University of New Brunswick
The University of New Brunswick (UNB) is a public university with two primary campuses in Fredericton and Saint John, New Brunswick. It is the oldest English-language university in Canada, and among the oldest public universities in North America. UNB was founded by a group of seven Loyalists who left the United States after the American Revolution.
|Academy of Liberal Arts and Sciences (1785–1800)|
College of New Brunswick (1800–1828)
King's College (1828–1859)
Motto in English
|Dare to be Wise|
|Colours||Red & black|
|Athletics||U Sports, AUS|
|Nickname||Reds (Fredericton), Seawolves (Saint John)|
|Affiliations||AUCC, CARL, IAU, U Sports, CVU, ACU, CUSID, AUS, AUFSC, CBIE, CUP.|
UNB has two main campuses: the original campus, founded in 1785 in Fredericton, and a smaller campus which opened in Saint John in 1964. In addition, there are two small satellite health sciences campuses located in Moncton and Bathurst, New Brunswick, and two offices in the Caribbean and in Beijing. UNB offers over 75 degrees in fourteen faculties at the undergraduate and graduate levels with a total student enrollment of approximately 11,400 between the two principal campuses. UNB was named the most entrepreneurial university in Canada at the 2014 Startup Canada Awards.
Founding and chartersEdit
In 1783, Loyalist settlers began to build upon the ruins of a former Acadian village called Ste-Anne-des-Pays-Bas. The new settlement was named Frederick's Town in honour of Prince Frederick, son of King George III and uncle of Queen Victoria.
Initially modelled on the Anglican ideals of older, European institutions, the University of New Brunswick was founded in 1785 as the Academy of Liberal Arts and Sciences. The petition requesting the establishment of the school, titled "The Founders' Petition of 1785," was addressed to Governor Thomas Carleton and was signed by seven Loyalist men: William Paine, William Wanton, George Sproule, Zephaniah Kingsley, Sr., John Coffin, Ward Chipman, and Adino Paddock.
To his Excellency Thomas Carleton Esquire Governor Captain General, and Commander in Chief, of the Province of New Brunswick, and the territories thereunto belonging, Vice Admiral Chancellor &c &c &c: —
- Your memorialists whose names are hereunto subscribed, beg leave to represent, and state to your consideration the Necessity and expediency of an early attention to the Establishment in this Infant Province of an Academy, or School of liberal Arts and Sciences.
- Your Excellency need not be reminded of the many Peculiarities attending the Settlement of this Country The Settlement of other Provinces has generally originated in the voluntary Exertions of a few enterprising Individuals, unincumbered, and prosecuting their Labor at their Leisure, and as they found it convenient, and most for their Advantage – Far different is the Situation in which the loyal Adventurers here find themselves – Many of them upon removing had Sons, whose Time of life, and former Hopes, call for an immediate attention to their Education – Many publick advantages, and many Conveniences would result to Individuals could this be affected within this Province, the Particulars of which it is unnecessary to ennumerate – Your Memorialists do therefore most earnestly request your Excellency will be pleased to grant a Charter for the establishing, and founding such an Academy . . .
By an 1800 provincial charter, signed by Jonathan Odell, the Academy of Liberal Arts and Sciences became the College of New Brunswick. The College was succeeded by King's College, which was granted by royal charter in December 1827. King's College operated under the control of the Church of England until 1859, when it was made non-sectarian by an act of the provincial legislature that transformed the College into the University of New Brunswick. In 1866, Mary Kingsley Tibbits became the first regularly admitted female student of UNB.
In 1906, UNB established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate responsible for academic policy, and a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to provide institutional leadership. By 1867, the University of New Brunswick had two faculties: Arts and Applied Science. It awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Science. The latter was awarded only in the fields of civil engineering, electrical engineering, and forestry. At this time, the university had 156 male students, 21 female students, and only eleven academic staff, who were all male.
In the 1960s, University policies changed in response to social pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. In 1964, a second, smaller campus was established in Saint John, New Brunswick. The growth of the UNBSJ campus is particularly notable, for the campus began with only 96 students spread throughout various buildings in Saint John's central business district. In 1968, UNBSJ moved to its new home at Tucker Park.
