List of Ottoman Grand Viziers

The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under-the-dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.

Grand Vizier of
the Ottoman Empire
Sadrazamlik-nisanlari.svg
Seal of the Grand Vizier
StyleHis Excellency
ResidenceBab-ı Ali
AppointerThe Sultan
Formation1328
First holderAlaeddin Pasha
Final holderAhmet Tevfik Pasha
Abolished1 November 1922
SuccessionPrime Minister of Turkey

HistoryEdit

During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "vizier" was the only title used. The first of these Ottoman viziers who was titled "grand vizier" was Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (also known as Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder). The purpose in instituting the title "grand vizier" was to distinguish the holder of the sultan's seal from other viziers. The initially more frequently used title of vezir-i âzam was gradually replaced by sadrazam, both meaning grand vizier in practice. Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have also been termed sadr-ı âlî ('high vizier'), vekil-i mutlak ('absolute attorney'), sâhib-i devlet ('holder of the state'), serdar-ı ekrem ('gracious general'), serdar-ı azam ('grand general') and zât-ı âsafî ('vizieral person') and başnazır,[1] literally "prime minister" in Ottoman Turkish.

In the late periods of the Ottoman Empire, especially during and after the 19th century, the grand vizier began to hold a position almost identical to that of a prime minister in other European states.[2] Reforms seen during and after the Tanzimat (1838), the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878), and the Second Constitutional Era (1908–1920) further brought the office of the grand vizier in line with the European standard, making the incumbent the head of a Cabinet of other ministers. During the two constitutional eras, the grand vizier also served as the speaker of the Senate, the upper house of the bicameral Ottoman Parliament. With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Prime Minister of Turkey took on the roles of the former office.

Grand viziers were often replaced or resigned in rapid succession, frequently leading to political instability. In the final 10 years of the Empire alone, the office of the grand vizier changed hands 13 times between 12 men; some, such as Ahmed Izzet Pasha and Salih Hulusi Pasha, held office for less than a month.

Absolute monarchy (1320–1876)Edit

Grand Vizier Term of office Sultan
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Alaeddin Pasha

(?)

1320 1331 11 years Osman I

 

(1299–1326)

Orhan

 

(1326–1362)

2 Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha

(1281–1380)

1331 1348 17 years
3 Hacı Pasha

(?)

1348 1349 1 year
4 Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha

(d. 1364)

1349 1364 15 years
Murad I

 

(1362–1389)

5 Kara

Çandarlı Halil Hayreddin Pasha

(Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder)

(1330–1387)

1364 22 January

1387

23 years, 21 days
6 Çandarlı Ali Pasha

(d. 1406)

1387 1406 19 years
Bayezid I

 

(1389–1402)

Mehmed I

 

(1403–1421)

7 Osmancıklı Imamzade Halil Pasha

(?)

1406 1413 7 years
8 Amasyalı Bayezid Pasha

(d. 1421)

1413 1421 8 years
9 Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Elder

(d. 1429)

1421 1429 8 years Murad II

 

(1421–1444)

10 KocaAmasyalı Hazır Dânişmendoğlu

Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha

(d. 1439)

1429 1439 10 years
11   Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger

(d. 1453)

1439 1 June

1453

14 years, 151 days
Mehmed II

 

(1444–1446)

Murad II

 

(1446–1451)

Mehmed II

 

(1451–1481)

12 Zaganos Pasha

(d. 1469)

1453 1456 3 years
13   Mahmud Pasha Angelović

(1420–1474)

1456 1468 12 years
14 Rum Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1470)

1468 1469 1 year
15 İshak Pasha

(d. 1487)

1469 1472 3 years
16

(13)

  Mahmud Pasha Angelović

(1420–1474)

1472 1474 2 years
17 Gedik Ahmed Pasha

(d. 1482)

1474 1477 3 years
18 Karamanlı Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1481)

1477 1481 4 years
19

(15)

İshak Pasha

(d. 1487)

1481 1482 1 year Bayezid II

 

(1481–1512)

20 KocaDavud Pasha

(1446–1498)

1482 1497 15 years
21 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha

(1459–1517)

1497 1498 1 year
22 Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Younger

(1429–1499)

1498 1499 1 year
23   Mesih Pasha

(d. 1501)

1499 1501 2 years
24 HadımAli Pasha

(d. 1511)

1501 1503 2 years
25

(21)

Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha

(1459–1517)

1503 1506 3 years
26

(24)

HadımAli Pasha

(d. 1511)

1506 1511 5 years
27

(21)

Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha

(1459–1517)

1511 1511 59 days
28 KocaMustafa Pasha

(d. 1512)

1511 1512 1 year
29

(21)

Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha

(1459–1517)

1512 28 November

1514

2 years, 331 days Selim I

 

(1512–1520)

30 Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha

(d. 1515)

18 December

1514

8 September

1515

264 days
31

(21)

Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha

(1459–1517)

8 September

1515

26 April

1516

231 days
32 HadımSinan Pasha

(1459–1517)

26 April

1516

22 January

1517

271 days
33   Yunus Pasha

(d. 1517)

22 January

1517

13 September

1517

234 days
34   PiriMehmed Pasha

(1465–1532)

25 January

1518

27 June

1523

5 years, 153 days
Suleiman I

 

(1520–1566)

35   Pargalı İbrahim Pasha

(1495–1536)

27 June

1523

14 March

1536

12 years, 261 days
36 Ayas Mehmed Pasha

(1483–1539)

14 March

1536

13 July

1539

3 years, 121 days
37   Çelebi

Lütfi Pasha

(1488–1564)

13 July

1539

April

1541

1 year, 262 days
38   HadımSüleyman Pasha

(1467–1547)

April

1541

28 November

1544

3 years, 241 days
39   DamatRüstem Pasha

(1500–1561)

28 November

1544

6 October

1553

8 years, 312 days
40 KaraAhmed Pasha

(d. 1555)

6 October

1553

29 September

1555

1 year, 358 days
41

(39)

  DamatRüstem Pasha

(1500–1561)

29 September

1555

10 July

1561

5 years, 284 days
42 Semiz Ali Pasha

(d. 1565)

10 July

1561

28 June

1565

3 years, 353 days
43   Sokollu Mehmed Pasha

(1506–1579)

28 June

1565

12 October

1579

14 years, 106 days
Selim II

 

(1566–1574)

Murad III

 

(1574–1595)

44 Şemsi Pasha

(1492–1580)

12 October

1579

28 April

1580

199 days
45   Kara Lala

Mustafa Pasha

(1500–1580)

28 April

1580

7 August

1580

101 days
46   KocaSinan Pasha

(1506–1596)

7 August

1580

6 December

1582

2 years, 121 days
47 Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha

(d. 1602)

24 December

1582

25 July

1584

1 year, 214 days
48 Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha

(1526–1585)

28 July

1584

29 October

1585

1 year, 93 days
49 HadımMesih Pasha

(d. 1589)

1 November

1585

14 April

1586

164 days
50

(47)

Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha

(d. 1602)

14 April

1586

2 April

1589

2 years, 353 days
51

(46)

  KocaSinan Pasha

(1506–1596)

14 April

1589

1 August

1591

2 years, 109 days
52   Serdar Ferhad Pasha

(d. 1595)

1 August

1591

4 April

1592

247 days
53

(47)

Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha

(d. 1602)

4 April

1592

28 January

1593

299 days
54

(46)

  KocaSinan Pasha

(1506–1596)

28 January

1593

16 February

1595

2 years, 19 days
Mehmed III

 

(1595–1603)

55

(52)

  Serdar Ferhad Pasha

(d. 1595)

16 February

1595

7 July

1595

141 days
56

(46)

  KocaSinan Pasha

(1506–1596)

7 July

1595

19 November

1595

135 days
57   LalaTekeli Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1595)

19 November

1595

28 November

1595

9 days
58

(46)

  KocaSinan Pasha

(1506–1596)

1 December

1595

3 April

1596

124 days
59 DamatIbrahim Pasha

(1517–1601)

4 April

1596

27 October

1596

206 days
60   Cağalazâde Yusuf Sinan Pasha

(Cağaloğlu)

(1545–1605)

27 October

1596

5 December

1596

39 days
61

(59)

DamatIbrahim Pasha

(1517–1601)

5 December

1596

3 November

1597

332 days
62 HadımHasan Pasha

(d. 1598)

3 November

1597

9 April

1598

157 days
63 CerrahMehmed Pasha

(d. 1604)

9 April

1598

6 January

1599

272 days
64

(59)

DamatIbrahim Pasha(1517–1601) 6 January

1599

10 July

1601

2 years, 185 days
65 Damat Yemişçi

Hasan Pasha

(1535–1603)

22 July

1601

4 October

1603

2 years, 74 days
66 Yavuz Ali Pasha

(d. 1604)

16 October

1603

26 July

1604

253 days Ahmed I

 

(1603–1617)

67 LalaSokolluzade Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1606)

5 August

1604

21 June

1606

1 year, 320 days
68 BoşnakDerviş Mehmed Pasha

(1569–1606)

