Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore
The Metropolitan Archdiocese of Baltimore (Latin: Archidioecesis Baltimorensis) is the premier (or first) see of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The archdiocese comprises the City of Baltimore and 9 of Maryland's 23 counties in the central and western portions of the state: Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, and Washington. The archdiocese is the metropolitan see of the larger regional Ecclesiastical Province of Baltimore. Archdiocese of Washington was originally part of the Archdiocese of Baltimore.
Archdiocese of Baltimore
|Territory||The City of Baltimore and nine counties across central and western Maryland|
|Area||4,801 km2 (1,854 sq mi)|
|(as of 2015)|
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Established||November 6, 1789 (229 years)|
|Cathedral||Cathedral of Mary Our Queen|
|Co-cathedral||Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary|
|Patron saint||Immaculate Conception|
St. Ignatius of Loyola
|Metropolitan Archbishop||William E. Lori|
|Auxiliary Bishops||Mark E. Brennan|
Adam J. Parker
|Bishops emeritus||Denis J. Madden|
The Archdiocese of Baltimore is the oldest diocese in the United States whose see city was entirely within the nation's boundaries when the United States declared its independence in 1776. The Holy See granted the Archbishop of Baltimore the right of precedence in the nation at liturgies, meetings, and Plenary Councils on August 15, 1859. Although the Archdiocese of Baltimore does not enjoy "primatial" status, it is the premier episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States of America, as "prerogative of place".
Within the archdiocese are 518,000 Catholics, 145 parishes, 545 priests (244 diocesan priests, 196 priests resident in diocese), 159 permanent deacons, 55 brothers, 803 sisters, 205 lay extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, five hospitals, 28 aged homes, 7 diocesan/parish high schools, 13 private high schools, and 4 Catholic colleges/universities.
This archdiocese was featured in the Netflix documentary The Keepers exposing the sexual abuse history at Archbishop Keough High School and the murder of Sister Catherine Cesnik in 1969. It was revealed in late 2016 that the Archdiocese of Baltimore had paid off numerous settlements since 2011 for abuse victims.
Before and during the American Revolutionary War, the Catholics in Great Britain's thirteen colonies in America (and also its colonies in Canada) were under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishop of the Apostolic Vicariate of the London District, in England. After the Treaty of Paris, signed September 3, 1783, ended the war, Maryland clergy delivered a petition to the Holy See, on November 6, 1783, for permission for the missionaries in the United States to nominate a superior who would have some of the powers of a bishop. In response, Pope Pius VI on June 6, 1784, confirmed Father John Carroll, who had been selected by his brother priests, as Superior of the Missions in the newly independent thirteen United States of North America, with power to give the sacrament of confirmation. This act established a hierarchy in the United States and removed the Catholic Church in the U.S. from the authority of the Vicar Apostolic of the London District.
The Holy See then established the Apostolic Prefecture of the United States on November 26, 1784. Because Maryland was one of the few regions of the colonial United States with a substantial Roman Catholic population, the apostolic prefecture was elevated to become the Diocese of Baltimore—the first diocese in the United States—on November 6, 1789. In 1790, Father Carroll traveled to England where he was ordained and consecrated as a bishop in Lulworth Castle in Dorset, by Bishop Charles Walmesley, O.S.B. The first American-born Catholic priest, William Matthews, was ordained by Carroll at St. Peter's Pro-Cathedral in the Diocese of Baltimore in 1800.
On April 8, 1808, Pope Pius VII erected the suffragan dioceses of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Bardstown in Bardstown, Kentucky, which moved in 1841 to the larger city of Louisville, from the territory of the Diocese of Baltimore and simultaneously raised it to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese, thereby making it the "Archdiocese of Baltimore". The newly established "Province of Baltimore"—whose metropolitan was the Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Baltimore—comprised all of the states and territories of the nation.
On July 22, 1939, the City of Washington was erected as a separate archdiocese. The archbishop of Baltimore, Michael J. Curley, was simultaneously named the first archbishop of the new Archdiocese of Washington (D.C.) and continued to administer the two archdioceses as a single unit — in persona episcopi. The see was temporarily renamed the Archdiocese of Baltimore-Washington, in recognition of the nation's capital. Eight years later, on November 15, 1947, Patrick A. O'Boyle was appointed the second archbishop — and first residential archbishop — of the Archdiocese of Washington, which consequently began to function as a separate diocese. Therefore, the territory of the "new" archdiocese — consisting of the District of Columbia and the two Washington suburban and three southern counties of Maryland — were permanently separated from the Archdiocese of Baltimore, which was thus reduced to its current extent.
From 1808 until 1847, Baltimore was the only archdiocese in the United States and therefore the entire country was one ecclesiastical province. As the nation's population grew and waves of Catholic immigrants arrived, the Holy See continued to erect new dioceses and elevate certain others to the status of metropolitan archdioceses, which simultaneously became metropolitan sees of new ecclesiastical provinces. Thus, the Province of Baltimore gradually became smaller and smaller. In 1846, the Diocese of Oregon City, now Portland, Oregon was raised to an archdiocese. Following in 1847, the then Diocese of Saint Louis was elevated to an archdiocese and metropolitan see of the new Province of Saint Louis. Also in 1850, the Diocese of New York was raised to an archdiocese. In 1875, the dioceses of Boston and Philadelphia were likewise elevated.
The archdiocese began to publish its diocesan newspaper, The Baltimore Catholic Review since 1913 as the successor to the earlier diocesan publication The Catholic Mirror, published 1833 to 1908. The name has since been shortened to The Catholic Review. In 2012, it changed from weekly to biweekly issues and in December 2015, it transformed again to a monthly magazine.
Plenary Councils of BaltimoreEdit
The Plenary Councils of Baltimore were three national meetings of Catholic bishops in the United States in 1852, 1866 and 1884 in Baltimore, Maryland.
- First Plenary Council of Baltimore (1852): among the decrees were one that required immigrant priests to provide a letter of reference from their previous bishops, and a requirement that marriage banns be published.
- Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1866): promulgated the custom of the Churching of women,the blessing of women after giving birth, focusing on blessing and thanksgiving; and set the age for first communion at ten years of age, as well as, handling other ecclesiastical matters.
- Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884): was presided over by Archbishop of Baltimore James Gibbons as Apostolic Delegate. It set six Holy Days of Obligation, and appointed a commission to draft a catechism, and addressed other subjects.
Sexual abuse casesEdit
In 2016 the Archdiocese of Baltimore confirmed that settlements had been paid to past students of Seton Keough High School who were sexual abused by Father A. Joseph Maskell, a priest at the school in the 1960s and '70s. In January 1970, a popular English and drama teacher at Archbishop Keough, Sister Cathy Cesnik, was found murdered in the outskirts of the city of Baltimore. Her murder was never solved and is the topic of a true crime documentary The Keepers that was released on Netflix on May 19, 2017. A report released by Pennsylvania Attorney General Josh Shapiro on August 14, 2018 signaled out Bishop and future Cardinal William Keeler for transferring abusive Pennsylvania priest from the Diocese of Harrisburg to the Archdiocese of Baltimore. On August 15, 2018, one day after the Pennsylvania report was published, the Archdiocese of Baltimore announced that a pre K-8 Catholic school scheduled to be opened in 2018 and was to be named for Keeler would no longer bear his name. A church memo written in 1995, the year Long was removed from ministry, revealed that accusations of "inappropriate behavior" had surfaced against Long in 1991 and 1992 during his time in the Archdiocese of Baltimore, and the Pennsylvania report noted that Keeler was notified of accusations of Long sexually abusing children when he was serving as Bishop of Harrisburg in 1987.
