 June
 
Fortunée Briquet born 26 June
 
Pierre Berthier born 3 July
 
Rosa Morandi born 5 July
 
Maria Luisa, Duchess of Lucca born 6 July
 
Sophie Ørsted born 16 July
 
Mariano Enrique Calvo born 18 July
 
John Field born 26 July
 
Charles James Napier born 10 August
 
Charles Lowell born 15 August
 
Pierre-Luc-Charles Cicéri born 17 August
 
Prince Carl Gustav, Duke of Småland born 25 August
 
Christian Ludwig Nitzsch born 3 September
 
Marie of Baden born 7 September
 
Daoguang Emperor born 16 September
 
Christoph Hawich born 17 September
 
Stephen Price born 25 September
 
Richard Peek born 3 October
 
Charles Maclaren born 7 October
 
Steen Steensen Blicher born 11 October
 
Niccolò Paganini born 27 October
 
Lorenzo Maria of Saint Francis Xavier born 30 October
 
F. J. Robinson born 1 November
 
John Pye born 7 November
 
Joseph Kornhäusel born 13 November
 
Sophie Swetchine born 22 November
 
Karl Johann Bernhard Karsten born 26 November
 
Henry William Pickersgill born 3 December
 
Waleria Tarnowska born 9 December
 
Charles Nicolas Fabvier born 10 December
 
Hans Jakob Oeri born 16 December
 
Julius Vincenz von Krombholz born 19 December
 
Therese Brunetti born 24 December
 
Philaret Drozdov born 26 December
 
Matthias Joseph de Noël born 28 December
 
Konstantin Bulgakov born 31 December

1783

 
Washington Irving
 
John Crawfurd
 
Simón Bolívar

1784

 
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen
 
Jonathan Jennings
 
Henry Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston

1785

 
Jacob Grimm
 
John James Audubon
 
Oliver Hazard Perry

1786

 
Maria Pavlovna of Russia
 
Davy Crockett
 
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

1787

 
Joseph von Fraunhofer
 
Louis Daguerre

1788

 
Arthur Schopenhauer
 
Joseph Eichendorff
 
Augustin-Jean Fresnel

1789

 
René Edward De Russy
 
Georg Ohm
 
Catharine Sedgwick

Deaths

1780

 
Thomas Hutchinson
 
William Blackstone
 
Empress Maria Theresa of Austria

1781

 
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
 
Túpac Amaru II

1782

 
King Taksin the Great of Thonburi
 
William Crawford
 
Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham
 
Hyder Ali

1783

 
Capability Brown
 
Leonhard Euler

1784

 
Denis Diderot
 
Samuel Johnson

1785

 
Baldassare Galuppi
 
Kitty Clive

1786

 
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
 
Frederick II of Prussia

1787

 
Roger Joseph Boscovich
 
Christoph Willibald Gluck

1788

 
Thomas Gainsborough
 
Charles III of Spain

1789

 
Frances Brooke
 
Petrus Camper
 
Silas Deane

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