|Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States|
January 9, 1838 – July 19, 1852
|Nominated by||Martin Van Buren|
|Preceded by||Seat established|
|Succeeded by||John Archibald Campbell|
|United States Senator|
March 4, 1837 – April 22, 1837
|Preceded by||Gabriel Moore|
|Succeeded by||Clement Clay|
November 27, 1826 – March 3, 1831
|Preceded by||Israel Pickens|
|Succeeded by||Gabriel Moore|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Alabama's 2nd district
March 4, 1833 – March 3, 1835
|Preceded by||Samuel Mardis|
|Succeeded by||Joshua Martin|
|Born||May 1, 1780|
Culpeper County, Virginia, U.S.
|Died||July 19, 1852 (aged 72)|
Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
|Resting place||Cave Hill Cemetery|
Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
|Political party||Democratic-Republican (c. 1815–1825)|
|Federalist (before 1815)|
Early life Edit
McKinley was born in Culpeper County, Virginia, on May 1, 1780, to Andrew McKinley and Mary (Logan) McKinley (sister of Benjamin Logan). His family moved to Kentucky in 1783. There, he read law and was admitted to the bar in 1800, practicing in Frankfort and in Louisville. In 1818, he moved to Alabama. He established legal practice in Huntsville, and also actively engaged in land speculation.
Political career Edit
When failing health forced John Williams Walker to resign from the United States Senate in 1822, Mckinley was the favored candidate in the special election to fill the vacancy, but lost to William Kelly by a one-vote margin.
During the 1830s, McKinley was twice elected to the Alabama House, in 1831 and 1836. In between he served one term in the United States House of Representatives, during the 1833–35 23rd Congress. There he was a champion of President Andrew Jackson's political agenda. He also was a Presidential Elector in the 1836 presidential election, casting his vote for Martin Van Buren. McKinley was again elected to the U.S. Senate in 1836, this time easily defeating Gabriel Moore. He did not remain in office long however, as he resigned in April 1837, to take a seat on the United States Supreme Court.
Supreme Court service Edit
The number of seats on the Supreme Court was expanded from seven to nine in March 1837, as a result of the Eighth and Ninth Circuits Act. This allowed President Jackson the opportunity to appoint two new associate justices, which he did on March 3, 1837, his last full day in office. The newly seated Senate of the 25th Congress confirmed both nominees; but one, William Smith, subsequently declined to serve.
President Martin Van Buren offered McKinley a recess appointment to the vacant seat on April 22, 1837, and later formally nominated him to for it on September 18, 1837. McKinley was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 25, 1837, by a voice vote.
Personal life Edit
McKinley was married twice. In 1814, he married Juliana Bryan (d. 1822). They had three children: Elizabeth, Andrew and Mary. In 1824, he married Elizabeth Armistead (d. 1891). They had no children.
In 1821, McKinley was appointed to serve on the original board of trustees for the University of Alabama and helped plan the campus design and curriculum. He was also a founding member of the First Presbyterian Church of Florence, Alabama, where he was elected as an elder in 1826.
McKinley owned twelve slaves at the time of the 1850 census.
Legacy and honors Edit
See also Edit
- Brown 2012, pp. 27–28.
- Brown 2012, pp. 16–18.
- "John McKinley, 1838-1852". Washington, D.C.: Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Saunders Jr., Robert (December 13, 2017). "John McKinley". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Brown 2012, p. 51.
- Brown 2012, p. 55.
- Brown 2012, p.71.
- Brown 2012, p. 11.
- "Landmark Legislation: Eighth and Ninth Circuits". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- "Supreme Court Nominations (1789-Present)". Washington, D.C.: Office of the Secretary, United States Senate. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- McMillion, Barry J. (January 28, 2022). Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 to 2020: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President (PDF) (Report). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- "Mckinley, John". Biographical Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court, 346 (Melvin I. Urofsky ed., 2006). Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- Brown 2012, p. 27.
- Brown 2012, p. 53.
- Brown 2012, pp. 56–57.
- Brown 2012, p. 52.
- John McKinley, United States census, 1850; Louisville Ward 7, Jefferson, Kentucky;.
- Marengo County Heritage Book Committee (2000). The heritage of Marengo County, Alabama. Clanton, Alabama: Heritage Publishing Consultants. p. 9. ISBN 1-891647-58-X.
- Williams, Greg H. (2014). The Liberty Ships of World War II: A Record of the 2,710 Vessels and Their Builders, Operators and Namesakes, with a History of the Jeremiah O'Brien. McFarland. ISBN 978-1476617541. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
- Brown, Steven P. (2012). John McKinley and the Antebellum Supreme Court: Circuit Riding in the Old Southwest. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 9780817317713. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
- John McKinley at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- United States Congress. "John McKinley (id: M000519)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- John McKinley at Find a Grave
- John McKinley, Washburn University School of Law, Topeka, Kansas.