"Prerogative of Place"Edit
The Archdiocese of Baltimore is led by the prelature of the Archbishop of Baltimore and a corps of auxiliary bishops who assist in the administration of the archdiocese as part of a larger curia. Sixteen people have served as Archbishop of Baltimore; the current archbishop is William E. Lori.
In 1858, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Propaganda Fide), with the approval of Pope Pius IX, conferred "Prerogative of Place" on the Archdiocese of Baltimore. This decree gave the archbishop of Baltimore precedence over all other archbishops of the United States (but not cardinals) in councils, gatherings, and meetings of whatever kind of the hierarchy (in conciliis, coetibus et comitiis quibuscumque), regardless of the seniority of other archbishops in promotion or ordination.
The archbishop is concurrently the pastor of the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen in Homeland in north Baltimore and the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (old Baltimore Cathedral). The older cathedral is located on Cathedral Hill above downtown, near the Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood. Both are called co-cathedrals. The Archbishop appoints a rector for each of the co-cathedrals. The Basilica, built in 1806–1821, is the first cathedral constructed in the United States (within its boundaries at the time). It is considered the mother church of the United States. During the time from the first bishop John Carroll's installation in 1790 to the dedication of the old Baltimore Cathedral in 1821, the bishop's throne ("cathedra") was at St. Peter's Church (first parish in the diocese, founded 1770). It was located two blocks south on the northwestern corner of North Charles Street and West Saratoga Streets, serving as the pro-cathedral with its attached rectory, school and surrounding cemetery. Old St. Peter's was across the street from the "Mother Church of the Anglican Church" in Baltimore, Old St. Paul's Church (Anglican/Episcopal) with four successive buildings at the site beginning in 1730 at the southeast corner of Charles and Saratoga, in downtown, overlooking the harbor. St. Peter's Roman Catholic parish was razed in 1841.
The Archdiocese of Baltimore is one of only five United States dioceses that have two churches serving as cathedrals in the same city, the others being the Diocese of Honolulu; the Diocese of Burlington; the Diocese of Brooklyn and the Archdiocese of Anchorage, Alaska. Other dioceses with two cathedrals have them in separate cities.
Archbishops of BaltimoreEdit
The list of archbishops and their terms of service:
- John Carroll, S.J. (1784–1815)
- Leonard Neale, S.J. (1815–1817)
- Ambrose Maréchal, P.S.S. (1817–1828)
- James Whitfield (1828–1834)
- Samuel Eccleston, P.S.S. (1834–1851)
- Francis Patrick Kenrick (1851–1863)
- Martin John Spalding (1864–1872)
- James Roosevelt Bayley (1872–1877)
- Cardinal James Gibbons (1877–1921)
- Michael Joseph Curley (1921–1947)
- Francis Patrick Keough (1947–1961)
- Cardinal Lawrence Shehan (1961–1974)
- William Donald Borders (1974–1989)
- Cardinal William Henry Keeler (1989–2007)
- Cardinal Edwin Frederick O'Brien (2007–2011), appointed Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre
- William Edward Lori (2012–present)
- Alfred Allen Paul Curtis (1897–1908), previously appointed Bishop of Wilmington
- Owen Patrick Bernard Corrigan (1908–1929)
- Thomas Joseph Shahan (1914–1932)
- John Michael McNamara (1927–1947), appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Washington
- Lawrence Joseph Shehan (1945–1953), appointed Bishop of Bridgeport and later Coadjutor Archbishop and Archbishop of Baltimore (elevated to Cardinal in 1965)
- Jerome Aloysius Daugherty Sebastian (1953–1960)
- Thomas Austin Murphy (1962–1984)
- Thomas Joseph Mardaga (1966–1968), appointed Bishop of Wilmington
- Francis Joseph Gossman (1968–1975), appointed Bishop of Raleigh
- Philip Francis Murphy (1976–1999)
- James Francis Stafford (1976–1982), appointed Bishop of Memphis and later Archbishop of Denver, President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, and Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary (elevated to Cardinal in 1998)
- William Clifford Newman (1984–2003)
- John Ricard, S.S.J. (1984–1997), appointed Bishop of Pensacola-Tallahassee
- Gordon Dunlap Bennett, S.J. (1997–2004), appointed Bishop of Mandeville
- William Francis Malooly (2000–2008), appointed Bishop of Wilmington
- Mitchell T. Rozanski (2004–2014), appointed Bishop of Springfield in Massachusetts
- Denis J. Madden (2005–2016)
- Mark E. Brennan (2017–present)
- Adam J. Parker (2017–present)
Other Affiliated BishopsEdit
The following men began their service as priests in Baltimore before being appointed bishops elsewhere:
- John J. Chanche, P.S.S., appointed Bishop of Natchez in 1841
- Ignatius A. Reynolds, appointed Bishop of Charleston in 1844
- William Henry Elder, appointed Bishop of Natchez in 1857 and Archbishop of Cincinnati in 1883
- Thomas Albert Andrew Becker, appointed Bishop of Wilmington in 1868 and Bishop of Savannah in 1886
- Thomas Patrick Roger Foley, appointed Coadjutor Bishop of Chicago in 1870
- John Joseph Keane, appointed Bishop of Richmond in 1978, Rector of The Catholic University of America in 1886, and Archbishop of Dubuque in 1900
- John Samuel Foley, appointed Bishop of Detroit in 1888
- Patrick James Donahue, appointed Bishop of Wheeling in 1894
- Placide Louis Chapelle, appointed Archbishop of New Orleans in 1897 and Apostolic Delegate to Cuba and Extraordinary Envoy to Puerto Rico and the Philippines in 1898
- William Thomas Russell, appointed Bishop of Charleston in 1917
- Thomas Joseph Toolen, appointed Bishop of Mobile in 1927
- William Joseph Hafey, appointed Bishop of Raleigh in 1927 and Bishop of Scranton in 1938
- Peter Leo Ireton, appointed Bishop of Richmond in 1945
- John Joyce Russell, appointed Bishop of Charleston in 1950 and later Bishop of Richmond in 1958
- Philip Matthew Hannan, appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Washington in 1956 and Archbishop of New Orleans in 1965
- Michael William Hyle, appointed Bishop of Wilmington in 1960
- Victor Benito Galeone, appointed Bishop of Saint Augustine in 2001
- F. Richard Spencer, appointed Auxiliary Bishop for the Military Services, USA in 2010
|St. Alphonsus (W. Saratoga Street)||Baltimore||1845|
|St. Alphonsus Rodriguez||Woodstock||1889|
|St. Ambrose (Cumberland)||Cumberland||1886|
|St. Andrew by the Bay||Annapolis|
|St. Ann (Greenmount Avenue, Oliver)||Baltimore|
|St. Ann (Grantsville)||Grantsville|
|St. Ann (Hagerstown)||Hagerstown|
|Church of the Annunciation||Baltimore|
|St. Anthony of Padua||Baltimore|
|St. Anthony Shrine||Emmitsburg|
|Church of the Ascension||Halethorpe||1913|
|St. Athanasius (Curtis Bay)||Baltimore|
|St. Augustine (Elkridge)||Elkridge||1844|
|St. Augustine (Williamsport)||Williamsport|
|Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary||Baltimore||1821|
|Cathedral of Mary Our Queen||Baltimore||1959|
|St. Charles Borromeo||Baltimore|
|St. Clement Mary Hofbauer||Baltimore|
|Corpus Christi (Mount Royal)||Baltimore|
|Church of the Crucifixion||Glen Burnie|
|St. Elizabeth of Hungary||Baltimore||1895|
|St. Elizabeth Ann Seton||Crofton|
|St. Francis de Sales||Abingdon|
|St. Francis Xavier (Baltimore)||Baltimore|
|St. Francis of Assisi (Baltimore)||Baltimore|
|St. Francis of Assisi (Brunswick)||Brunswick|
|St. Francis of Assisi (Fulton)||Fulton|
|St. Francis Xavier (Hunt Valley)||Hunt Valley|
|Church of the Good Shepherd||Glen Burnie|
|St. Gregory the Great||Baltimore|
|Holy Cross (South Baltimore-Federal Hill)||Baltimore|
|Holy Family (Davidsonville)||Davidsonville|
|Holy Family (Middletown)||Middletown|
|Holy Family (Randallstown)||Randallstown||1876|
|Holy Korean Martyrs||Baltimore|
|Church of the Holy Spirit||Joppa|
|Holy Trinity Catholic Church||Glen Burnie|
|St. Ignatius (Mount Vernon-Belvedere)||Baltimore|
|St. Ignatius (Hickory)||Forest Hill, Bel Air|
|St. Ignatius Loyola||Frederick|
|Church of the Immaculate Conception (Baltimore)||Baltimore|
|Church of the Immaculate Conception (Towson)||Towson|
|Immaculate Heart of Mary||Baltimore|
|St. Isaac Jogues||Baltimore|
|St. Jane Frances de Chantal||Pasadena|
|St. Joan of Arc||Aberdeen|
|St. John Neumann||Annapolis|
|St. John the Evangelist (Columbia)||Columbia|
|St. John the Evangelist (Frederick)||Frederick|
|St. John the Evangelist (Long Green Valley)||Hydes|
|St. John the Evangelist (Severna Park)||Severna Park|
|St. John (Westminster)||Westminster|
|St. Joseph (Fullerton)||Baltimore|
|St. Joseph’s Passionist Monastery (Irvington)||Baltimore|
|St. Joseph (Cockeysville-Texas)||Cockeysville|
|St. Joseph (Sykesville)||Eldersburg|
|St. Joseph (Emmitsburg)||Emmitsburg|
|St. Joseph-On-Carrollton Manor||Frederick|
|St. Joseph (Hagerstown)||Hagerstown|
|St. Joseph (Midland)||Midland|
|St. Joseph (Odenton)||Odenton|
|St. Joseph (Taneytown)||Taneytown|
|St. Katharine Drexel||Frederick|
|St. Lawrence Martyr||Hanover|
|St. Mary Magdalen||Bel Air|
|St. Margaret||Bel Air|
|St. Mark (Catonsville)||Baltimore|
|St. Mark (Fallston)||Fallston|
|St. Mary (Annapolis)||Annapolis|
|St. Mary, Star of the Sea (South Baltimore-Riverside)||Baltimore|
|St. Mary of the Assumption (Govans)||Baltimore|
|St. Mary (Cumberland)||Cumberland|
|St. Mary (Hagerstown)||Hagerstown|
|St. Mary of the Annunciation||Lonaconing|
|St. Mary (Petersville)||Petersville|
|St. Mary of the Assumption (Pylesville)||Pylesville|
|St. Michael the Archangel||Overlea|
|St. Michael (Clear Spring)||Clear Spring|
|St. Michael (Frostburg)||Frostburg|
|St. Michael (Poplar Springs-Mt. Airey)||Mount Airy|
|Most Precious Blood||Baltimore|
|Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ||Timonium|
|New All Saints||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Fatima||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Good Counsel (Locust Point)||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Grace||Parkton|
|Our Lady of Hope||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of LaVang||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Frederick)||Thurmont|
|Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Middle River)||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Perpetual Help (Edgewater)||Edgewater|
|Our Lady of Perpetual Help (Ellicott City)||Ellicott City||1893|
|Our Lady of Pompeii||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Sorrows||West River|
|Our Lady of the Angels||Catonsville|
|Our Lady of the Chesapeake (Lake Shore)||Pasadena|
|Our Lady of the Fields||Millersville|
|Our Lady of Victory||Baltimore|
|Our Lady, Queen of Peace||Baltimore|
|St. Patrick (Broadway-Fells Point)||Baltimore|
|St. Patrick (Cumberland)||Cumberland|
|St. Patrick (Havre de Grace)||Havre de Grace|
|St. Patrick (Little Orleans)||Little Orleans|
|St. Patrick (Mt. Savage)||Mount Savage|
|St. Paul||Ellicott City||1838|
|St. Peter Claver||Baltimore|
|SS. Peter & Paul Shrine||Cumberland|
|St. Peter (Hancock)||Hancock|
|St. Peter (Libertytown)||Libertytown|
|St. Peter at the Lake Center||McHenry|
|St. Peter the Apostle (Oakland)||Oakland|
|St. Peter (Westernport)||Westernport|
|SS. Philip & James (Charles Village)||Baltimore|
|St. Philip Neri||Linthicum Heights|
|St. Pius V||Baltimore|
|St. Pius X||Baltimore|
|Prince of Peace||Edgewood|
|Church of the Resurrection||Ellicott City||1974|
|Resurrection of Our Lord||Laurel|
|St. Rose of Lima (Brooklyn)||Baltimore|
|Sacred Heart of Jesus||Baltimore|
|Sacred Heart of Mary||Baltimore|
|Shrine of the Little Flower||Baltimore|
|Shrine of the Sacred Heart||Baltimore|
|St. Thomas Aquinas||Baltimore|
|St. Thomas More||Baltimore|
|Transfiguration Roman Catholic Congregation||Baltimore|
|St. Veronica (Cherry Hill)||Baltimore|
|St. Vincent de Paul (Jonestown-Old Town)||Baltimore|
|St. William of York||Baltimore||1914|
|St. Michael (Wolfe Street)||Baltimore||1852||30 July 2011||Sacred Heart of Jesus|
|Church of the Holy Apostles||Gambrills||1999||30 June 2014||St. Joseph|
- Archbishop Curley High School, Baltimore
- Archbishop Spalding High School, Severn
- Bishop Walsh School, Cumberland
- Calvert Hall College High School, Baltimore
- Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Baltimore
- Institute of Notre Dame, Baltimore
- Loyola Blakefield, Towson
- Maryvale Preparatory School, Brooklandville
- Mercy High School, Baltimore
- Mount de Sales Academy, Baltimore
- Mount Saint Joseph High School, Baltimore
- Notre Dame Preparatory School, Baltimore
- Our Lady of Mount Carmel High School, Baltimore
- St. Frances Academy, Baltimore
- St. John's Catholic Preparatory, Buckeystown
- St. Maria Goretti High School, Hagerstown
- St. Mary's High School, Annapolis
- The Catholic High School of Baltimore, Baltimore
- The John Carroll School, Bel Air
Shrines of the archdioceseEdit
- Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Baltimore, Maryland
- Basilica of the National Shrine of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, Emmitsburg, Maryland
Province of BaltimoreEdit
- Historical list of the Catholic bishops of the United States
- List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States
- List of Roman Catholic archdioceses (by country and continent)
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (alphabetical) (including archdioceses)
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (structured view) (including archdioceses)
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- "St. Ambrose". Our Lady of the Mountains Parish. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
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- "Cathedral of Mary Our Queen". Archdiocese of Baltimore. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- Ginsberg, Elizabeth (12 November 2011). "100 Jahre St. Elisabethkirche in Baltimore" [100 Years for St. Elizabeth Church in Baltimore]. Fuldaer Zeitung (in German).
- "Home". Holy Family Roman Catholic Church-Randallstown, Maryland. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- "Parish History". Our Lady of Perpetual Help Catholic Church. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- "History". St. Paul Catholic Church. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- "History & Tradition". Resurrection-St. Paul School. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- "Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary". americasfirstcathedral.org. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "National Shrine of Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton". Seton Heritage. Retrieved 6 October 2014.