Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea (part of the South Pacific Ocean). It is the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement and colony on the Australian mainland, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney.
Port Jackson as seen from the air.
|River sources||Parramatta, Lane Cove, Middle Harbour|
|Ocean/sea sources||Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean|
|Islands||Clark, Shark, Goat, Fort Denison|
Port Jackson, in the early days of the colony, was also used as a shorthand for Sydney and its environs. Thus, many botanists, see, e.g, Robert Brown's Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, described their specimens as having been collected at Port Jackson.
The land around Port Jackson was inhabited at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal, Cammeraygal, and Wangal. The Gadigal inhabited the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west to the present Darling Harbour. The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal. The Eora inhabited Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), south to the Georges River and west to Parramatta.
Cook's naming of Port JacksonEdit
The first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson, one of the Lord Commissioners of the British Admiralty, and Judge Advocate of the Fleet. As the Endeavour sailed past the entrance at Sydney Heads, Cook wrote in his journal "at noon we were...about 2 or 3 miles from the land and abrest of a bay or harbour within there appeared to be a safe anchorage which I called Port Jackson."
Eighteen years later, on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to sound the entrance and examine Cook's Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove, then moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove and then Manly Cove before returning to Botany Bay on the afternoon of 24 January. Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia, later to become the city of Sydney. In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that:
...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security...— Governor Arthur Phillip, 15 May 1788.
The Great White Fleet, the United States Navy battle fleet, arrived in Port Jackson in August 1908 by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, making this Sydney's first international airport.
Attack on Sydney HarbourEdit
In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed. It spanned the harbour from Green (Laings) Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the other side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges, killing themselves in the process. A second midget submarine came to grief in Taylor's Bay, the two crew committing suicide. The third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago (both missed) before leaving the harbour. In November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydney's Northern Beaches.
The anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, and all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green (Laings) Point, Watsons Bay. Today, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the midget submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island, Sydney.
There are fortifications at Sydney Heads and elsewhere, some of which are now heritage listed. The earliest date from the 1830s, and were designed to defend Sydney from seaborn attack or convict uprisings. There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, Mosman, they are: the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex. The forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines, barracks and trenches.
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river valley, or ria. It is 19 km long with an area of 55 km2. The estuary's volume at high tide is 562 million cubic metres. The perimeter of the estuary is 317 kilometres.
According to the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales, Port Jackson is "a harbour which comprises all the waters within an imaginary line joining North Head and South Head. Within this harbour lies North Harbour, Middle Harbour and Sydney Harbour."
Port Jackson extends westward from the single entrance known as Sydney Heads (North and South Heads) and encompasses all tidal waters within North Harbour, Middle Harbour, Sydney Harbour, Darling Harbour, Parramatta River and Lane Cove River.
The harbour is heavily embayed. The bays on the south side tend to be wide and rounded, whereas those on the north side are generally narrow inlets. Many of these bays include beaches. The Sydney central business district extends from Circular Quay.
Headlands and peninsulasEdit
East to west, north side:
- North Head
- Dobroyd Head
- Middle Head
- Georges Head
- Bradleys Head
- Cremorne Point
- Kurraba Point
- McMahons Point
- Balls Head
- Berry Island
East to west, south side
- South Head
- Point Piper
- Darling Point
- Potts Point
- Bennelong Point
- Dawes Point
- Millers Point
There are several islands within the harbour, including Shark Island, Clark Island, Fort Denison, Goat Island, Cockatoo Island, Spectacle Island, Snapper Island and Rodd Island. Some other former islands, including Bennelong Island, Garden Island and Berry Island, have subsequently been linked to the shore by land reclamation, though their names often still contain the word "Island". Exposed at low tide is Sow and Pigs Reef, a well-known navigation obstacle near the main shipping lane.
Tributaries and waterwaysEdit
- Tank Stream was a fresh water course emptying into Sydney Cove. Today it is little more than a storm water drain but originally it was the fresh water supply for the fledgling colony of New South Wales in the late 18th century. It originated from a swamp to the west of present-day Hyde Park and at high tide entered Sydney Cove at the intersection of Bridge and Pitt Streets.
- Middle Harbour is the northern arm of Port Jackson. It begins as a small creek (Middle Harbour Creek) at St Ives. It joins the main waterway of Port Jackson between the two headlands, Middle Head and Grotto Point Reserve, adjacent to the Sydney Heads.
- Parramatta River is the western arm of Port Jackson. The river begins at confluence of Toongabbie Creek and Darling Mills Creek west of Parramatta and joins the main waterway of Port Jackson between Greenwich Point, Greenwich, and Robinsons Point, Birchgrove.
- Lane Cove River rises near Thornleigh and flows generally south for about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). Its catchment area is approximately 95.4 square kilometres (36.8 sq mi).
- Tarban Creek, a northern tributary of the Parramatta River, enters Port Jackson at Hunters Hill.
- Johnstons Creek is located in the inner-western suburbs of Glebe, Annandale, Forest Lodge and Stanmore. It rises in Stanmore and flows in a generally northward direction towards Rozelle Bay. The creek passes beneath the stands of the now demolished Harold Park Paceway prior to emptying into Rozelle Bay at Bicentennial Park Glebe. Orphan School Creek is a tributary of Johnstons Creek.
- Duck River is a perennial stream and southern tributary of the Parramatta River.
Port Jackson has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) with warm, somewhat humid summers and mild to cool winters, with moderate rainfall spread throughout the year. Due to its proximity to the open Tasman Sea, it is slightly cooler, wetter and breezier than Observatory Hill to the east. Port Jackson is also least affected by extreme heat due to the constant sea breezes, in addition to featuring the lowest maximum summer temperatures in the Sydney region, that average at just 24.4 °C (75.9 °F). Conversely, winter nights are among the warmest in Sydney, which rarely dip below 8.0 °C (46.4 °F), although fog can usually occur and may be disruptive.
Port Jackson's weather station is located within a lighthouse just south of Georges Head at Georges Heights in Mosman and is adjacent to the suburbs of Vauclause, Point Piper and Watsons Bay, which are on Port Jackson's east side towards the Pacific Ocean. Sydney Cove, a bay in Port Jackson's west side that includes Circular Quay, is more proximate to the Observatory Hill weather station, and therefore the climate data below does not apply to that vicinity.
|Climate data for Sydney Harbour (Western Channel Pile Light)|
|Record high °C (°F)||42.2
|Average high °C (°F)||24.8
|Average low °C (°F)||20.4
|Record low °C (°F)||14.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||97.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||8.3||8.4||9.3||10.1||9.1||9.4||7.5||8.1||7.9||8.5||8.4||8.2||103.2|
|Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology (temperatures, 1996–present)|
|Source 2: Bureau of Meteorology, Rose Bay (rainfall, 1928–present) Manly Town Hall (rain days, 1914–1963)|
Other bridges spanning Port Jackson waterways are Pyrmont Bridge spanning Darling Harbour; the Anzac Bridge (formerly known as the Glebe Island Bridge), spanning Blackwattle Bay; the Iron Cove Bridge spanning Iron Cove; the Spit Bridge spanning Middle Harbour; the Roseville Bridge spanning Middle Harbour; the Tarban Creek Bridge spanning Tarban Creek.
A weir at Queens Avenue, Parramatta separates the saltwater and tidal waters to the east from the freshwater and non-tidal waters to the west.
A road tunnel, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel passing underneath the Harbour to the east of the bridge was opened in August 1992.
In 2005, 2010 and in 2014 the NSW Government proposed a rail tunnel be constructed to the west of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Construction of an extra pair of road tunnels to the west of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, as part of the Sydney Metro project, was approved in January 2017 while the Harbour tunnelling was completed in March 2020.
The Western Harbour Tunnel & Beaches Link is planned to offer another motor vehicle tunnel in 2026.
Cruise ship terminalsEdit
Permanent cruise ship terminals are located at the Overseas Passenger Terminal at Circular Quay, Sydney Cove and at the White Bay Cruise Terminal at White Bay. White Bay's evolution to a cruise terminal came with the closure of Darling Harbour terminal to make way for the Barangaroo development.
Other port facilitiesEdit
White Bay and adjacent Glebe Island have been working ports since the mid-1800s, handling just about everything from timber and paper, coal, sugar and cement to cars and containers. The NSW Government identified both as vital to the City's economy and in March 2013 announced its commitment to maintaining both as working ports as it frees up neighbouring bays for public access. Glebe Island is Sydney's last remaining deepwater port able to supply the City's ongoing demand for dry bulk goods such as sugar, gypsum and cement.
