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Sarah Siddons (née Kemble; 5 July 1755 – 8 June 1831)[1] was a Welsh-born English actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. Contemporaneous critic William Hazlitt dubbed Siddons as "tragedy personified".[2][3]

Sarah Siddons
Thomas Gainsborough 015.jpg
1785 portrait by Thomas Gainsborough
Sarah Kemble

(1755-07-05)5 July 1755
Brecon, Wales
Died8 June 1831(1831-06-08) (aged 75)
London, England
Resting placeSaint Mary's Cemetery, Paddington Green, London, England
Spouse(s)William Siddons
Parent(s)Roger Kemble and Sarah Ward
RelativesMary Frances Scott-Siddons (great-granddaughter)

She was the elder sister of John Philip Kemble, Charles Kemble, Stephen Kemble, Ann Hatton, and Elizabeth Whitlock, and the aunt of Fanny Kemble. She was most famous for her portrayal of the Shakespearean character, Lady Macbeth, a character she made her own,[1] as well as for fainting at the sight of the Elgin Marbles in London.[4]

The Sarah Siddons Society, founded in 1952, continues to present the Sarah Siddons Award annually in Chicago to a distinguished actress.


Early lifeEdit

Siddons was born Sarah Kemble in Brecon, Brecknockshire, Wales, the eldest daughter of Roger Kemble, a Roman Catholic, and Sarah "Sally" Ward, a Protestant. Sarah and her sisters were raised in their mother's faith and her brothers were raised in their father's faith. Roger Kemble was the manager of a touring theatre company, the Warwickshire Company of Comedians.[5]

Manor house at Guy's Cliffe, c. 1880

Although the theatre company included most members of the Kemble family, Siddons' parents initially disapproved of her choice of profession. At that time, acting was only beginning to become a respectable profession for a woman.[6]

From 1770 until her marriage in 1773, Siddons served as a lady's maid and later as companion to Lady Mary Bertie Greatheed at Guy's Cliffe near Warwick.[7]:3 Lady Greatheed was the daughter of the Duke of Ancaster; her son, Bertie Greatheed, was a dramatist who continued the family's friendship with Siddons.[7]:18

The beginning of her careerEdit

Sarah Siddons as Euphrasia in Arthur Murphy's The Grecian Daughter, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, in 1782

In 1774, Siddons won her first success as Belvidera in Thomas Otway's Venice Preserv'd. This brought her to the attention of David Garrick, who sent his deputy to see her as Calista in Nicholas Rowe's Fair Penitent, the result being that she was engaged to appear at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Owing to inexperience as well as other circumstances, her first appearances as Portia and in other parts were not well received and she received a note from the manager of Drury Lane stating that her services would not be required. She was, in her own words, "banished from Drury Lane as a worthless candidate for fame and fortune".[1]

In 1777, she went on "the circuit" in the provinces. For the next six years she worked in provincial companies, in particular York and Bath. Her first appearance at Bath's Old Orchard Street Theatre was in autumn 1778 at a salary of £3 per week (equivalent to £376 in 2018, or approximately $501).[8] This amount grew as her performances became better known, and as she began to appear in Bristol at the Theatre Royal, King Street (which now houses the Bristol Old Vic), also run by John Palmer. Siddons lived with her husband and children in a Georgian house at 33 The Paragon in Bath, until her final performance there in May 1782.[9]

Having gradually built up a reputation, her next Drury Lane appearance, on 10 October 1782, could not have been more different. She was an immediate sensation playing the title role in Garrick's adaptation of a play by Thomas Southerne, Isabella, or, The Fatal Marriage.

Sarah Siddons as Lady Macbeth, by Robert Smirke, c. 1790–1810


Sarah Siddons by J. Dickinson

After Lady Macbeth she played Desdemona, Rosalind, Ophelia, and Volumnia, all with great success; but it was as Queen Catherine in Henry VIII that she discovered a part almost as well adapted to her acting powers as that of Lady Macbeth.[1] She once told Samuel Johnson that Catherine was her favourite role, as it was the most natural.[10]

Siddons continued to act in the provinces, appearing at The Theatre, Leeds, in 1786 and consistently brought a thorough understanding to each of her roles. It was through her portrayals of Lady Macbeth and Isabella, particularly, that Siddons offered a new way of approaching character. Siddons has been credited for inventing and promoting textual accuracy above the theatrical traditions of her time: "Siddons was unique for making herself familiar with the entire script, sitting offstage in order to hear the full play, and paying careful attention to her scene partners and to textual clues that could aid performance."[11]