21 June

1606

9 December

1606

171 days
69 KuyucuMurad Pasha

(1535–1611)

11 December

1606

5 August

1611

4 years, 237 days
70 DamatGümülcineli Nasuh Pasha

(d. 1614)

5 August

1611

17 October

1614

3 years, 73 days
71   Kara Damat Öküz

Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1619)

17 October

1614

17 November

1616

2 years, 31 days
72 DamatHalil Pasha

(1570–1629)

17 November

1616

18 January

1619

2 years, 62 days
Mustafa I

 

(1617–1618)

Osman II

 

(1618–1622)

73

(71)

  KaraÖküz Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1619)

18 January

1619

23 December

1619

339 days
74 GüzelceAli Pasha

(d. 1621)

23 December

1619

9 March

1621

1 year, 76 days
75   Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha

(d. 1622)

9 March

1621

17 September

1621

192 days
76 Dilaver Pasha

(d. 1622)

17 September

1621

20 May

1622

245 days
Mustafa I

 

(1622–1623)

77 KaraDavud Pasha

(1570–1623)

20 May

1622

13 June

1622

24 days
78 MereHüseyin Pasha

(d. 1624)

13 June

1622

8 July

1622

25 days
79 Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha

(d. 1648)

8 July

1622

21 September

1622

75 days
Murad IV

 

(1623–1640)

80 HadımMehmed Pasha

(d. 1626)

21 September

1622

5 February

1623

137 days
81

(78)

Mere Hüseyin Pasha

(d. 1624)

5 February

1623

30 August

1623

206 days
82 Kara Kemankeş

Ali Pasha

(d. 1624)

30 August

1623

3 April

1624

217 days
83 ÇerkezMehmed Pasha

(d. 1625)

3 April

1624

28 January

1625

300 days
84 HafızAhmed Pasha

(1564–1632)

8 February

1625

1 December

1626

1 year, 296 days
85

(72)

DamatHalil Pasha

(1570–1629)

1 December

1626

6 April

1628

1 year, 127 days
86 GaziEkrem Hüsrev Pasha

(d. 1632)

6 April

1628

25 October

1631

3 years, 202 days
87

(84)

HafızAhmed Pasha

(1564–1632)

25 October

1631

10 February

1632

108 days
88 TopalRecep Pasha

(d. 1632)

10 February

1632

18 May

1632

98 days
89 TabanıyassıMehmed Pasha

(1589–1637)

18 May

1632

2 February

1637

4 years, 260 days
90 Bayram Pasha

(d. 1638)

2 February

1637

26 August

1638

1 year, 205 days
91 TayyarMehmed Pasha

(d. 1638)

27 August

1638

24 December

1638

119 days
92 Kara Kemankeş

Mustafa Pasha

(1592–1644)

23 December

1638

31 January

1644

5 years, 39 days
Ibrahim

 

(1640–1648)

93 Civan Kapucubaşı

Sultanzade Mehmet Pasha

(1603–1646)

31 January

1644

17 December

1645

1 year, 320 days
94 Nevesinli Salih Pasha

(d. 1647)

17 December

1645

16 September

1647

1 year, 273 days
95 KaraMusa Pasha

(d. 1649)

16 September

1647

21 September

1647

5 days
96 HazarpareAhmet Pasha

(d. 1648)

21 September

1647

8 August

1648

322 days
97 SofuMehmed Pasha

(d. 1649)

8 August

1648

21 May

1649

286 days Mehmed IV

 

(1648–1687)

98 Kara Dev

Murat Pasha

(1595–1655)

21 May

1649

5 August

1651

2 years, 76 days
99   Damat Melek

Ahmed Pasha

(1604–1662)

5 August

1651

21 August

1651

16 days
100 AbazaSiyavuş Pasha I

(d. 1656)

21 August

1651

27 September

1651

37 days
101   GürcüMehmed Pasha

(d. 1665)

27 September

1651

20 June

1652

267 days
102 Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha

(d. 1653)

20 June

1652

21 March

1653

274 days
103 KocaDervish Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1655)

21 March

1653

28 October

1654

1 year, 221 days
104 İpşiri Mustafa Pasha

(1607–1655)

28 October

1654

11 May

1655

195 days
105

(98)

Kara Dev

Murat Pasha

(1595–1655)

11 May

1655

19 August

1655

100 days
106 ErmeniSuleyman Pasha

(1607–1687)

19 August

1655

28 February

1656

193 days
107 Deli Gazi

Hüseyin Pasha

(d. 1659)

28 February

1656

5 March

1656

6 days
108 Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha

(d. 1666)

