Eugène de Beauharnais

Eugène Rose de Beauharnais ([øʒɛn də boaʁnɛ]; 3 September 1781 – 21 February 1824) was a French nobleman, statesman, and military commander who served during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Eugène de Beauharnais
French Prince, Prince of Venice, Grand Duke of Frankfurt, Duke of Leuchtenberg, Prince of Eichstätt
Eugène de Beauharnais by Stieler.jpg
Portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1815
Viceroy of Italy
Term5 June 1805 – 11 April 1814
MonarchNapoleon I
Duke of Leuchtenberg
Prince of Eichstätt
Tenure14 November 1817 – 21 February 1824
SuccessorAuguste de Beauharnais
Born3 September 1781
Paris, Kingdom of France
Died21 February 1824(1824-02-21) (aged 42)
Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1806)
IssueJosephine, Queen of Sweden
Eugénie, Princess of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Auguste, Prince Consort of Portugal
Amélie, Empress of Brazil
Théodoline, Countess Wilhelm of Württemberg
Princess Carolina
Maximilian, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg
Names
Eugène Rose de Beauharnais
HouseBeauharnais
FatherAlexandre de Beauharnais
MotherJoséphine de Beauharnais
ReligionRoman Catholicism
SignatureEugène de Beauharnais's signature

Through the second marriage of his mother, Joséphine de Beauharnais, he was the stepson of Napoleon Bonaparte. Under the French Empire, he also became Napoleon's adopted son (but not the heir to the imperial throne). He commanded the Army of Italy during the Napoleonic Wars and was Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy under his stepfather. Historians consider him one of Napoleon's most able relatives.[1]

Early life and careerEdit

Eugène Rose de Beauharnais was born in Paris on 3 September 1781. A member of the House of Beauharnais, he was the son of Viscount Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, both born in the French colony of Martinique. Alexandre was executed by guillotine in 1794, a few days before the end of the revolutionary Reign of Terror.[2]

 
Eugène de Beauharnais as an aide-de-camp to Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy, by Antoine-Jean Gros (1798)

Eugène began his military career as a child, serving in the staff of General Lazare Hoche during the War in the Vendée,[3] and fought at Quiberon. However, within a year his mother Joséphine had arranged his return to Paris, after she remarried to Napoleon Bonaparte.[3] After joining the 1st Hussar Regiment as an assistant sub-lieutenant, Eugène served as aide-de-camp to his stepfather in the Italian campaigns of 1796–1797.[3] In 1799, during the French campaign in Egypt and Syria, he took part in the Siege of Jaffa and was wounded during the Siege of Acre.[3]

Eugène returned to France with Napoleon in the autumn of 1799, helping to bring about the reconciliation of the General and his mother, who had become estranged due to their mutual extramarital affairs. During the Coup of 18 Brumaire, he accompanied Napoleon to Saint-Cloud, where they brought the Council of Five Hundred into submission. When Napoleon became First Consul following the coup, Eugène was appointed captain of the Chasseurs à Cheval of the Consular Guard.[3] With his squadron he took part in the Battle of Marengo where, though half his men fell, he led charge after charge.[4]

After rising through the ranks under the Consulate, Eugène was promoted to brigade general soon after the establishment of the Empire in 1804.[3] By a decree of 1 February 1805, Eugène was created Arch-Chancellor of State.[3]

Viceroy of ItalyEdit

 
Eugène de Beauharnais as Viceroy of Italy, by Andrea Appiani (1810)

As commander of the Imperial Guard (successor to the Consular Guard), Eugène preceded his stepfather to Milan ahead of Napoleon's coronation as King of Italy on 26 May 1805. Napoleon had originally intended to place his brother Joseph on the Italian throne and then, after Joseph's refusal, his nephew Napoléon Charles, the son of Louis Bonaparte and Eugène's sister, Hortense. However, both Joseph and Louis refused, so Napoleon placed the Iron Crown upon his own head instead. During the coronation, Napoleon handed the royal ring and mantle to his stepson and on 7 June 1805 announced Eugène's appointment as Viceroy of Italy to the Italian Legislative Assembly.[5]

During the War of the Fifth Coalition, Eugène was put in command of the Army of Italy with some highly competent generals like Grenier, Charpentier, and the future marshal MacDonald accompanying him as advisers and officers.[6] In April 1809, he fought and lost the Battle of Sacile against the Austrian army of the Archduke John, but Eugène's troops won the rematch at the Battle of the Piave in May and the Battle of Raab in June.[6] After the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Napoleon recalled the Army of Italy to Austria.[6] After joining the main army on the island of Lobau in the Danube, Eugène took part in the Battle of Wagram.[6]