The "Female Star"Edit

It was the beginning of twenty years in which she became the undisputed Queen of Drury Lane. Her celebrity status was called "mythical" and "monumental", and by the mid-1780s Siddons had established herself as a cultural icon.[6] Yet her iconography and the fashioning of her celebrity differed greatly in comparison to her female counterparts. Siddons, according to Laura Engel, invented a new category of femininity for actresses: the "Female Star".[12] By "cleverly blurring the distinction between the characters she played on stage with representations of herself offstage (as much portraiture of the period invokes)" Siddons was able to present a duality to her admirers.[12] At once she would project both the "divine and the ordinary, domestic and authoritative, fantastic and real".[12]

In combining her maternal persona with depictions of "British femininity", Siddons escaped the scathing criticisms and scandal with which other actresses of her time were plagued.[12] She avoided claims of sexual licentiousness, and the only damage to her career was faced toward its end, when caricatures and satirical prints emerged detailing the physical decline and stoutness of her body.[13] Shearer West, in an analysis of the collapse of Siddons' private and public personas, wrote that Siddons' brother, actor-manager John Philip Kemble "substantially rewrote passages in some of the plays in order to temper any indelicacy [and] transcend sexual indiscretions" that could harm her reputation of feminine propriety.[14]

The Tragic MuseEdit

Commissioned and completed in 1784, Sir Joshua Reynolds' portrait, Sarah Siddons as The Tragic Muse, is characterized by Reynolds' inspiration, contextualisation of the Muse, and distinctive brush work and paint palette. This portrait, as Heather McPherson writes, became the known depiction of tragedy, infused with contemporary ideas about acting and representation of the passions in Siddons' melancholy expression and deportment.[15] Mary Hamilton's correspondence with her fiancé illuminated its seamless transition from "the artist's studio to the theatrical stage", practical venues that interlocked in the eighteenth century and formed a large part in creating the very idea of celebrity.[16]

Late career, retirement, and return to the stage as Lady MacbethEdit

1785 engraving from Charles Shirreff's miniature of Siddons and John Philip Kemble

Her most famous role was that of Lady Macbeth, which she first performed on 2 February 1785.[17]She spellbound her audience through the grandeur of her emotions as she expressed Lady Macbeth's murderous passions. Rather than portraying Lady Macbeth as a murderous evil queen, Siddons depicted her with a strong sense of maternity and a delicate femininity.[18] As she noted in her own "Remarks to the character of Lady Macbeth", Siddons found an unearthed fragility in this role.[19] "She read, in the 'I have given suck' soliloquy, a 'tender allusion [to] the maternal mother yearning for her babe'; it is therefore in Lady Macbeth that Siddons found the highest and best scope for her acting abilities. She was tall and had a striking figure, brilliant beauty, powerfully expressive eyes, and solemn dignity of demeanour which enabled her to claim the character as her own.[20]

As noted in Campbell's biography, Siddons returned to the role some six years later, and in 1802 she left Drury Lane for its rival establishment, Covent Garden.[21]It was there, on 29 June 1812, after 57 performances that season, that she gave what was credited as perhaps the most extraordinary farewell performance in theatre history.[22] The audience refused to allow Macbeth to continue after the end of the sleepwalking scene. Eventually, after tumultuous applause from the pit, the curtain reopened and Siddons was discovered sitting in her own clothes and character – whereupon she made an emotional farewell speech to the audience. Some records stated that her farewell lasted eight minutes, others suggested ten, all indicating that she was visibly distraught.[23]

Siddons formally retired from the stage in 1812, but reappeared on special occasions. An 1816 request by Princess Charlotte of Wales to see Lady Macbeth brought Siddons out of retirement.[24] Much older, Siddons was visibly weak, overweight, and was considered by some a "grotesque effigy of her former self."[25] William Hazlitt, in his later accounts, stated that her performances lacked the grandeur they had shown in 1785: the "machinery of her voice is slow, there is too long a pause between each sentence [and the] sleeping scene was more laboured and less natural".[26] As a result, according to Lisa Freeman, Siddons' "iconic status came into conflict with the aesthetic of authenticity that she cultivated".[25] Her last appearance was on 9 June 1819 as Lady Randolph in John Home's play Douglas.[1]

Acting powerEdit

Engraving, artist unknown, from National Library of Wales

Theatre biographer Henry Barton Baker wrote:

Wonderful stories are told of her powers over the spectators. Macready relates that when she played Aphasia in Tamburlaine, after seeing her lover strangled before her eyes, so terrible was her agony as she fell lifeless upon the stage, that the audience believed she was really dead, and only the assurance of the manager could pacify them. One night Charles Young was playing Beverly to her Mrs. Beverly in The Gamester, and in the great scene was so overwhelmed by her pathos that he could not speak. Unto the last she received the homage of the great; even the Duke of Wellington attended her receptions, and carriages were drawn up before her door nearly all day long.[27]

On the night of 2 May 1797, Sarah Siddons's character of Agnes in George Lillo's Fatal Curiosity suggested murder with "an expression in her face that made the flesh of the spectator creep." In the audience was Henry Crabb Robinson, whose respiration grew difficult. Robinson went into a fit of hysterics and was nearly ejected from the theatre.[28]

Siddons occasionally gave public readings of plays, and the Scottish poet/playwright Joanna Baillie recorded her thoughts of several performances given in 1813. Despite her reservations about Siddon's "frequent bursts of voice beyond what natural passion warranted," Baillie wrote to Sir Walter Scott, "take it all in all was fine & powerful acting; and when it has ceased we of this generation can never look to see the like again."[29]

Marriage and childrenEdit

In 1773, at the age of 18, she married William Siddons, an actor. After 30 years, the marriage became strained and informally ended with their separation in 1804.[7]:29 William died in 1808.

Sarah Siddons gave birth to seven children, five of whom she outlived:[7][30]

  • Henry Siddons (1774–1815), an actor and theatre manager in Edinburgh
  • Sarah Martha (Sally) Siddons (1775–1803)
  • Maria Siddons (1779–1798)
  • Frances Emilia Siddons (b. 1781), died in infancy
  • Elizabeth Ann Siddons (1782–1788), died in childhood
  • George John Siddons (1785–1848), a Customs official in India
  • Cecilia Siddons (1794–1868), who married George Combe in 1833 and lived in Edinburgh

Siddons regularly performed on stage while visibly pregnant, which often elicited sympathy for her character. As Lady Macbeth, her pregnancy not only provided "a further reminder of the domestic life of both the actress and the character", adding a maternal aspect to her portrayal, but also created "a new level of tension in the play not present if the couple is perceived as barren."[11]


Gravestone of Sarah Siddons
Wrought iron canopy over Siddons' grave

Death and burialEdit

Sarah Siddons died in 1831 in London. She was interred in Saint Mary's Cemetery at Paddington Green.[1] The churchyard was converted into a public park (St Mary's Gardens) in 1881, and most stones were cleared at that time. Siddons' gravestone was one of the few to be preserved, and it remains in good condition beneath a wrought iron canopy, despite some erosion and the modern addition of a protective cage.[31]

Portraits and statuesEdit

Siddons sat for numerous artists, and her portraits include many that depict her in costume portraying a theatrical role.

  • Sir Thomas Lawrence first painted Siddons at Bath in 1782,[32] and produced at least fourteen portraits of her over the next 22 years.[33] The last of these, an 1804 full-length portrait, is on display at Tate Britain.[32]
  • A portrait of Siddons is displayed in the church hall of St Mary on Paddington Green, near Siddons' grave in the former churchyard (now St Mary's Gardens).[31]
  • A statue of Siddons by sculptor Thomas Campbell stands in the chapel of St Andrew in Westminster Abbey. The statue holds a scroll, and the inscription reads: "Sarah Siddons. Born at Brecon July 5, 1755. Died in London June 8, 1831."

Other memorialsEdit

Siddons Tower in County Cork, Ireland
  • Siddons Lane, a small street in Marylebone near the site of a house in which she once lived, was named after her.[36]
  • Siddons' birthplace, an inn in Brecon, Wales, is now known as The Sarah Siddons Inn. In 1755, when Siddons was born in lodgings on an upper floor, it was a tavern called The Shoulder of Mutton.[37]
  • The Old House (Sarah Siddons House) in Lower Lydbrook, Gloucestershire is reputedly her childhood home. [38]
  • In 1961, the Sarah Siddons Comprehensive School (later the Sarah Siddons Girls’ School) opened in North Wharf Road, Paddington. It was officially opened the following year by the actress Dame Peggy Ashcroft.[40] Women’s achievement was celebrated in the girls-only secondary school, with houses named after famous English women. In 1980, it became part of the North Westminster Community School, then in 2006 it was closed before the site was sold for residential development. In 2019, a ‘Remembering Sarah Siddons Comprehensive School’ Facebook group had more than 540 members.[41]

