1691 (MDCXCI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1691st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 691st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1691, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2444|
|Balinese saka calendar||1612–1613|
|English Regnal year||3 Will. & Mar. – 4 Will. & Mar.|
|Chinese calendar||庚午年 (Metal Horse)|
4387 or 4327
— to —
辛未年 (Metal Goat)
4388 or 4328
|- Vikram Samvat||1747–1748|
|- Shaka Samvat||1612–1613|
|- Kali Yuga||4791–4792|
|Japanese calendar||Genroku 4|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||221 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2233–2234|
1817 or 1436 or 664
— to —
1818 or 1437 or 665
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1691.|
- March 5 – Nine Years' War: French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons.
- March 20 – Leisler's Rebellion: A new governor arrives in New York – Jacob Leisler surrenders, after a standoff of several hours.
- March 29 – The Siege of Mons ends in the city's surrender.
- April 9 – A fire at the Palace of Whitehall in London destroys its Stone Gallery.
- May 6 – The Spanish Inquisition condemns and forcibly baptizes 219 Xuetas in Palma, Majorca. When 37 try to escape the island, they are burned alive at the stake.
- May 16 – Jacob Leisler is hanged for treason.
- June 23 – Ahmed II (1691–1695) succeeds Suleiman II (1687–1691), as Ottoman Emperor.
- July 12
- September 18 – War of the Grand Alliance: English and Dutch forces are defeated by the French in the Battle of Leuze.
- October 3 – The Treaty of Limerick, ending the Williamite War in Ireland and guaranteeing civil rights to Roman Catholics, is signed (It was broken "before the ink was dry", according to a contemporary commentator). The Flight of the Wild Geese (the departure of the Jacobite army) follows.
- Michel Rolle invents Rolle's theorem, an essential theorem of mathematics.
- In New England, the two separate colonies of Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony are united into a single entity, by an act of the King and Queen of England.
- The Khalkha submit to the Manchu invaders, bringing most of modern-day Mongolia under the rule of the Qing Dynasty.
- February 27 – Edward Cave, English editor and publisher (d. 1754)
- March 12 – Dionisia de Santa María Mitas Talangpaz, Filipino saint (b. 1732)
- April 5 – Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (d. 1768)
- April 9 – Johann Matthias Gesner, German classical scholar (d. 1761)
- June 17 – Giovanni Paolo Pannini, Italian painter and architect (d. 1765)
- August 25 – Alessandro Galilei, Italian architect, mathematician (d. 1737)
- September 29 – Richard Challoner, English Catholic prelate (d. 1781)
- October 1 – Arthur Onslow, English politician (d 1768)
- January 13 – George Fox, English founder of the Society of Friends (b. 1624)
- January 17 – Richard Lower, English physician (b. 1631)
- January 22 – Edward Master, English politician (b. 1610)
- January 23 – William Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen (1679–1691) (b. 1649)
- February 1 – Pope Alexander VIII (b. 1610)
- February 8 – Carlo Rainaldi, Italian architect (b. 1611)
- February 19 – Sir Thomas Lee, 1st Baronet, English politician (b. 1635)
- March 5 – Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer, French postal pioneer (b. 1607)
- March 17 – Thomas Wynne, English personal physician of William Penn (b. 1627)
- March 29 – Nicolas Talon, French Jesuit (b. 1605)
- April 3 – Jean Petitot, Swiss enamel painter (b. 1607)
- April 23 – Jean-Henri d'Anglebert, French harpsichordist and composer (b. 1629)
- May 11 – Colonel John Birch, English soldier (b. 1615)
- May 16 – Jacob Leisler, German-born American colonist (b. 1640)
- May 23 – Adrien Auzout, French astronomer (b. 1622)
- May 29 – Cornelis Tromp, Dutch admiral (b. 1629)
- June 23 – Suleiman II, Sultan, Ottoman Empire (b. 1642)
- July 2 – Marc'Antonio Pasqualini, Italian opera singer and composer (b. 1614)
- July 12 – Marquis de St Ruth, French (killed at the Battle of Aughrim) (b. c. 1650)
- July 16 – François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, French war minister (b. 1641)
- July 18 – Sir John Bowyer, 2nd Baronet, English politician (b. 1653)
- July 26 – Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, English politician (b. 1630)
- July 30 – Daniel Georg Morhof, German writer and scholar (b. 1639)
- August 2 – Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1675–1691) (b. 1646)
- August 14 – Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel, Irish rebel (b. 1630)
- August 19 – Adam Zrinski, Croatian count and military officer (b. 1662)
- August 29 – Sir Ralph Delaval, 1st Baronet, English politician (b. 1622)
- September 12 – John George III, Elector of Saxony (b. 1647)
- September 18
- October 9 – William Sacheverell, English statesman (b. 1638)
- October 10 – Isaac de Benserade, French poet (b. 1613)
- October 11 – Israel Silvestre, French topographical etcher (b. 1621)
- October 18 – Christian I, Duke of Saxe-Merseburg, German noble (b. 1615)
- October 21 – Alexander Seton, 1st Viscount of Kingston (b. 1620)
- October 30 – Hermann of Baden-Baden, Imperial field marshal and president of the Hofkriegsrat (b. 1628)
- November 14 – Tosa Mitsuoki, Japanese painter (b. 1617)
- November 15 – Aelbert Cuyp, Dutch painter (b. 1620)
- December – Louis de Vanens, French alchemist and poisoner (b. 1647)
- December 3 – Katherine Jones, Viscountess Ranelagh, English scientist (b. 1615)
- December 8 – Richard Baxter, English clergyman (b. 1615)
- December 15 – Hendrik van Rheede, Dutch botanist (b. 1636)
- December 31
- date unknown
- probable – Elizabeth Polwheele, English playwright (b. c. 1651)
- "Historical Events for Year 1691 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
- "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p46