Downtown Florence Historic District
"Alabama's Renaissance City"
Location of Florence in Lauderdale County, Alabama.
|Incorporated||January 7, 1826|
|• Type||Mayor/Council (Since 1984)|
|• Mayor||Steve Holt|
|• City||26.66 sq mi (69.04 km2)|
|• Land||26.45 sq mi (68.50 km2)|
|• Water||0.21 sq mi (0.55 km2)|
|Elevation||548 ft (167 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,528.64/sq mi (590.22/km2)|
|• Metro||147,317 (US: 281st)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (Central (CST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|Area codes||256, 938|
|GNIS feature ID||0118442|
According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 39,319.
Florence is the largest and principal city of the Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Statistical Area (which includes Muscle Shoals, Sheffield, and Tuscumbia metropolitan areas in Colbert and Lauderdale counties). Florence is considered northwestern Alabama's primary economic hub.
Annual tourism events include the W. C. Handy Music Festival in the summer and the Renaissance Faire in the fall. Landmarks in Florence include the Rosenbaum House, the only Frank Lloyd Wright-designed home located in Alabama.
Florence and Lauderdale County had one hospital, Eliza Coffee Memorial Hospital. ECM was a 358-bed facility owned by RCCH HealthCare Partners in Brentwood, Tennessee. In 2010 RCCH HealthCare Partners announced that they would build a new hospital in Florence. The hospital was completed in December 2018.
The type of municipal government is mayor-council.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Florence has a total area of 25.0 square miles (65 km2), of which 24.9 square miles (64 km2) is land, and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) (0.40%) is water. Florence is located on Wilson Lake and Pickwick Lake, bodies of water on the Tennessee River dammed by Pickwick Dam and Wilson Dams. Pickwick Lake was created by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), one of several alphabet agencies of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. Wilson Dam (currently operated by the TVA) was authorized by President Woodrow Wilson in 1918 and was the first dam constructed on the Tennessee River.
Florence was surveyed for the Cypress Land Company in 1818 by Italian surveyor Ferdinand Sannoner, who named it after Florence, the capital of the Tuscany region of Italy. Florence, Alabama was incorporated in 1826.
Florence Female Academy was established in Florence in 1847. By the 1850s it became Florence Synodical Female College. It closed in 1893. A historical marker commemorates the site.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
According to the 2010 census:
- 75.0% White
- 19.4% Black
- 0.4% Native American
- 1.4% Asian
- 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
- 1.9% Two or more races
- 3.6% Hispanic or Latino (of any race)
As of the census of 2000, there were 36,264 people, 15,820 households, and 9,555 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,454.6 people per square mile (561.6/km²). There were 17,707 housing units at an average density of 710.2 per square mile (274.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 78.39% White, 19.20% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.54% from other races, and 0.97% from two or more races. 1.34% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 15,820 households, out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them: 43.6% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.6% were non-families. Nearly 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20, and the average family size was 2.82.
In the city, the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 13.7% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.7 males. The city is very strictly zoned, and therefore seems to be much larger than the population of 40,000. Communities within Florence that aren't counted towards the population include St. Florian, Happy Hollow, Underwood, Petersville, Zip City, Cloverdale, etc. This explains the metropolitan area being close to 150,000 but the "city" only being home to 40,000.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,330, and the median income for a family was $40,577. Males had a median income of $34,398 versus $21,385 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,464. About 14.4% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 13.3% of those age 65 or over.
Situated in Florence, and founded in 1830 as LaGrange College, the University of North Alabama, a public, co-educational, higher education institution, is Alabama's oldest state-certified university. The University is the largest in north Alabama, with an enrollment topping 7,000 for the first time in 2007. International students now compose roughly 10% of the student population. The university is situated on 130 acres (53 ha) and surrounded by historic neighborhoods. It is located just north of the downtown business district. Kilby Laboratory School, grades K - 6, is affiliated with the university and is the only laboratory school in the state.
Florence City Schools is the organization of the K–12 public school system. Florence High School (grades 10-12) is the main high school, with an enrollment of approximately 1,000 students. It was created by a merger between the previous two city high schools, Bradshaw High School and Coffee High School. Florence High is located at the former Bradshaw site in the eastern part of the city. The merger also led to the creation of Florence Middle School (grades 7-8) and the Florence Freshman Center (grade 9). The middle school is located at the former Coffee High campus, east of downtown, and the Florence Freshman Center is located at the Florence High School campus.
There are four private schools in Florence: St. Joseph Regional Catholic School for grades K–8, and Mars Hill Bible School, Shoals Christian School, and Florence Christian Academy, which are multi-denominational, K–12 schools.
The city has a mayor-council form of government. Council members are elected from six single-member districts, and the mayor is elected separately.
- Steve Holt
Steve Holt was elected as the mayor of Florence on October 4, 2016. He was officially sworn in as mayor on November 2, 2016. He defeated incumbent mayor Mickey Haddock in a municipal runoff. Holt is the former 20-year president of the Shoals Chamber of Commerce.
- District 1: Kaytrina P. Simmons
- District 2: William (Dick) Jordan
- District 3: David P. Bradley Jr.
- District 4: Michelle Rupe Eubanks
- District 5: Blake Edwards
- District 6: Andrew Betterton
Culture and eventsEdit
The City of Florence is home to several museums, historical sites and numerous parks to serve the cultural and recreational needs of citizens and tourists. A variety of festivals also occur throughout the year.
- Kennedy Douglass Center for the Arts is the center for numerous cultural activities, exhibits and events. The center showcases artists from around the Southeast United States, and offers classes and workshops to people of all ages. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and provides administrative offices for Florence's six museums. The museums are open Tuesday - Saturday from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM, Sunday 1:00 PM to 4:00 PM and are closed Monday.
- The Indian Mound and Museum is the largest of its type in the Tennessee Valley Region. The earthwork mound, which measures 310Hx230Wx42D (feet) and is named Wawmanona, was built circa 500 A.D. It is thought to be a locale for tribal ceremony and ritual. The museum displays Native American artifacts from the Mound and the surrounding area, which represent different cultures dating back 10,000 years.
- Pope's Tavern is a renowned historical stop; it served as a hospital for Civil War soldiers from both the Union and Confederate armies. It also served as a stagecoach stop, a tavern and an inn. The museum houses Civil War artifacts, as well as antiques from the 18th and 19th centuries. It is one of Florence's oldest standing structures.
- The W.C. Handy Home and Museum is dedicated to one of Florence's most famous sons. Known as the "father of the blues", Handy was born in a log cabin at this site in 1873. The museum contains a collection of Handy's personal papers, artifacts and other items he donated before his death in 1958.
- The Rosenbaum House, at 601 Riverview Drive, is the only building in the state designed by world-renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright. It was built in 1939. The house was the first in the city to have such novelties as a carport and under-floor heating. It is open for tours six days of the week.
- The Children's Museum of the Shoals contains exhibits displaying the history, people and events that make up the Shoals' history. The museum is designed to promote learning in a hands-on environment. The museum offers educational workshops year-round for children of all ages.
- The Forks of Cypress was a cotton plantation located in Florence. Its remains can be seen in the form of 24 Greek columns, as well as the Jackson Family cemetery. Both are on private property and are not open to the public.
The festivals are listed chronologically.
- The Sam Phillips Music Celebration is a week-long event the first week of January. It celebrates the life of Sam Phillips with events that include the Sam Phillips Birthday Party, "Conversations on Sam," Sam Jam Concert, Muscle Shoals to Music Row Live and a finale concert. Although Sam is credited for the birth of rock n' roll and the discovery of many acclaimed artists, such as Elvis Presley, he also recorded gospel, rhythm & blues, country and rockabilly. This festival started in 2005. For more information, contact WQLT/Big River Broadcasting at 256-764-8121.
- The George Lindsey/UNA Film Festival started in 1997 and is named in honor of George Lindsey, an actor who is most famous for his character portrayal of "Goober Pyle" on the television series The Andy Griffith Show. Lindsey was a UNA (then known as Florence State College) graduate. The event takes place in April.
- Arts Alive, in May, first started in 1986. Artists from around the Southeast gather in Wilson Park for two days to show and sell their work.
- The Spirit of Freedom Celebration is an annual Fourth of July tradition, presented by the Shoals Radio Group (WLAY-FM, WVNA-FM, WMSR-FM, WMXV, WVNA and WLAY). Thousands of people gather at McFarland Park starting in the morning for a day spent listening to a variety of musical acts. The celebration concludes around 10:00 p.m. with a huge fireworks display over the Tennessee River.
- The W. C. Handy Music Festival is perhaps Florence's most well-known event. Every year for a week in late July or early August, musicians from around the country descend upon the Shoals. Area restaurants offer live music most nights, and artists often perform in Wilson Park or along streets downtown. Though the focus was originally on blues and jazz, the musical selection now includes rock, country, gospel and others. The festival, the largest in the Shoals area, also includes educational events, art shows, athletic competitions, great food and more.