Most of Sydney's port infrastructure has moved south to Botany Bay since the construction of the first container terminals there in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
- Dawes Point Battery (1791)
- Fort Macquarie (1798)
- Middle Head Fortifications (1801)
- Fort Phillip (1804)
- Goat Island (1826)
- Bradleys Head Fortification Complex (1840)
- Admiralty House (1856)
- Fort Denison (1857)
- Georges Head Battery (1871)
- Steel Point Battery (1874)
- North Fort (1936)
- Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net (1942)
- HMAS Platypus (1967)
Water taxi and water limousine operators offer transport not restricted by timetables or specific routes, and can also provide a service to or from private wharfs and houses on the waterfront. Sightseeing harbour cruises are operated daily from Circular Quay. Whale watching excursions are also operated from Port Jackson.
The Mortlake Ferry, also known as the Putney Punt, crosses the Parramatta River, connecting Mortlake and Putney.
Port Jackson is associated with the voyages of Richard Siddins.
Port Jackson has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
Derivative unit of measureEdit
A Sydharb is a unit of volume used in Australia for water, especially in dams and harbours. One sydharb (or sydarb), also called a Sydney Harbour, is the amount of water in the Sydney Harbour (Port Jackson): approximately 500 gigalitres (410,000 acre⋅ft).
- Brown, Robert. Prodromus floræ Novæ Hollandiæ et Insulæ Van-Diemen : exhibens characteres plantarum quas annis 1802–1805 /. Londini: typis R. Taylor et socii.
- "Sydney Harbour National Park". NSW National Parks.
- Woollarawarre Bennelong quoted by Governor Arthur Phillip in a despatch to Lord Sydney, 13 February 1790 CO201/5, National Archives, Kew (London)
- McDermott, Peter Joseph (6 November 1878). "Pacific Exploration". The Brisbane Courier. Brisbane Newspaper Company Ltd. p. 5. Retrieved 5 November 2008.
- Champion, Shelagh; Champion, George (1990). "Phillip's First Three Days in Port Jackson: 21st, 22nd and 23rd January 1788". Manly, Warringah and Pittwater: First Fleet Records of Events, 1788–1790 (September 2005 revised ed.). Killarney Heights. ISBN 0-9596484-3-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2017.
- "Letter from Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney (15 May 1788)". Historical Records of New South Wales. Vol 1, Part 2 (1783–1792). Charles Potter, Government Printer. 1892. p. 122.
- Office of Environment and Heritage. "M24 Japanese Midget Submarine wreck site". State Heritage Inventory Database. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- NPWS plaque
- Grose, Peter (2007). A Very Rude Awakening: The night the Japanese midget subs came to Sydney Harbour. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 9781741752199.
- "DECC – Defence heritage in and around Sydney Harbour". Archived from the original on 31 December 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
- "Port Jackson". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- RAN Hydrographic Services Map of Port Jackson published in August 1972.
- UBD Citylink Street Directory Page 155 Map reference F4
- UBD City Link Street Directory Page191 Map Reference A12
- "Climate statistics for Sydney Harbour (Wedding Cake West) (1996–present)". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
- "Climate statistics for Rose Bay (Royal Sydney Golf Club)". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
- "BOM – Manly". May 2020.
- "Sydney Harbour metro tunnelling now complete". Infrastructure Magazine. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
- McNab, Heather (11 January 2017). "Twin tunnels under Sydney Harbour given green light for metro project". The Daily Telegraph. News Corp. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Sydney Ports".
- Australian National Maritime Museum www.anmm.gov.au
- Sydney Heritage Fleet
- "Fort Denison". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00985. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Goat Island". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00989. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "South Steyne (S.S.)". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00755. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Bradleys Head Light Tower". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01430. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Australian Conventional Units of Measurement in Water" (PDF). Australian Water Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2005. Retrieved 10 March 2006.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sydney Harbour.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sydney Harbour.|
- Harbour Islands travel guide from Wikivoyage
- ABC Radio National: "A Living Harbour" – a history of Sydney Harbour.
- Official New South Wales Maritime Authority website
- Sydney Harbour Guide from Sydney.com
- Maps maintained by the New South Wales Maritime Authority (legal owner of the harbour bed):
- Office of Environment and Heritage. "Sydney Harbour and Parramatta River catchment" (map). Government of New South Wales.
- Sydney Harbour Federation Trust – established by the Australian Government to plan for the future of former Defence and other special Commonwealth Lands around Sydney Harbour.
- Sydney Ports
- Ian Hoskins (2013). "Sydney Harbour: A Cultural Landscape". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 6 October 2015. [CC-By-SA]
- "Sydney Harbour islands". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 6 October 2015. [CC-By-SA]
- Phil Mulhearn (2014). "Early Hydrographers of Sydney". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 6 October 2015. [CC-By-SA]