In popular cultureEdit

American director Joseph L. Mankiewicz used the 1784 portrait by Reynolds extensively in his film All About Eve, winner of the 1950 Academy Award for Best Picture. The portrait is seen at the top of an entrance staircase in Margo Channing's apartment, appearing throughout a party scene, and emphasized by a close-up with which the scene ends. Mankiewicz also invented the (then) fictitious Sarah Siddons Society for the film, along with its award, a statuette modelled upon the Reynolds painting. The film opens with a close-up of the statuette, and ends with a character holding it.[42]

Actress Bette Davis, who played Margo Channing in the film, posed as Siddons in a 1957 re-creation of the Reynolds portrait staged as part of the Pageant of the Masters.[42]

In April 2010, BBC Radio 4's Woman's Hour Drama presented Sarah Siddons: Life in Five Sittings, a radio drama by David Pownall about the long relationship between Siddons and artist Thomas Lawrence, in five 15-minute parts.[43]

The Sarah Siddons AwardEdit

When the film All About Eve was released in 1950, the "Sarah Siddons Award for Distinguished Achievement" depicted in its opening scene was a purely fictitious award. However, in 1952, a small group of distinguished Chicago theatergoers formed the Sarah Siddons Society, and began to give a genuine award by that name.[44] The now-prestigious Sarah Siddons Award is presented annually in Chicago, with a trophy modelled on the statuette of Siddons awarded in the film.[44] Past honorees include Bette Davis and Celeste Holm.[45]

See alsoEdit


  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Siddons, Sarah". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–38.