The Association of University of New Brunswick Teachers (AUNBT) was established in 1954; in 1979, this association became the bargaining agent for all full-time academic staff, and in 2008, it achieved certification for contract academic staff.
Relocation of the Faculty of LawEdit
In 1959, the Faculty of Law moved from Saint John to Fredericton following a report on the status of legal education in Canada by Professor Maxwell Cohen from McGill University. In his report, Cohen stated that the Saint John Law School was only "nominally a faculty of UNB". This prompted Lord Beaverbrook, as Chancellor, and UNB President Colin B. Mackay, to permanently move the Saint John Law School to the UNB Fredericton campus, despite the Dean's objections.
In the fall of 2007, a report commissioned by the provincial government recommended that UNBSJ and the New Brunswick Community College be reformed and consolidated into a new polytechnic post-secondary institute. The proposal immediately came under heavy criticism and led to the several organized protests. Under heavy fire from the public, the Graham government eventually announced that it would set aside the possibility of UNB Saint John losing its status as a university and would refer the report to a working group for further study. The government would go on to announce in January that UNBSJ would retain its liberal arts program and its association with UNB and the working group reported back to government in May, with its findings and government's response being made public in June.
Currently UNBF has approximately 9,000 students while UNBSJ has 3,000. Though UNBF has more students at the moment, UNSBT is growing at a faster rate. Both campuses have undergone significant expansion over the years, and many University buildings have received funding from Lord Beaverbrook and other prominent industrialists and philanthropists. UNB's largest expansion coincided with the baby boom, when its Fredericton campus tripled in size.
The UNB Fredericton campus is located on a hill overlooking the Saint John River. The campus is well known for its colourful fall foliage, Georgian style red-brick buildings, and a very steep hill. UNB Fredericton has shared the "College Hill" with St. Thomas University (STU) since 1964, when the former St. Thomas College moved from Chatham, NB (now Miramichi). While the universities share some infrastructure, they remain separate institutions.
Architect G. Ernest Fairweather designed several of the campus buildings, including the Old Civil Engineering Building (1900) and the Gymnasium (1906). In addition, several of the stained glass windows in the Convocation Hall were created by Robert McCausland Limited.
UNBF's War Memorial Hall (usually referred to as Memorial Hall), originally built as a science building in 1924, honours the 35 UNB Alumni who died in World War I.
UNBF's Brigadier Milton F. Gregg, V.C., Centre for the Study of War and Society (usually referred to as The Gregg Centre) was created in 2006.
The Richard J. Currie Center, a five-storey 139,000-square-foot building, was constructed in 2013.
National Historic SitesEdit
Two buildings on the Fredericton campus have been designated National Historic Sites of Canada: the 1827 Sir Howard Douglas Hall (the Old Arts Building), and the 1851 William Brydone Jack Observatory.
The UNB Saint John campus (UNBSJ) is located in Tucker Park in the Millidgeville neighbourhood, several kilometres north of the city's central business district, and has views of the Kennebecasis River and Grand Bay. New Brunswick's largest health care facility, Saint John Regional Hospital, is located adjacent to the UNBSJ campus. Since 2010, the UNBSJ campus has been home to Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, a medical school that operates as a partnership between the Government of New Brunswick, the University of New Brunswick and Dalhousie’s Faculty of Medicine.
The Saint John campus has undergone expansion over the years and is the fastest growing component of the UNB system with many new buildings constructed between the 1970s and the first decade of the 21st century. A trend in recent years has been a growth in the number of international students.
Notable differences from its parent campus in Fredericton lay in the campus culture. While UNB Fredericton has a substantial number of students living in its on-campus residences, this is not the case for UNBSJ. The majority of students do not live within walking distance of the campus due to its remote location, so unlike Fredericton, Saint John is predominantly a "commuter campus".
April 1, 2010, the construction on the Hans W. Klohn Commons began. This building is one of the most environmentally friendly buildings in Atlantic Canada. The building features an electric elevator that produces power for the commons. The building is part of the Tucker Park enhancement project, which will include the refurbishment of the Canada Games Stadium, the new Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick facility, and the New Brunswick Community College's Allied Health building.
