General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire
The General Assembly (Turkish: Meclis-i Umumî (French romanization: "Medjliss Oumoumi" ) or Genel Parlamento; French: Assemblée Générale) was the first attempt at representative democracy by the imperial government of the Ottoman Empire. Also known as the Ottoman Parliament (French: Parlement Ottoman), it was located in Constantinople (Istanbul) and was composed of two houses: an upper house (Senate, Meclis-i Âyân), and a lower house (Chamber of Deputies, Meclis-i Mebusân).
Chamber of Deputies
|Founded||23 December 1876|
23 July 1908
|Disbanded||14 February 1878|
11 April 1920
|Preceded by||Divan-ı Hümayun|
|Succeeded by||Grand National Assembly|
|Dolmabahçe Palace (1876-1878)|
Darülfünûn building (1876-1878, 1908)
Çırağan Palace (1909)
Cemile Sultan Palace (1910-1920)
As a result of the Young Turk Revolution which brought substantial reforms and larger participation by political parties, the General Assembly was revived 30 years later, on 23 July 1908, with the Second Constitutional Era. The Second Constitutional Era ended on 11 April 1920, when the General Assembly was dissolved by the Allies during the occupation of Constantinople in the aftermath of World War I.
Many members of the dissolved Ottoman Parliament in Constantinople later became members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara (known in English as Angora in the Ottoman and pre-1930 Republic eras), which was established on 23 April 1920, during the Turkish War of Independence.
- "Meclis-i Mebusan (Mebuslar Meclisi)". Tarihi Olaylar.
- "Meclis-i Mebusan nedir? Ne zaman kurulmuştur?". Sabah. 19 January 2017.
- Article. 42 of the Constitution
- Legislation ottomane Volume 5: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/L%C3%A9gislation_ottomane_ou_Recueil_des_Aristarchi-Bey_Gr%C3%A9goire_Tome5.pdf p. 295 (PDF p. 299/370)
- Rainer Grote; Tilmann Röder (16 February 2012). Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity. Oxford University Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-19-975988-0.