5 March

1656

5 March

1656

4 hours
109

(100)

AbazaSiyavuş Pasha I

(d. 1656)

5 March

1656

25 April

1656

51 days
110 Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1665)

26 April

1656

15 September

1656

142 days
111   Köprülü Mehmed Pasha

(1575–1661)

15 September

1656

31 October

1661

5 years, 46 days
112   Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha

(1635–1676)

31 October

1661

19 October

1676

14 years, 354 days
113   KaraMerzifonlu Mustafa Pasha

(1635–1683)

19 October

1676

25 December

1683

7 years, 67 days
114 Karaİbrahim Pasha

(d. 1687)

15 December

1683

18 November

1685

1 year, 338 days
115 SarıSüleyman Pasha

(d. 1687)

18 November

1685

18 September

1687

3 years, 304 days
116 AbazaSiyavuş Pasha II

(d. 1688)

18 September

1687

23 February

1688

158 days
Suleiman II

 

(1687–1691)

117 Ayaşlı İsmail Pasha

(1620–1690)

23 February

1688

2 May

1688

69 days
118 BekriMustafa Pasha

(d. 1690)

30 May

1688

7 November

1689

1 year, 161 days
119 Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha

(1637–1691)

10 November

1689

19 August

1691

1 year, 282 days
Ahmed II

 

(1691–1695)

120 ArabacıAli Pasha

(1620–1693)

24 August

1691

21 March

1692

210 days
121 HacıMerfizonlu Ali Pasha

(d. 1698)

23 March

1692

17 March

1693

359 days
122 Bozoklu Mustafa Pasha

(1638–1698)

17 March

1693

13 March

1694

360 days
123 Sürmeli Ali Pasha

(1645–1695)

13 March

1694

22 April

1695

359 days
Mustafa II

 

(1695–1703)

124 ElmasMehmed Pasha

(1661–1697)

3 May

1695

11 September

1697

2 years, 131 days
125   Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha

(1644–1702)

17 September

1697

4 September

1702

4 years, 352 days
126 Daltaban

Mustafa Pasha

(d. 1703)

4 September

1702

24 January

1703

142 days
127 Rami Mehmed Pasha

(1645–1706)

25 January

1703

22 August

1703

209 days
128 NişancıKavanoz Ahmed Pasha

(d. 1705)

22 August

1703

16 November

1703

86 days Ahmed III

 

(1703–1730)

129 DamatHasan Pasha

(1658–1713)

18 November

1703

28 September

1704

315 days
130 HacıKalaylıkoz Ahmed Pasha October

1704

25 December

1704

85 days
131   BaltacıMehmed Pasha

(1652–1712)

25 December

1704

3 May

1706

1 year, 129 days
132 DamatÇorlulu Ali Pasha

(1670–1711)

3 May

1706

15 June

1710

4 years, 43 days
133 Köprülü Numan Pasha

(1670–1719)

16 June

1710

17 August

1710

62 days
134

(131)

  BaltacıMehmed Pasha

(1652–1712)

18 August

1710

20 November

1711

1 year, 94 days
135 AğaYusuf Pasha

(d. 1713)

20 November

1711

11 November

1712

357 days
136 NişancıSüleyman Pasha

(d. 1715)

12 November

1712

6 April

1713

145 days
137 Hoca Ibrahim Pasha 6 April

1713

7 April

1713

1 day
138 Damat Silahdar

Ali Pasha

(1667–1716)

27 April

1713

5 August

1716

3 years, 100 days
139 HacıHalil Pasha

(d. 1733)

21 August

1716

26 August

1717

1 year, 5 days
140 NişancıMehmed Pasha 26 August

1717

9 May

1718

256 days
141   DamatNevşehirli Ibrahim Pasha

(1662–1730)

9 May

1718

16 October

1730

12 years, 160 days
Mahmud I

 

(1730–1754)

142 Damat Silahdar

Mehmed Pasha

16 October

1730

23 January

1731

99 days
143 Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha 23 January

1731

11 September

1731

231 days
144   TopalOsman Pasha

(1663–1733)

21 September

1731

12 March

1732

173 days
145   Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha

(1689–1758)

12 March

1732

14 July

1735

3 years, 124 days
146 Gürcü

İsmail Pasha

14 July

1735

25 December

1735

164 days
147 Silahdar Seyyid

Mehmed Pasha [tr]

10 January

1736

5 August

1737

1 year, 207 days
148 Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha 22 August

1737

19 December

1737

119 days
149 Yeğen Mehmed Pasha 3 December

1737

23 March

1739

1 year, 110 days
150 İvaz Mehmed Pasha

(d. 1743)