The University of New Brunswick has attempted to reduce its environmental impact through installing a natural gas burning microturbine at the Central Heating Plant that produces 100 kW of electricity for the university. Heat energy, a result of this process, is used to contribute to the overall heating of the campus to increase its overall energy efficiency. In addition, all produce and dairy products used within its dining services are obtained from local farmers and local producers; the campus offers grass-fed beef, fair trade coffee, and dining locations offer biodegradable to-go containers. UNB recycles electronics in addition to traditional materials and operates a move-out materials collection program. The university adheres to a green purchasing policy and has reduced greenhouse gas emissions 26 percent since 1990; they have also decreased water consumption since 2005 through the adoption of new technologies. With these efforts to create a more sustainable campus, the University of New Brunswick received an overall "B+" grade in the 2011 College Sustainability Report Card put out by the Sustainable Endowment's Institute.
Research and academicsEdit
UNB is the seat of 11 Canada Research Chairs and is home to more than 60 research centres and institutes. It conducts about 75 per cent of all university research in the province. UNB's annual research spending (2013–14) generated $32.2 million in added provincial income for the New Brunswick economy. Between 2004 and 2009, the university's research revenue increased by 77 per cent: the highest increase among Canadian comprehensive universities.
UNB has developed technology used by Google, is a research partner with the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a global leader in powered prosthetic research and developing MRI technology, and is home to one of the motion analysis labs in North America as well as the world's first research centre in dermoskeletics.
|U.S News & World Report Global||905|
|U.S News & World Report National||26|
In 2014, UNB was awarded the most entrepreneurial university in Canada by Startup Canada. The university has also supported in launching 23 new startup companies as of 2015.
In 2019, Maclean's magazine ranked UNB 8th out of 15 universities placed in the publication's "comprehensive university" category. For several years running, UNB's libraries have been ranked in the top spot nationally in terms of the percentage of the overall budget devoted to libraries and in terms of holdings per student.
In 2008, the National Post and the Ottawa Citizen recognized UNB as being among the top three comprehensive research universities in Canada for the highest percentage growth of research income across a five-year period.
Because so many of UNB's students, alumni, and professors have produced celebrated poetry, the city of Fredericton has earned the nickname "Poets' Corner." Two of Canada's four Confederation Poets – Sir Charles G.D. Roberts and Bliss Carman – were educated at UNB, as was Francis Joseph Sherman, along with a number of notable 20th- and 21st-century Canadian writers. In 1947, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada unveiled a "Poet's Corner" monument in honour of Carman, Roberts, and Sherman.
Institute of Biomedical EngineeringEdit
The Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBME) on the Fredericton campus is one of the research institutes in biomedical engineering in Canada. It was founded in 1965 as the Bio-Engineering Institute, making it one of the oldest research institutes to be solely dedicated to the field of biomedical engineering. The institute is also the region's prosthetic fitting centre where amputees are fitted with "intelligent" artificial limbs. The institute also carries out research in the field of myoelectric signal processing, biomedical instrumentation and human motion analysis. The IBME also developed the UNB Test of Prosthetic Function which is used by researchers all over the world. Although the institute does not offer degrees in biomedical engineering, students at UNB usually enroll in one of the other faculties of engineering such as electrical or mechanical and pursue their research in biomedical engineering at the IBME.
Canadian Rivers InstituteEdit
The Canadian Rivers Institute was founded in 2000 and is a site of river sciences research. The mandate of the CRI is to conduct both multi-disciplinary basic and applied research focusing on rivers from their headwaters to their estuaries, to promote the conservation, protection and sustainable use of water, and to educate professionals, graduate students and the public on water sciences. Members of the CRI conduct research on regional, national and international issues related to rivers and their land-water linkages.
With researchers from both UNB campuses, the CRI develops the aquatic science needed to understand, protect and sustain water resources. Since 2013, the CRI and its partners have been working with NB Power to research the potential environmental impacts of the future options being considered for the Mactaquac Generating Station. The Mactaquac Dam on the Saint John River will reach the end of its lifespan by 2030, and CRI has been evaluating key environmental challenges such as river health, fish passage and flow management. In 2015, CRI was given an additional $2.8 million from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) to conduct an aquatic ecosystem study on the Saint John River.
