Lê Quý Đôn (chữ Hán: (黎貴惇; 2 August, 1726 – 11 June, 1784), né Lê Danh Phương, on his pen name is Doãn Hậu 允厚, and Quế Đường 桂堂 was an 18th-century Vietnamese poet, encyclopedist, and government official. His pseudonym was Quế - Đường. He was a native of Duyen Ha village in present-day Thái Bình Province. He is considered one of the most outstanding and prolific Vietnamese polymaths of the early modern period.
Lê Quý Đôn
Lê Danh Phương
|Died||11 June 1784 (aged 57)|
|Nationality||Đại Việt (present-day Vietnam)|
|Other names||Doãn Hậu, Quế Đường|
|Citizenship||Đại Việt (present-day Vietnam)|
|Occupation||Quốc tử Giam|
|Known for||Đại Việt thông sử|
Toàn Việt thi lục
Phủ biên tạp lục
|Spouse||Lê Thị Trang|
|Children||Lê Quý Kiệt|
Lê Quý Châu
Lê Quý Tá
Lê Quý Nghị
|Relatives||Lê Trọng Thứ (faither; 1693–1783)|
Trương Thị Ích (mother)
|Fields||Politics, History, Geography, Linguistics, Poetry, Encyclopedist|
|Institutions||Quốc tử giám of Hanoi|
Lê was born in the province of Thái Bình, and lived in the reign of Emperor Lê Hiển Tông. The period of his life was marked by a split between the Trịnh lords of the north and the Nguyễn lords, in the aftermath of an examination system scandal involving his son Lê Quý Kiêt (who was sent to prison for changing examination books), had been ordered south of the Linh Giang River to serve as an official ...As a member of the Trịnh lords' bureaucracy, Lê Quý Đôn was supposed to help restore civil government in a region of Viet Nam that had been separate from the Trịnh lords' control for over two centuries, and facilitate the reincorporation of"</ref>
In 1760, Lê Quý Đôn went to China as an ambassador. He later served as a government official in the ministries of war, finance and public works. He also served as the rector of the National University situated in the Văn Miếu in Hanoi and as Director of the Bureau of Annals. It is said that Lê was traveling with some Qing officials, and along the way they saw a Chinese poem inscribed on a stone palette. Later, one of the Qing officials, to test his merit, asked him if he could remember what was on the stone palette. Lê recited the entire poem, word for word, in Chinese. That earned him a great deal of respect from the Chinese.
Lê Quý Đôn was responsible for a large number of encyclopedic, historical, bibliographical, and philosophical works. It is estimated that he has the largest volume of works among Vietnamese literature using Chinese characters (about 40 series with hundreds of volumes).
- The Vân đài loại ngữ (Classified Sayings, 9 volumes) is Vietnam's largest encyclopedia, a landmark in Vietnamese science in the Confucian era.
- The history Đại Việt thông sử (30 volumes) contains many documents about the Lê dynasty.
- The Phủ biên tạp lục (Frontier Chronicles) (6 volumes) was a detailed description of Nguyễn territories in Thuận Hóa and Quảng Nam Provinces.
Today, one of largest technical universities in Hanoi, Le Quy Don Technical University (LeTech), and many schools in Vietnam are named after him. Most cities in Vietnam have named major streets after him.
Le Quy Don High School in District 3 is the first high school to be established in Saigon, Vietnam. The school was built in 1874 and it has been fostering generation of students up until this day. Despite being over a century old, Le Quy Don High School is still able to maintain most its original architectures. The school's location in central Saigon makes it one of the most popular spots for filming.
Finally, "Lê Quý Đôn″ is also the name of a new Vietnamese sail training ship, built in 2015 by the Polish ship yard Marine Projects Ltd. on behalf of Polish Defence Holding in Gdynia. Some of its data: overall length: 65.0 m, breadth: 10.0 m, air draft: 42.0 m, sails area: 1395 m2, propulsion: 880 kW, crew and cadets: 30 + 80 persons.
- Thanh Lãng, p. 542.
- Bùi Hạnh Cẩn 1985, p. 47.
- Patricia M. Pelley Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the National Past 2002 – Page 125 "The considerable merition bestowed on Lê Quý Ðôn stemmed from the astuteness of his work overal and his phenomenal product: he authored at least three chronicles, several volumes of poetry, two encyclopedic compilations, and.."
- Bruce Lockhart A-Z of Vietnam 2010 p209 entry "Lê Quý Đôn"
- 刘正 图说汉学史 2005 -Page 181 "著名的汉学家黎贵淳在《大越通史》一书中曾分析说: "我国号为文献之邦,上而帝王,下而庶民,莫不各有著述。"
- Barbara Watson Andaya – Other pasts: women, gender and history in early modern Southeast Asia −2000 Page 223 "In particular, I use Le Quy Don's Dai Viet Thong Su [Complete History of Dai Viet] , the one effort by a Vietnamese scholar in the standard Chinese topical mode, and his chapter on the females of the early Le royal family.
- India's interaction with Southeast Asia – Volume 1, Part 3 – Page 11 Govind Chandra Pande, Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy, and Culture, Centre for Studies in Civilizations (Delhi, India) – 2006 "One of the latest great figures was Le Quy Don (1726–84), who composed the following historical writings: the Dai-viet thong-su' ('History of Dai viet'), the Phu-bien tap- luc ('Miscellaneous writings about the administration of the border ..."
- Vietnam Country Map. Periplus Travel Maps. 2002. ISBN 0-7946-0070-0.
Works cited edit
- Thanh Lãng. Bảng lược đồ văn học Việt Nam, Quyển thượng. Nhà xuất bản Sài Gòn, không ghi năm xuất bản.
- Bùi Hạnh Cẩn (1985). Lê Quý Đôn. Nhà xuất bản Văn hóa.
- Media related to Lê Quý Đôn at Wikimedia Commons