17 March

1739

23 June

1740

1 year, 98 days
151 Nişancı Kör Hacı

Ahmed Pasha

(d. 1753)

22 July

1740

7 April

1742

2 years, 259 days
152

(145)

  Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha

(1689–1758)

21 April

1742

4 October

1742

166 days
153 SeyyidHasan Pasha

(d. 1748)

4 October

1742

10 August

1746

3 years, 310 days
154 HacıTiryaki Mehmed Pasha 11 August

1746

24 August

1747

1 year, 13 days
155 SeyyidAbdullah Pasha

(d. 1760)

24 August

1747

2 January

1750

2 years, 131 days
156 DivitdarMehmed Emin Pasha

(d. 1753)

9 January

1750

1 July

1752

2 years, 174 days
157 KöseBahir Mustafa Pasha

(d. 1765)

1 July

1752

16 February

1755

2 years, 230 days
Osman III (1754–1757)
158

(145)

  Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha

(1689–1758)

16 February

1755

19 May

1755

92 days
159 Naili Abdullah Pasha

(d. 1758)

19 May

1755

24 August

1755

97 days
160 Nişancı Silahdar

Bıyıklı Ali Pasha

24 August

1755

23 October

1755

60 days
161   Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha

(d. 1761)

25 October

1755

1 April

1756

159 days
162

(157)

KöseBahir Mustafa Pasha

(d. 1765)

30 April

1756

3 December

1756

217 days
163 KocaRagıp Pasha

(1698–1763)

12 January

1757

8 April

1763

6 years, 86 days
Mustafa III

 

(1757–1774)

164 Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha 11 April

1763

29 September

1763

171 days
165

(157)

KöseBahir Mustafa Pasha

(d. 1765)

29 September

1763

30 March

1765

1 year, 213 days
166 Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha 30 March

1765

7 August

1768

3 years, 130 days
167 SilahdarHamza Mahir Pasha 7 August

1768

20 October

1768

74 days
168 Yağlıkçızade Mehmed Emin Pasha 20 October

1768

12 August

1769

296 days
169 Moldovancı Ali Pasha 12 August

1769

12 December

1769

122 days
170 İvazzade Halil Pasha

(1724–1777)

13 December

1769

25 December

1770

1 year, 12 days
171 SilahdarMehmed Pasha 25 December

1770

11 December

1771

351 days
172

(166)

Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha 11 December

1771

6 August

1774

2 years, 238 days
Abdul Hamid I

 

(1774–1789)

173 İzzet Mehmed Pasha

(1723–1784)

11 August

1774

7 July

1775

330 days
174 Moralı Dervish Mehmed Pasha 7 July

1775

5 January

1777

1 year, 182 days
175 Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha 5 January

1777

1 September

1778

1 year, 239 days
176 Kalafat Mehmed Pasha 1 September

1778

22 August

1779

355 days
177 Silahdar Seyyid

Mehmed Pasha [tr]

22 August

1779

20 February

1781

1 year, 182 days
178

(173)

İzzet Mehmed Pasha

(1723–1784)

20 February

1781

25 August

1782

1 year, 186 days
179 Hacı YeğenMehmed Pasha 25 August

1782

31 December

1782

128 days
180 Halil Hamid Pasha

(1736–1785)

31 December

1782

30 April

1785

2 years, 120 days
181 Şahin Ali Pasha 30 April

1785

25 January

1786

270 days
182   KocaYusuf Pasha

(1730–1800)

25 January

1786

28 May

1789

3 years, 123 days
Selim III

 

(1789–1807)

183 Cenaze Meyyit Kethüda

Hasan Pasha

(d. 1810)

28 May

1789

2 January

1790

219 days
184   Gazi Cezayirli

Hasan Pasha (1713–1790)

2 January

1790

30 March

1790

87 days
185 Çelebizade Şerif Hasan Pasha 16 April

1790

12 February

1791

302 days
186

(182)

  KocaYusuf Pasha

(1730–1800)

12 February

1791

1792 323 days
187 DamatMelek Mehmed Pasha 1792 21 October

1794

2 years, 293 days
188 Safranbolulu İzzet Mehmet Pasha

(1743–1812)

21 October

1794

23 October

1798

4 years, 2 days
189 KörYusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha

(d. 1819)

23 October

1798

24 June

1805

6 years, 244 days
190 BostancıbaşıHafız İsmail Pasha 24 September

1805

13 October

1806

1 year, 19 days
191 Keçiboynuzu İbrahim Hilmi Pasha 13 October

1806

3 June

1807

233 days
Mustafa IV

 

(1807–1808)

192 ÇelebiMustafa Pasha 3 June

1807

29 July

1808

1 year, 56 days
Mahmud II

 

(1808–1839)

193   Alemdar/BayrakdarMustafa Pasha

(1750–1808)

29 July

1808

15 November

1808

109 days
194 ÇavuşbaşıMemiş Pasha 16 November

1808

December

1808

15 days
195 Çarhacı Ali Pasha[citation needed] December

1808

March

1809

90 days
196

(189)

KörYusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha

(d. 1819)

March

1809

February

1811

1 year, 337 days
197 LazAziz Ahmed Pasha

(d. 1819)

February

1811

July

1812

1 year, 151 days
198   Hurşit Ahmed Pasha

(d. 1822)

July

1812

30 March

1815

2 years, 272 days
199   Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha

(1780–1860)

30 March

1815

6 January

1818

2 years, 282 days
200 Burdurlu Dervish Mehmed Pasha 6 January

1818

5 January

1820

1 year, 364 days
201 SeyyidAli Pasha 5 January

1820

21 April

1821

1 year, 106 days
202 Benderli Ali Pasha

(d. 1821)

21 April

1821

30 April

1821

9 days
203 HacıIzmirli Salih Pasha [tr] 30 April

1821

11 November

1822

1 year, 195 days
204 Bostancıbaşı Deli

Abdullah Pasha

11 November

1822

4 March

1823

113 days
205 SilahdarTurnacızade Ali Pasha 4 March

1823

13 December

1823

284 days
206 Mehmed Said Galip Pasha

(1763–1829)

13 December

1823

15 September

1824

277 days
207 Benderli Mehmed Selim Pasha

(1771–1831)

15 September

1824

26 October

1828

4 years, 41 days
208   Topalİzzet Mehmed Pasha

(1792–1855)

26 October

1828

28 January

1829

94 days
209   Reşid Mehmed Pasha

(1780–1836)

28 January

1829

17 February

1833

4 years, 20 days
210

(199)

  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha

(1780–1860)

17 February

1833

8 July

1839

6 years, 141 days
Abdul Mecid I

 

(1839–1861)

211   KocaHüsrev Mehmed Pasha

(1769–1855)

8 July

1839

29 May

1841

1 year, 325 days
212

(199)

  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha

(1780–1860)

29 May

1841

7 October

1841

131 days
213

(208)

  Topalİzzet Mehmed Pasha

(1792–1855)

7 October

1841

3 September

1842

331 days
214

(199)

  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha

(1780–1860)

3 September

1842

31 July

1846

3 years, 331 days
215   KocaMustafa Reşid Pasha

(1800–1858)

31 July

1846

28 April

1848

1 year, 272 days
216   İbrahim Sarim Pasha

(1801–1853)

28 April

1848

13 August

1848

107 days
217

(215)

  KocaMustafa Reşid Pasha

(1800–1858)

13 August

1848

27 January

1852

3 years, 167 days
218

(199)

  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha

(1780–1860)

27 January

1852

7 March

1852

40 days
219

(215)

  KocaMustafa Reşit Pasha

(1800–1858)

7 March

1852

7 August

1852

153 days
220   Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha

(1815–1871)

7 August

1852

4 October

1852

58 days
221   DamatMehmed Ali Pasha

(1813–1868)

4 October

1852

14 May

1853

222 days
222   Mustafa Naili Pasha

(1798–1871)

14 May

1853

30 May

1854

1 year, 16 days
223   KıbrıslıMehmed Emin Pasha

(1813–1871)

30 May

1854

24 November

1854

178 days
224

(215)

  KocaMustafa Reşid Pasha

(1800–1858)

24 November

1854

4 May

1855

161 days
225

(220)

  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha

(1815–1871)

4 May

1855

1 December

1856

1 year, 211 days
226

(215)

  KocaMustafa Reşid Pasha

(1800–1858)

1 December

1856

2 August

1857

244 days
227

(222)

  Mustafa Naili Pasha

(1798–1871)

2 August

1857

23 October

1857

82 days
228

(215)

  KocaMustafa Reşid Pasha

(1800–1858)

23 October

1857

7 January

1858

76 days
229

(220)

  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha

(1815–1871)

11 January

1858

8 October

1859

1 year, 270 days
230

(223)

  KıbrıslıMehmed Emin Pasha

(1813–1871)

8 October

1859

24 December

1859

77 days
231   MütercimMehmed Rüşdi Pasha

(1811–1882)

24 December

1859

27 May

1860

155 days
232

(223)

  KıbrıslıMehmed Emin Pasha

(1813–1871)

27 May

1860

6 August

1861

1 year, 71 days
Abdul Aziz

 

(1861–1876)

233

(220)

  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha

(1815–1871)

6 August

1861

22 November

1861

108 days
234   Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha

(1814–1869)

22 November

1861

6 January

1863

1 year, 45 days
235   Yusuf Kamil Pasha

(1808–1876)

6 January

1863

3 June

1863

148 days
236

(234)

  Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha

(1814–1869)

3 June

1863

5 June

1866

3 years, 2 days
237

(231)

  MütercimMehmed Rüşdi Pasha

(1811–1882)

5 June

1866

11 February

1867

251 days
238

(220)

  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha

(1815–1871)

11 February

1867

7 September

1871

4 years, 208 days
239   Mahmud Nedim Pasha

(1818–1883)

7 September

1871

31 July

1872

328 days
240   Midhat Pasha

(1822–1883)

31 July

1872

19 October

1872

80 days
241

(231)

  MütercimMehmed Rüşdi Pasha

(1811–1882)

19 October

1872

15 February

1873

119 days
242   Ahmed Esat Pasha

(1828–1875)

15 February

1873

15 April

1873

59 days
243   Şirvanlı Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha

(1828–1874)

15 April

1873

14 February

1874

305 days
244   Hüseyin Avni Pasha

(1820–1876)

14 February

1874

25 April

1875

1 year, 70 days
245

(242)

  Ahmed Esat Pasha

(1828–1875)

25 April

1875

21 August

1875

118 days
246

(239)

  Mahmud Nedim Pasha

(1818–1883)

21 August

1875

11 May

1876

264 days
250

(231)

  MütercimMehmed Rüşdi Pasha

(1811–1882)

12 May

1876

19 December

1876

221 days
Murad V

 

(1876)

Abdul Hamid II

 

(1876–1909)

Promulgation of Constitution

First Constitutional Monarchy (1876–1878)Edit

Grand Vizier Term of office Legislature Sultan
Took office Left office Time in office
250

(231)

  MütercimMehmed Rüşdi Pasha

(1811–1882)

12 May

1876

19 December

1876

221 days Abdul Hamid II

 

(1876–1909)

251

(240)

  Midhat Pasha

(1822–1883)

19 December

1876

5 February

1877

48 days
252   İbrahim Edhem Pasha

(1819–1893)

5 February

1877

11 January

1878

340 days I

(1876)

II

(1877)

253   Ahmed Hamdi Pasha

(1826–1885)

11 January

1878

4 February

1878

24 days
254   Ahmed Vefik Pasha

(1823–1891)

4 February

1878

18 April

1878

73 days
Constitution suspended

İstidbat (1878–1908)Edit

Grand Vizier Term of office Sultan
Took office Left office Time in office
254   Ahmed Vefik Pasha

(1823–1891)

4 February

1878

18 April

1878

73 days Abdul Hamid II

 

(1876–1909)

255   Mehmed Sadık Pasha

(1826–1901)

18 April

1878

28 May

1878

40 days
256

(231)

  MütercimMehmed Rüşdi Pasha

(1811–1882)

28 May

1878

4 June

1878

7 days
257   Saffet Pasha

(1814–1883)

4 June

1878

October

1878

119 days
258   TunusluHayreddin Pasha

(1820–1890)

October

1878

28 July

1879

300 days
259   Ahmed Arifi Pasha

(1830–1896)

28 July

1879

September

1879

35 days
260   Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

18 October

1879

9 June

1880

235 days
261   Kadri Pasha

(1832–1884)

9 June

1880

12 September

1880

95 days
262

(260)

  Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

12 September

1880

2 May

1882

1 year, 232 days
263   Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha

(1833–1912)

2 May

1882

12 July

1882

71 days
264

(260)

  Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

12 July

1882

30 November

1882

141 days
265

(254)

  Ahmed Vefik Pasha

(1823–1891)

1 December

1882

3 December

1882

2 days
266

(260)

  Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

3 December

1882

24 September

1885

2 years, 295 days
267   Kâmil Pasha

(1833–1913)

25 September

1885

4 September

1891

5 years, 344 days
268   Ahmed Cevat Şakir Pasha

(1851–1900)

4 September

1891

8 June

1895

3 years, 277 days
269

(260)

  Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

9 June

1895

3 October

1895

116 days
270

(267)

  Kâmil Pasha

(1833–1913)

3 October

1895

7 November

1895

35 days
271   Halil Rifat Pasha

(1820–1901)

