Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). It took place concomitantly with the Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791), Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790) and Theatre War.

Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)
January Suchodolski - Ochakiv siege.jpg
Siege of Ochakov 1788, by Polish painter January Suchodolski
Date19 August 1787 – 9 January 1792
Location
Result Russian victory
Treaty of Jassy
Territorial
changes
Russian annexation of Ottoman Sanjak of Özi (Yedisan or Ochacov Oblast)
Local Black Sea Cossack Host deported to Kuban as a "reward"
Belligerents

 Russian Empire

Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro.svg Montenegro
Holy Roman Empire Habsburg monarchy

Ottoman flag.svg Ottoman Empire

Flag of Ottoman Algiers.svg Kingdom of Algiers

Circassia Circassia

Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Catherine II
Russian Empire Grigory Potemkin
Russian Empire Alexander Suvorov
Russian Empire Pyotr Rumyantsev
Russian Empire Nicholas Repnin
Russian Empire Fyodor Ushakov
Russian Empire Mikhail Kutuzov
Russian EmpireSpain José de Ribas
Russian EmpireUnited States John Paul Jones
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Koča Anđelković (POW)
Alex K Chornomorske Kozacke Viysko-01.svg Sydir Bily (WIA)
1783 Ottoman Flag.svg Abdul Hamid I
(1787–1789)
1783 Ottoman Flag.svg Selim III
(1789–1792)
1783 Ottoman Flag.svg Koca Yusuf Pasha
1783 Ottoman Flag.svg Hasan Pasha 
1783 Ottoman Flag.svg Aydoslu Pasha
1783 Ottoman Flag.svg Cenaze Pasha
1783 Ottoman Flag.svg Süleyman Bey
Crimean Tatar tamga icon (blue and gold).png Şahbaz Giray
Crimean Tatar tamga icon (blue and gold).png Bakht Giray
Flag of Ottoman Algiers.svg Said Ali
Circassia Sheikh Mansur
Strength
Russian Empire 100,000[1]
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svgFlag of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro.svg 10,000+
1783 Ottoman Flag.svgCrimean Tatar tamga icon (blue and gold).png 280,000[2][notes 1]
Circassia 25,000[3]
Casualties and losses
Russian Empire 59,000–72,000 killed[4]
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svgFlag of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro.svg 3,000–4,000 killed[4]
1783 Ottoman Flag.svg 116,000–130,000 killed[4]

BackgroundEdit

In May and June 1787, Catherine II of Russia made a triumphal procession through New Russia and the annexed Crimea in company with her ally, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II.[5] These events, the rumors about Catherine's Greek Plan,[6] and the friction caused by the mutual complaints of infringements of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, which had ended the previous war, stirred up public opinion in Constantinople, while the British and French ambassadors lent their unconditional support to the Ottoman war party.

WarEdit

 
Course of the war (in Russian).

In 1787, the Ottomans demanded that the Russians evacuate the Crimea and give up their holdings near the Black Sea,[7] which Russia saw as a casus belli.[7] Russia declared war on 19 August 1787, and the Ottomans imprisoned the Russian ambassador, Yakov Bulgakov.[8] Ottoman preparations were inadequate and the moment was ill-chosen, as Russia and Austria were now in alliance. The Ottomans mustered forces throughout their domain, and Süleyman Bey from Anatolia went himself to the front at the head of 4000 soldiers.[9][10][11]

The Ottoman Empire opened their offensive with an attack on two fortresses near Kinburn, in southern Ukraine.[12] Russian General Alexander Suvorov held off these two Ottoman sea-borne attacks in September and October 1787, thus securing the Crimea.[13][7] In Moldavia, Russian troops captured the Ottoman cities of Chocim and Jassy.[12] Ochakov, at the mouth of the Dnieper, fell on 6 December 1788 after a six-month siege by Prince Grigori Potemkin and Suvorov.[12][7] All civilians in the captured cities were massacred by order of Potemkin.[14]

Although suffering a series of defeats against the Russians, the Ottoman Empire found some success against the Austrians, led by Emperor Joseph II, in Serbia and Transylvania.[14]

By 1789, the Ottoman Empire was being pressed back in Moldavia by Russian and Austrian forces.[15] To make matters worse, on 1 August the Russians under Suvorov attained a victory against the Ottomans led by Osman Pasha at Focsani,[7] followed by a Russian victory at Rymnik (or Rimnik) on 22 September, and drove them away from near the Râmnicul Sărat river.[15] Suvorov was given the title Count Rymniksky following the battle.[7] The Ottomans suffered more losses when the Austrians, under General Gideon E. von Laudon repelled an Ottoman invasion of Croatia, while an Austrian counterattack took Belgrade.[16]

A Greek revolt, which further drained the Ottoman war effort, brought about a truce between the Ottoman Empire and Austria.[17] Meanwhile, the Russians continued their advance when Suvorov captured the reportedly "impenetrable" Ottoman fortress of Ismail at the entrance of the Danube, in December 1790.[17] A final Ottoman defeat at Machin (9 July 1791),[18][7] coupled with Russian concerns about Prussia entering the war,[19] led to a truce agreed upon on 31 July 1791.[18] After the capture of the fortress, Suvorov marched upon Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), where the Russians hoped they could establish a Christian empire.[7] However, as Prof. Timothy C. Dowling states, the slaughters that were committed in the ensuing period somewhat defiled Suvorov's reputation in many eyes, and there were allegations at the time that he was drunk at the siege of Ochakov.[7] Persistent rumors about his actions were spread and circulated, and in 1791 he was relocated to Finland.[7]

AftermathEdit

Accordingly, the Treaty of Jassy was signed on 9 January 1792, recognizing Russia's 1783 annexation of the Crimean Khanate. Yedisan (Odessa and Ochakov) was also ceded to Russia,[17] and the Dniester was made the Russian frontier in Europe, while the Russian Asiatic frontier—the Kuban River—remained unchanged.[18] The Ottoman war goal to reclaim the Crimea had failed, and if not for the French Revolution, the Ottoman Empire's situation could have been much worse.[18]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ This includes the Ottoman troops fighting in the Austro-Turkish War.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Антон Антонович Керсновский (1992). История русской армии. Голос. ISBN 978-5-7117-0059-3.
  2. ^ According to Andrey Nikolaevich Petrov, campaign of 1788
  3. ^ "Новая страница (1)". runivers.ru.
  4. ^ a b c "Victimario Histórico Militar".
  5. ^ Stone 1994, p. 134.
  6. ^ Dowling 2015, p. 744.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dowling 2014, p. 841.
  8. ^ Cunningham 1993, p. 2.
  9. ^ Yonca Köksal (2019). The Ottoman Empire in the Tanzimat Era Provincial Perspectives from Ankara to Edirne. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780429812514.
  10. ^ ÖZCAN MERT. "ÇAPANOĞULLARI". İslâm Ansiklopedisi. Archived from the original on 30 August 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  11. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi, Bruce McGowan, Sevket Pamuk (2011). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 671. ISBN 9780521574556.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  12. ^ a b c Tucker 2011, p. 959.
  13. ^ Tucker 2011, p. 863.
  14. ^ a b Tucker 2011, pp. 959–960.
  15. ^ a b Tucker 2011, p. 963.
  16. ^ Tucker 2011, p. 964.
  17. ^ a b c Tucker 2011, p. 965.
  18. ^ a b c d Sicker 2001, p. 82.
  19. ^ Tucker 2011, p. 966.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit

  Media related to Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) at Wikimedia Commons