  1. ^ a b c d e f Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Siddons, Sarah" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ "William Hazlitt, "Mrs Siddons," The Examiner, 16 June 1816". Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  3. ^ Asleson, Robin; Bennett, Shelley; Leonard, Mark; West, Shearer (1999). A Passion for Performance: Sarah Siddons and her Portraitists. Los Angeles: Getty Publications. ISBN 978-0-89236-557-9. OCLC 40621764.
  4. ^ Smith, A.H. (1916). "Lord Elgin and his Collection". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 36: 163–372. doi:10.2307/625773. JSTOR 625773.
  5. ^ McManaway, James G. (1949). "The Two Earliest Prompt Books of Hamlet". The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America. 43 (3): 288–320. doi:10.1086/pbsa.43.3.24298457. eISSN 2377-6528. ISSN 0006-128X. JSTOR 24298457.
  6. ^ a b "Siddons [née Kemble], Sarah (1755–1831)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 24 May 2008 [2004]. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25516.
  7. ^ a b c d Highfill, Philip H.; Burnim, Kalman A.; Langhans, Edward A. (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Actresses, Musicians, Dancers, Managers, and Other Stage Personnel in London, 1660–1800, Volume 14. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-8093-1526-0.
  8. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  9. ^ Lowndes, William (1982). The Theatre Royal at Bath. Redcliffe. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-0905459493.
  10. ^ Boswell, James (1791). The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D.
  11. ^ a b Phillips, Chelsea (2013). "'I Have Given Suck': The Maternal Body in Sarah Siddons's Lady Macbeth". In Moncrief, Kathryn M.; McPherson, Kathryn R.; Enloe, Sarah (eds.). Shakespeare Expressed: Page, Stage, and Classroom in Shakespeare and His Contemporaries. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 24–26. ISBN 978-1-61147-561-6. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d Engel, Laura (2011). Fashioning Celebrity: Eighteenth-century British Actresses and Strategies for Image Making. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press. pp. 25–33. ISBN 978-0-8142-1148-9. OCLC 868220138.
  13. ^ "H Beard Print Collection | J. Sidebotham | V&A Search the Collections". V and A Collections. 12 December 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  14. ^ A passion for performance : Sarah Siddons and her portraitists. Asleson, Robyn, 1961-, Bennett, Shelley M., 1947-, Leonard, Mark, 1954-, West, Shearer. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 1999. pp. 5–121. ISBN 978-0892365562. OCLC 40621764.CS1 maint: others (link)
  15. ^ McPherson, Heather (2000). "Picturing Tragedy: Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse Revisited". Eighteenth-Century Studies. 33 (3): 401–430. doi:10.1353/ecs.2000.0029. JSTOR 30053950.
  16. ^ A passion for performance : Sarah Siddons and her portraitists. Asleson, Robyn, 1961-, Bennett, Shelley M., 1947-, Leonard, Mark, 1954-, West, Shearer. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 1999. pp. 5–121. ISBN 978-0892365562. OCLC 40621764.CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ A passion for performance : Sarah Siddons and her portraitists. Asleson, Robyn, 1961-, Bennett, Shelley M., 1947-, Leonard, Mark, 1954-, West, Shearer. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 1999. pp. 5–121. ISBN 978-0892365562. OCLC 40621764.CS1 maint: others (link)
  18. ^ Campbell, Thomas (2015), Macbeth, Routledge, pp. 21–34, doi:10.4324/9781315709277-4, ISBN 9781315709277
  19. ^ Campbell, Thomas (1834). Life of Mrs. Siddons, Vol. II. London: Effingham Wilson. p. 11. OL 4437143M.
  20. ^ Campbell, Thomas (2015), Macbeth, Routledge, pp. 21–34, doi:10.4324/9781315709277-4, ISBN 9781315709277
  21. ^ Campbell, Thomas (2015), Macbeth, Routledge, pp. 21–34, doi:10.4324/9781315709277-4, ISBN 9781315709277
  22. ^ A passion for performance : Sarah Siddons and her portraitists. Asleson, Robyn, 1961-, Bennett, Shelley M., 1947-, Leonard, Mark, 1954-, West, Shearer. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 1999. pp. 5–121. ISBN 978-0892365562. OCLC 40621764.CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. ^ Curzon, Catherine (30 July 2014). "English Historical Fiction Authors: "Tragedy personified": Sarah Siddons as Lady Macbeth". English Historical Fiction Authors. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  24. ^ A passion for performance : Sarah Siddons and her portraitists. Asleson, Robyn, 1961-, Bennett, Shelley M., 1947-, Leonard, Mark, 1954-, West, Shearer. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 1999. pp. 5–121. ISBN 978-0892365562. OCLC 40621764.CS1 maint: others (link)
  25. ^ a b Freeman, Lisa A. (20 June 2015). "Mourning the "Dignity of the Siddonian Form"". Eighteenth-Century Fiction. 27 (3): 597–629. doi:10.3138/ecf.27.3.597. ISSN 1911-0243.
  26. ^ Hazlitt, William (1818). Dramatic essays. W. Scott. pp. 2–100.
  27. ^ Baker, Henry Barton (1904). History of the London Stage and Its Famous Players (1576–1903). New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. p. 131.
  28. ^ Campbell, Thomas (1834). Life of Mrs. Siddons, Vol. II. London: Effingham Wilson. p. 212. OL 4437143M.
  29. ^ Baillie, Joanna (2010). Thomas McLean (ed.). Further Letters of Joanna Baillie. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-8386-4149-1.
  30. ^ Knight, John Joseph (1885–1900). "Siddons, Sarah" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  31. ^ a b Matthews, Peter (2017). Who's Buried Where in London. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-78442-202-8.
  32. ^ a b Levey, Michael (2005). Sir Thomas Lawrence. Yale University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-300-10998-6.
  33. ^ Parsons, Florence Mary Wilson (1909). The Incomparable Siddons. Methuen. p. 60.
  34. ^ Tone, Theobald Wolfe; Radcliff, John; Jebb, Richard (1998). Belmont Castle, Or, Suffering Sensibility. Lilliput Press. p. 66 n.1. ISBN 978-1-901866-06-3.
  35. ^ Howley, James (2004). The Follies and Garden Buildings of Ireland. Yale University Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-0-300-10225-3.
  36. ^ McKenzie, Louisa (2015). "The Ghost of Sarah Siddons". In Riddaway, Mark; Upsall, Carl (eds.). Marylebone Lives: Rogues, Romantics and Rebels – Character Studies of Locals Since the Eighteenth Century. Spiramus Press Ltd. p. 54. ISBN 9781910151037.
  37. ^ Carradice, Phil (4 July 2011). "Sarah Siddons, tragic actress". Wales History (blog). BBC. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018.
  38. ^ "Sarah Siddon's House". Forest of Dean Local History Society. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  39. ^ Video of Sarah Siddons (the locomotive) on a 'special' on the London Underground on YouTube. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  40. ^ The Tattler, 1 August, 1962
  41. ^
  42. ^ a b "The Legend of Sarah Siddons: All About Eve and the Sarah Siddons Society". The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. 1999. Archived from the original on 25 July 2008.
  43. ^ "Sarah Siddons: Life in Five Sittings". Woman's Hour Drama. BBC Radio 4. 12–16 April 2010. Archived from the original on 17 April 2010.
  44. ^ a b "About Us". Sarah Siddons Society. Archived from the original on 21 November 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  45. ^ "The Sarah Siddons Society Awardees". Sarah Siddons Society. Retrieved 27 February 2014.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit