Nevşehir is a city and the capital district of Nevşehir Province in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. According to the 2020 census, the population of the city is 82,110.  It is 290 km (180 mi) from the capital Ankara and lies within the historical region of Cappadocia.
|• Mayor||Rasim Arı (AKP)|
|• District||534.55 km2 (206.39 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,224 m (4,016 ft)|
|• District density||230/km2 (600/sq mi)|
The town lies at an elevation of 1,224 m (4,016 ft) and has a continental climate, with heavy snow in winter and great heat in summer. Although Nevşehir is close to the underground cities, fairy chimneys, monasteries, caravanserais and rock-hewn churches of Cappadocia, and has a few hotels, the modern town is not itself a tourist centre. In 2015 a huge underground city was discovered underneath its centre following demolition works intended to clear the central hillside of ramshackle modern housing.
Nevşehir Kapadokya Airport (NAV) is 30 kilometres northwest of the town.The inter-city bus station is about 6 km southwest of the city centre. Two planned high-speed rail services should eventually link Nevşehir to Antalya, Konya, Kayseri and Ankara.
Prehistory and ancient historyEdit
The Hittites first founded the settlement of Nissa on the slopes of Mount Kahveci in the valley of Kızılırmak (the ancient Halys). This town, along with the region, came under the rule of the Assyrian Empire around the 8th century BC, and was subsequently ruled by the Medes and then by the Persians during the reign of emperor Cyrus the Great in 546 BC. In 333 BC, Alexander the Great defeated the Persians and after his death, the surrounding area came under the rule of the dynasty of Ariarathes with Mazaka (present-day Kayseri) as its capital. The Cappadocian kingdom became a province- of the Roman empire in the reign of Emperor Tiberius.
The so-called underground cities found around Nevşehir may originally have been built to escape persecution by the pagan Roman authorities although others believe they date back to Hittite times. Many of the churches, hewn in the rocks, date from these early years of Christianity. Even when Theodosius I made Christianity the official religion of the empire, the caves offered protection for the local people during raids by the Sassanid Persians circa AD 604 and by the Islamic Caliphate from AD 647 onwards. When Iconoclasm became state policy in the Byzantine empire, again the caves around Nevşehir became shelters for those escaping persecution.
The castle on the hill in the middle of Nevşehir dates from the Byzantine period, when the region was on the frontline in the (holy) wars against the Islamic Caliphate.
At the Battle of Manzikert (present-day Malazgirt) in AD 1071, the Byzantine emperor Romanos IV was defeated by the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan which led to the occupation of Anatolia by the Seljuks by 1074. Along with the rest of the region, Nevşehir became part of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, then fell under the rule of the Karamanid dynasty in 1328 and finally under Ottoman rule around 1487 AD when it was renamed Muşkara. It remained relatively insignificant until the early 18th century.
The present-day city owes its foundation in the so-called Tulip Age to the grand vizier and son-in-law of the Sultan Ahmed III, Nevşehirli Damad İbrahim Pasha who was born in Muşkara and later took a great interest in its expansion. The small village with only 18 houses, formerly under the administration of the kaza of Ürgüp, was rapidly transformed with the building of mosques (the Kurṣunlu Mosque), fountains, schools, soup kitchens, inns and bath houses, and its name was changed from Muşkara to "Nevşehir" (meaning New City in Persian and Ottoman Turkish). In 1730 the grand vizier was assassinated by rebels in İstanbul but by then Nevşehir was firmly established as a town. The present-day city owes its foundation in the so-called Tulip Age to the grand vizier and son-in-law of the Sultan Ahmed III, Nevşehirli Damad İbrahim Pasha who was born in Muşkara and later took a great interest in its expansion. The small village with only 18 houses, formerly under the administration of the kaza of Ürgüp, was rapidly transformed with the building of mosques (the [[:c:|Kurṣunlu Mosque), fountains, schools, soup kitchens, inns and bath houses, and its name was changed from Muşkara to "Nevşehir" (meaning New City in Persian and Ottoman Turkish). In 1730 the grand vizier was assassinated by rebels in İstanbul but by then Nevşehir was firmly established as a town.
According to the Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893, the kaza of Nevşehir had a total population of 39,822, consisting of 30,370 Muslims, 8,918 Greeks, 477 Armenians, 36 Catholics and 21 Protestants.
Under the terms of the Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations in 1923, the Turkish speaking Greek Orthodox community (Karamanlis) of Nevşehir was exchanged for Muslims from Osheni, Shak and Revani villages of Kesriye (today's Οινόη, Κομνηνάδες and Διποταμία villages of Kastoria, Western Macedonia, Greece).
The economy of Nevşehir is largely characterized by agriculture as well as tourism.
Nevşehir municipality offices and statue of Atatürk
Nevşehir has a continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsa, Trewartha climate classification: Dc), with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers. Precipitation occurs throughout the year, with a slight peak in spring.
|Climate data for Nevşehir (1991–2020, extremes 1959–2020)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.6
|Average high °C (°F)||4.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−21.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||43.7
|Average precipitation days||8.80||7.83||10.27||11.33||13.40||8.40||2.40||2.37||3.83||6.93||7.10||9.30||92.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||96.1||118.7||164.3||204.0||257.3||309.0||365.8||347.2||276.0||195.3||138.0||86.8||2,558.5|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||3.1||4.2||5.3||6.8||8.3||10.3||11.8||11.2||9.2||6.3||4.6||2.8||7.0|
|Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
- "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Population of Nevsehir 2022 | Nevsehir population - statistics". Population HUB. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
- "Massive Underground City Found in Cappadocia Region of Turkey". Adventure. 2015-03-26. Retrieved 2022-04-11.
- "Tarihçe | Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli Üniversitesi".
- "KAPADOKYA HAVALİMANI". www.dhmi.gov.tr. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
- "Not 1, but 2 high-speed train lines will pass through Nevşehir".
- "Derinkuyu: Mysterious underground city in Turkey found in man's basement". Big Think. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
- fibhaber.com. "Nevşehir Kalesi tarihe ışık tutuyor". fibhaber.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 2022-08-09.
- "Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Paşa". www.biyografya.com. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
- "Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Paşa". www.biyografya.com. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
- Kemal Karpat (1985), Ottoman Population, 1830-1914, Demographic and Social Characteristics, The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 142-143
- Activities in Nevşehir
- "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Nevşehir, Turkey". Retrieved 2008-04-12.
Activities in Nevşehir</ref>
- Nevşehir Travel governor's official website (in Turkish)
- Nevşehir governor's official website (in Turkish)
- Nevşehir municipality's official website (in Turkish)
- Nevşehir (in Turkish)
- Some 200 pictures of the town and its sights
- Administrative map of Nevşehir district Archived 2009-03-05 at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish)