Friedrich Graf von Wrangel
This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (April 2009)
Friedrich Graf von Wrangel
|Born||13 April 1784|
Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland)
|Died||2 November 1877 (aged 93)|
Berlin, German Empire
|Allegiance||Kingdom of Prussia|
|Years of service||1796–1864|
First Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
|Awards||Pour le Mérite|
Early life and careerEdit
Wrangel was born in Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland) in Pomerania into the Wrangel family. He was actually a relative uncle to the world-famous explorer Ferdinand von Wrangel. He entered a dragoon regiment in 1796 and became second lieutenant in 1798. He fought as a subaltern during the Napoleonic Wars, distinguishing himself especially at Heilsberg in 1807 and receiving the order Pour le Mérite. In the reorganization of the army, Wrangel became first lieutenant and then captain; won distinction and promotion to lieutenant-colonel in the War of Liberation in 1813; won the Iron Cross at Wachau, near Leipzig; and became colonel in 1815.
Wrangel commanded a cavalry brigade in 1821, and two years later, he was promoted to major-general. He commanded the 13th Division, with headquarters at Münster, in Westphalia, in 1834 during riots caused by differences between the Archbishop of Cologne and the Crown, and the determination and the resolution with which he treated the clerical party prevented serious trouble. He was promoted to lieutenant-general, received many honours from the court, enjoyed the confidence of the Junkers and commanded at Königsberg and then Stettin.
First Schleswig WarEdit
In 1848, Wrangel commanded the II Corps of the army of the German Confederation during the First Schleswig War, was promoted to General of Cavalry and won several battles. However, the other European powers pressured Prussia to withdraw its forces, and King Frederick William IV accordingly ordered Wrangel to withdraw his troops from the duchies. Wrangel refused by asserting that he was under the command of not the king of Prussia but the regent of Germany. He proposed that at the very least, any treaty concluded should be presented for ratification to the Frankfurt Parliament, which was dominated by the liberals, which gave Liberals the rather mistaken idea that Wrangel was on their side. However, the Danes rejected that proposal, and negotiations were broken off, and after painful hesitation, Prussia signed a convention at Malmö that yielded to practically all of the Danish demands on 26 August 1848.
Wrangel's insubordination was not counted against him when, in the autumn, he was summoned to Berlin to suppress its riots during the German revolutions of 1848–49. As governor of Berlin and commander-in-chief of Brandenburg (appointments that he held until his death), he proclaimed a state of siege and ejected the Liberal president and the members of the Chamber. Thus, on two occasions in the troubled history of Prussia's revival, Wrangel's uncompromising sternness achieved its object without bloodshed.
Second Schleswig WarEdit
From then on, Wrangel was most prominent in connection with the revival of the Prussian cavalry from the neglect and inefficiency into which it had fallen during the years of peace and poverty sincerely 1815. In 1856, after 60 years of service, he was made a field marshal. At the age of 80, he commanded the Austro-Prussian army in the Second Schleswig War with Denmark in 1864. Wrangel was too old for active work and often issued vague or impracticable orders; he had always desired the young "Red Prince", Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia, to have the command. However, the prestige of Wrangel's name and the leadership of Frederick Charles, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein and Ludwig von Gablenz made the campaign an overwhelming success.
After the Battle of Düppel, Wrangel resigned his command, was created a Graf (count), and received other honours. In 1866, "Papa" Wrangel assisted in the Austro-Prussian War but without a command on account of his great age. He took a keen interest in the second reorganisation of the cavalry army in 1866 to 1870, and in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 to 1871. He died in Berlin in 1877.
On the 70th anniversary of his joining the army, Wrangel's regiment, the 3rd Cuirassiers, was given the title Graf Wrangel.
He received the following orders and decorations:
- Kingdom of Prussia:
- Pour le Mérite, 18 July 1807; with Oak Leaves, 13 September 1848; with Crown, 13 January 1857
- Iron Cross, 1st Class "Senior", 1813
- Knight of the Black Eagle, with Collar and in Diamonds, 18 October 1849; Chancellor, 1859
- Grand Cross of the Red Eagle, with Oak Leaves and Swords
- Knight of the Prussian Crown, 1st Class with Swords
- Grand Commander's Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, with Swords and in Diamonds
- Military Service Award, 1st Class
- Knight of Justice of the Johanniter Order
- Russian Empire:
- Kingdom of Hanover: Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order, 1843
- Denmark: Grand Cross of the Dannebrog, 6 November 1843
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross of the Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, with Golden Crown, 30 September 1848
- Baden: Grand Cross of the Military Karl-Friedrich Merit Order, 1850
- Duchy of Parma: Grand Cross of St. Louis for Civil Merit, 1850
- Austrian Empire:
- Kingdom of Bavaria: Grand Cross of Merit of the Bavarian Crown, 1853
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold, 10 May 1853
- Ascanian duchies: Grand Cross of Albert the Bear, 31 January 1855; with Swords, 5 December 1864
- Sweden-Norway: Knight of the Seraphim, 11 August 1859
- Brunswick: Grand Cross of Henry the Lion
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order
- Regarding personal names: Graf was a title before 1919, but now is regarded as part of the surname. It is translated as Count. Before the August 1919 abolition of nobility as a legal class, titles preceded the full name when given (Graf Helmuth James von Moltke). Since 1919, these titles, along with any nobiliary prefix (von, zu, etc.), can be used, but are regarded as a dependent part of the surname, and thus come after any given names (Helmuth James Graf von Moltke). Titles and all dependent parts of surnames are ignored in alphabetical sorting. The feminine form is Gräfin.
- Handbuch über den Königlich Preussischen Hof und Staat. 1876. p. 65.
- Lehmann, Gustaf (1913). Die Ritter des Ordens pour le mérite 1740–1811 [The Knights of the Order of the Pour le Mérite] (in German). 1. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn. p. 520.
- Liste der Ritter des Königlich Preußischen Hohen Ordens vom Schwarzen Adler (1851), "Von Seiner Majestät dem Könige Friedrich Wilhelm IV. ernannte Ritter" p. 23
- Almanach de la cour: pour l'année ... 1817. l'Académie Imp. des Sciences. 1817. p. 243.
- Staat Hannover (1865). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1865. Berenberg. p. 76.
- Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1876) [1st pub.:1801]. Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1876 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1876] (PDF). Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish). Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri. p. 6. Retrieved 14 January 2021 – via da:DIS Danmark.
- Staat Oldenburg (1876). Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Großherzogtums Oldenburg: für ... 1876. Schulze. p. 33.
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1862), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 37
- Almanacco di corte. 1858. p. 318.
- "Ritter-Orden", Hof- und Staatshandbuch der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie, 1877, pp. 59, 62, 68, 71, retrieved 14 January 2021
- Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1864. Landesamt. 1864. p. 29.
- "Liste des Membres de l'Ordre de Léopold", Almanach Royal Officiel (in French), 1854, p. 79 – via Archives de Bruxelles
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Herzogtum Anhalt (1867) "Herzoglicher Haus-orden Albrecht des Bären" p. 20
- Sveriges och Norges Statskalender (in Swedish), 1864, p. 422, retrieved 2019-02-20 – via runeberg.org
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
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