Napoleon considered making Eugene regent of France during the Russian campaign but ultimately decided against this.[7] During the campaign, Eugène again commanded the Army of Italy (IV Corps) with which he fought in the Battle of Borodino and the Battle of Maloyaroslavets. After Napoleon and then Joachim Murat had left the retreating army, Eugène took command of the remnants and led it back to Germany in 1813.[8]

During the German campaign of 1813, Eugène won the Battle of Lützen.[3] Napoleon then sent him back to Italy, where he organised the defence against the Austrians, holding out on the Mincio until Napoleon's abdication in 1814.

Later lifeEdit

After the fall of Napoleon in 1814, Eugène retired to Munich at the behest of his father-in-law, King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. He soon returned to Paris on the death of his mother, where he was honorably received by Louis XVIII and Alexander I of Russia.[3] He immediately renounced his political activity and returned to his wife's family in Bavaria.[3] Accordingly, he remained neutral during Napoleon's return to power in the Hundred Days.[3]

 
Tomb monument of Eugène de Beauharnais in St. Michael's Church, Munich, by Bertel Thorvaldsen

As Duke of Leuchtenberg, Eugène lived his last years in Munich managing his estates and expanding his art collection. At the same time, he provided assistance for proscripts under the Bourbon Restoration, such as Antoine Marie Chamans de Lavalette, and lobbied for the alleviation of the harsh treatment imposed on Napoleon in his captivity in Saint-Helena.[3] In 1822, Eugène's health began to deteriorate. After suffering two attacks of apoplexy in 1823, he died on 21 February 1824 in Munich, aged 42.[3]

Roles and titlesEdit

On 14 June 1804 he was made an official member of the imperial family as His Imperial Highness, French Prince (Prince français) Eugène de Beauharnais. By a statute of 5 June 1805 the Emperor added Viceroy of Italy to his titles.[5]

Eugène was adopted by Napoleon on 12 January 1806, though excluded from succession to the French Empire. On 16 February 1806, Eugène was declared heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Italy, in the absence of a second son of Napoleon. On 20 December 1807 he was given the title of Prince de Venise ("Prince of Venice"), a title created on 30 March 1806, when the Venetian Province taken from Austria in 1805 was united to Bonaparte's Kingdom of Italy.

In 1810, Napoleon used his influence over Karl von Dalberg, Archbishop of Regensburg and Grand Duke of Frankfurt, to name Eugène as constitutional heir of the grand duchy. Von Dalberg abdicated on 26 October 1813 due to Frankfurt's imminent conquest by the allied armies, and Eugène became nominal grand duke until Frankfurt was occupied by the allies in December of that same year.

A further imperial sinecure was Archichancelier d'État de l'Empire de France ("Archchancellor of State of the Empire of France").

His name is inscribed on Column 24 of the Southern Pillar of the Arc du Triomphe, reading BEAUHARNAIS.

Marriage and issueEdit

On 14 January 1806, two days after his adoption by Napoleon, Eugène married Princess Augusta Amalia Ludovika Georgia of Bavaria (1788–1851), eldest daughter of Napoleon's ally, King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. On 14 November 1817, his father-in-law made him Duke of Leuchtenberg and Prince of Eichstätt.

Eugène and Augusta had seven children:

Battle recordEdit

HeraldryEdit

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. ^ Caulaincourt 1935, p. 403.
  2. ^ Tucker 2015, p. 68.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "BEAUHARNAIS, Eugène de". Fondation Napoléon. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  4. ^ Connelly, Napoleon's Satellite Kingdoms, p. 22.
  5. ^ a b Miller, E.J. (1967). "The Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy". The British Museum Quarterly. 31: 3/4 – via www.jstor.org/stable/4422964.
  6. ^ a b c d Rothenberg, Gunther E., 1923-2004. (2004). The emperor's last victory: Napoleon and the Battle of Wagram. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0297846728. OCLC 56653068.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Zamoyski, Adam. (2005). 1812 : Napoleon's fatal march on Moscow. London: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0007123744. OCLC 57382666.
  8. ^ Korolev, N. (2014-05-29). "A day trip to Zvenigorod". Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved 2020-01-29.
Bibliography

External linksEdit

Eugène de Beauharnais
Born: 3 September 1781 Died: 21 February 1824
German nobility
New title Duke of Leuchtenberg
Prince of Eichstätt

14 November 1817 – 21 February 1824
Succeeded by