7 November

1895

9 November

1901

6 years, 2 days
272

(260)

  Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

13 November

1901

15 January

1903

1 year, 63 days
273   Mehmed Ferid Pasha

(1851–1914)

15 January

1903

22 July

1908

5 years, 189 days
274

(260)

  Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

22 July

1908

6 August

1908

15 days
Young Turk Revolution

Second Constitutional Monarchy (1908–1920)Edit

Grand Vizier Term of office Political Party Legislature Sultan
Took office Left office Time in office
274

(260)

  Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

22 July

1908

6 August

1908

15 days Independent Abdul Hamid II

 

(1876–1909)

275

(267)

  Kâmil Pasha

(1833–1913)

5 August

1908

14 February

1909

193 days Independent
III

(1908)

276   Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha

(1855–1922)

14 February

1909

14 April

1909

59 days Union and Progress
277   Ahmet Tevfik (Okday) Pasha

(1845–1936)

14 April

1909

5 May

1909

21 days Independent
Mehmed V

 

(1909–1918)

278

(276)

  Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha

(1855–1922)

5 May

1909

12 January

1910

252 days Union and Progress Party
279   İbrahim Hakkı Pasha

(1862–1918)

12 January

1910

30 September

1911

1 year, 261 days Union and Progress Party
280

(260)

  Mehmed Said Pasha

(1838–1914)

30 September

1911

22 July

1912

296 days Union and Progress Party
IV

(1912)

281   Ahmed Muhtar Pasha

(1839–1919)

22 July

1912

29 October

1912

99 days Independent
282

(267)

  Kâmil Pasha

(1833–1913)

29 October

1912

23 January

1913

86 days Freedom and Accord Party
283   Mahmud Şevket Pasha

(1856–1913)

23 January

1913

11 June

1913

139 days Independent
284   Said Halim Pasha

(1865–1921)

12 June

1913

4 February

1917

3 years, 237 days Union and Progress Party
V

(1914)

285   Talât Pasha

(1874–1921)

4 February

1917

14 October

1918

1 year, 252 days Union and Progress Party
Mehmed VI

 

(1918–1922)

286   Ahmed İzzet (Furgaç) Pasha

(1864–1937)

14 October

1918

11 November

1918

28 days Union and Progress Party
287

(277)

  Ahmet Tevfik (Okday) Pasha

(1845–1936)

11 November

1918

4 March

1919

113 days Independent
288   DamatFerid Pasha

(1853–1923)

4 March

1919

2 October

1919

212 days Freedom and Accord Party
289   Ali Rıza Pasha

(1860–1932)

2 October

1919

8 March

1920

158 days Independent
VI

(1919)

290   Salih Hulusi (Kezrak) Pasha

(1864–1939)

8 March

1920

5 April

1920

28 days Independent
Constitution suspended

Last Grand Viziers (1920–1922)Edit

Grand Vizier Term of office Sultan
Took office Left office Time in office
290   Salih Hulusi (Kezrak) Pasha

(1864–1939)

8 March

1920

5 April

1920

28 days Mehmed VI

 

(1918–1922)

291

(288)

  DamatFerid Pasha

(1853–1923)

5 April

1920

21 October

1920

199 days
292

(277)

  Ahmet Tevfik (Okday) Pasha

(1845–1936)

21 October

1920

4 November

1922

2 years, 14 days
End of the Ottoman Empire

Prime Minister of the Government of the Grand National Assembly (1920–1923)Edit

Following the end of the Second Constitutional Era in 1920, the Ottoman Empire was in a state of diarchy, with the government based in Constantinople and the government based in Ankara both asserting themselves as the legitimate Ottoman government.

Prime Minister Term of office Political party Cabinet Legislature Speaker
Took office Left office Time in office
1   GaziMustafa Kemal (Atatürk) Pasha

(1881–1938)

3 May

1920

24 January

1921

266 days Association for the Defence of Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia 1 Atatürk I

(1920)

Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) Pasha

 

(1920–1923)

2   Mustafa Fevzi (Çakmak) Pasha

(1876–1950)

24 January

1921

19 May

1921

1 year, 166 days Association for the Defence of Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia 2 Çakmak I
19 May

1921

9 July

1922

3 Çakmak II
3   Hüseyin Rauf (Orbay)

(1881–1964)

12 July

1922

4 August

1923

1 year, 23 days Association for the Defence of Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia 4 Orbay
4   Ali Fethi (Okyar)

(1880–1943)

14 August

1923

27 October

1923

74 days Association for the Defence of Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia 5 Okyar
Declaration of the Republic of Turkey

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

SourcesEdit