UNB created its BEd program for First Nations students in 1977 in an effort to help First Nations communities take control of their own schools. In 1981, the Mi'kmaq-Maliseet Institute (MMI), the former name of the MWC, opened its doors with an expanded mandate to train professionals and improve First Nations access to First Nations education. The Institute provided a variety of services, including research, curriculum development, language education, policy development, children's literacy, and more. In addition, the Institute funded the Mi'kmaq-Maliseet Resource Collection, which contains materials that are immensely valuable to knowledge of First Nations culture, history, and perspective in the region.
Canadian Research Institute for Social PolicyEdit
The Canadian Research Institute for Social Policy was founded in 1996 as the Atlantic Centre for Policy Research, supported by the Canadian Institute For Advanced Research. The name change took effect in January, 2000. The institute was designated as a Statistics Canada Research Data Centre in 2002. The institute brings interdisciplinary researchers together to focus on issues pertaining to social policy on a national and international level, specifically issues relevant to children and youth development. Projects included the New Brunswick Schools Early Literacy Initiative; Mapping Literacy as a Determinant of Healt;, Raising and Leveling the Bar: A Collaborative Research Initiative on Children's Learning, Behavioural, and Health Outcomes; and the Confident Learners Initiative.
Medical Training CentreEdit
The University of New Brunswick's Medical Training Centre is the first anglophone school of medicine in New Brunswick. It is a joint medical programme, offered with Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine.
UNB awards over five million dollars in scholarships each year. These include the Blake-Kirkpatrick, Beaverbrook, and President's scholarships. With $7.2 million available in undergraduate scholarships, one in two students entering UNB from high school received a scholarship as of 2015. UNB has a scholarship guarantee in which any admitted student with an average of 80% or higher will receive a guaranteed amount of five hundred dollars.
As a member of the Loran Scholars university consortium, UNB offers a matching tuition waiver as part of a $100,000 undergraduate scholarship to recognize incoming students who demonstrate "exemplary character, service and leadership". Five Loran Scholars have studied at UNB over the years. Additionally, it is part of the Schulich Leader Scholarships program, awarding an $100,000 STEM scholarship to an incoming engineering student and a $80,000 scholarship to a science, technology, or mathematics student each year.
UNB has approximately 10,000 students from over 100 countries. Students have over 125 clubs and societies to choose from between the Fredericton and Saint John campuses and there are 13 residences available to students in Fredericton and two in Saint John. Students on both campuses have access to UNB's facilities, fitness classes and outdoor activities such as snowshoeing and kayaking. There are exchanges available in more than 35 countries around the world with over 89 university partners.
UNB Fredericton is represented in U Sports by the UNB Reds while UNBSJ is represented by the UNBSJ Seawolves. The Reds compete in the following sports: men's and women's basketball, men's and women's hockey, men's and women's soccer, men's and women's volleyball, and swimming. Men's and women's track & field and cross country were added as a varsity sport for 2010/2011; this is a joint Fredericton/Saint John Campus program.
In the past, UNBF used different names for each individual sport's team; for instance, the men's swim team was the Beavers, and the hockey team was the Red Devils. The university club teams, which are supported financially by the Student Union as well as by individual members of the teams, do not use the Reds name and thus continue the tradition of using different nicknames for each sport.
Traditional among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various times such as commencement, convocation, and athletic events are "Carmina Universitatis Novi Brunsvici", "Alma Mater" (1904), and "UNB Anthem", with words by A.G. Bailey and music by D.V. Start.
Colloquial songs included "Bombers Away" to celebrate the football team:
Bombers away, my boys
'Cause when you fight red bombers.
Fight you Bombers, Fight you Bombers,
Fight, Fight, Fight.
Notable facts and milestonesEdit
As of 2012, the University of New Brunswick reports 64,000 living alumni, half of whom live in New Brunswick.
- D. Craig Aitchison – Canadian military general
- Alfred Bailey – educator, poet, anthropologist, ethnohistorian
- David Bashow, fighter pilot, professor, and military historian
- Francesco Bellini – scientist, entrepreneur, and co-founder of BioChem Pharma
- George Best – first president of University of King's College
- Elizabeth Brewster – poet and academic
- Rod Bryden – business executive
- Bliss Carman – 19th-century Canadian poet
- Richard Currie – business executive, Chancellor Emeritus of UNB
- Joseph Z. Daigle – politician, jurist and Chief Justice of New Brunswick
- Kwame Dawes – artist and academic
- Julie Dickson – civil servant
- Darrell Duffie – economist and Dean Witter Distinguished Professor of Finance at Stanford Graduate School of Business
- Fredrik Stefan Eaton – former business executive and High Commissioner to the United Kingdom
- Sir George Eulas Foster – politician, academic, and Minister of Finance
- David A. Ganong – President of Ganong Bros. Limited
- William Francis Ganong – botanist, historian, cartographer
- Shawn Graham – former Premier of New Brunswick
- Sir John Douglas Hazen – politician and jurist, former Premier of New Brunswick and Chief Justice of New Brunswick
- Loyola Hearn – former politician and Ambassador to Ireland
- Sam Hinds – former Prime Minister of Guyana
- Norman Inkster - former Commissioner of the RCMP & former President of INTERPOL
- Gérard La Forest – former Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada
- Kelly Lamrock – former politician, cabinet minister and Attorney General of New Brunswick
- Walter Learning – theatre director and founder of Theatre New Brunswick
- Alaina Lockhart – Member of Parliament
- Wade MacLauchlan – Premier of Prince Edward Island
- Alistair MacLeod – author
- Allison McCain – business executive, philanthropist, and Chairman of the Board of McCain Foods Limited
- Frank McKenna – former Premier of New Brunswick, Ambassador to the United States, and banker
- John B. McNair – former Premier of New Brunswick, Chief Justice of New Brunswick, and Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick
- Gerald Merrithew – educator, politician
- Gerard Mitchell – jurist and former Chief Justice of Prince Edward Island
- James Mitchell – Premier of New Brunswick
- Shawn Murphy – lawyer and politician
- Anne Murray – Grammy Award-winning singer
- Graydon Nicholas – jurist and first aboriginal Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick, first aboriginal man in Atlantic Canada to earn a law degree
- Robert Nielsen – journalist
- Penny Park – science journalist
- Tony Proudfoot – all-star CFL (Montreal Alouettes and BC Lions) player
- William Pugsley – politician, Premier of New Brunswick, and Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick
- Lalith J. Rao – Indian classical singer and a representative of the Agra gharana
- Charles D. Richards – former Premier of New Brunswick, Chief Justice of New Brunswick
- Sir Charles G. D. Roberts – 19th-century Canadian poet and author
- Andy Scott – politician
- Dr. Chris Simpson – physician, 147th President of the Canadian Medical Association
- Scott Smith – President of Hockey Canada
- Leonard Percy de Wolfe Tilley – politician and former Premier of New Brunswick
- Clark Todd – journalist, killed on assignment in Lebanon
- R. M. Vaughan – Canadian poet, novelist and playwright
- Edward Ludlow Wetmore – politician, jurist and Chief Justice of Saskatchewan
- Mary Matilda Winslow – the University of New Brunswick's first black female graduate
- Doug Young – lawyer and politician, former Minister of National Defence, and Leader of the Liberal Party of New Brunswick
- The Baron (Saint John campus)
- The Brunswickan (Fredericton campus)
- The Pillar (Engineering Newspaper) (Fredericton Campus)
Magazines and journalsEdit
- List of oldest universities in continuous operation
- Higher education in New Brunswick
- List of universities and colleges in New Brunswick
- List of historic places in New Brunswick
- Maritime College of Forest Technology
- Atlantic University Sport
- U Sports
- Canadian government scientific research organizations
- Canadian university scientific research organizations
- Canadian industrial research and development organizations
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- McGahan, Peter. The Quiet Campus: A History of the University of New Brunswick in Saint John, 1959–1969. Fredericton: New Ireland Press, 1998.
- Montague, Susan. A Pictorial History of the University of New Brunswick. Fredericton: University of New Brunswick, 1992.
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- "Ranking Canada's Law Schools". Rogers Digital Media.
- "Good University Ranking Guide". Good University Ranking Guide. Retrieved 2016-04-01.
- "Poets' Corner". UNB Archives' 225th Anniversary Projects. Retrieved 2012-03-03.
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- "CRI Annual Report" (PDF). 2007-08-01. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
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- University of New Brunswick. Schulich Leader Scholarships - $60,000 or $80,000!. Retrieved on: July 1. 2014.
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- Arts Building, UNB, National Historic Site of Canada
- William Brydone Jack Observatory, UNB, National Historic Site of Canada
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