- Every September, Florence is the termination point for riders in the annual Trail of Tears Remembrance Motorcycle Ride, which terminates in nearby McFarland Park. The ride is in remembrance of a dark chapter in American history in which Native Americans were shipped off to Oklahoma and the Midwest by the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
- The Alabama Renaissance Faire is held in Wilson Park during the fourth weekend in October. The festival celebrates Florence's heritage as the "Renaissance City" by recreating the feel of a medieval fair. Activities include arts and crafts, magicians, reenactments and musical performances. Festivalgoers are also invited to dress in period clothing.
- First Fridays in Florence is a growing arts and music event occurring every first Friday from April to December in downtown Florence. The nine months of art and music nights began in 2005. The city's downtown development efforts, including First Fridays events, were featured as a "wise" community in the EPA Smart Growth publication This is Smart Growth.
- Braly Municipal Stadium, on the campus of Florence Middle School, is the home to both the University of North Alabama and Florence High School football teams.
- Cox Creek Park is home to a children's playground, horsehoe pits, an indoor archery range, and twelve tennis courts. Recent additions have included the new Florence Skate Park, the only skateboard park in the area, and a new stadium for the University of North Alabama softball team. The Florence/Lauderdale Farmer's Market is also located at the park.
- Deibert Park was a former horse farm belonging to the Deibert family, the park now includes a playground, picnic shelters, and three ponds. The network of walking trails is enjoyed by walkers, joggers, and bikers. The Children's Museum of the Shoals is also on the park property.
- Florence Sportsplex has baseball, softball, and soccer fields. It is located at the corner of Alabama Highway 20 and Gunwaleford Road.
- Martin Park is the location for the city swimming facility, at the Royal Avenue Recreation Center. The park is also home to a playground, tennis courts, picnic shelters, and a 0.75 miles (1.21 km) fitness trail.
- McFarland Park is also the location of the Florence Harbor and Marina. While serving as host to several events throughout the year, the park is also equipped with a playground, numerous picnic shelters, campgrounds, soccer fields, baseball fields, a disc golf course, a golf driving range, and lighted walking trails. Situated along Pickwick Lake, the park is also used by fishermen, boaters, and swimmers.
- River Heritage Park is located at the base of the Renaissance Tower and adjacent to the Marriott Shoals Hotel and Conference Center. The park contains scenic overlooks of the Tennessee River and Wilson Dam. Also included are picnic shelters, a playground, and an interactive fountain called the Splash Pad.
- Veterans Memorial Park contains a memorial to the war veterans of Florence and Lauderdale county. Twenty-two campsites, six lighted tennis courts, baseball and softball fields, playgrounds, and picnic shelters are also found at the park. Veterans Park is also home to one of the oldest disc golf courses in the state, established in 1983.
- Wildwood Park is located adjacent to the University of North Alabama along Cypress Creek. It is the most secluded and serene of the city parks. The park has a pavilion, picnic tables, nature trails, and bicycle trails. Swimming, fishing and canoeing are some of the park's recreational activities.
- Wilson Park is located in the heart of downtown, across from the Florence-Lauderdale Public Library. Its grounds are used for numerous festivals and events. The original Plan of Florence in 1818 showed the area as a Public Walk. In 1924, the park was renamed in honor of former U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, shortly after his death.
- Blackberry Trail Golf Course - a municipal golf course
- Broadway Recreation Center
- Florence Harbor - a full-service marina on Tennessee River (Pickwick Lake) mile marker 256
- Handy Recreation Center - has a pool
- Royal Avenue Recreation Center - has a pool
Florence is the merger point for two major U.S. Highways, as well as several Alabama Highways. Both U.S. Highway 43 and U.S. Highway 72 merge just east of the city limits in Killen, and are co-signed their entire length through the city. Highway 43, running north and south, helps connect the city to Lawrenceburg and Columbia to the north in Tennessee, as well as Tuscaloosa and Mobile to the south. Highway 72 helps connect the city to Huntsville and Chattanooga, Tennessee to the east and Memphis, Tennessee to the west. Interstate 65 is accessible about forty-five minutes east on Highway 72. Both of these roads cross the Tennessee River on O'Neal Bridge, connecting Florence to Sheffield.
Alabama state highways that serve the city include State Route 13, State Route 17, State Route 20, State Route 133, and State Route 157. Alabama 133 connected Florence and Muscle Shoals via Wilson Dam until 2002, when the new six-lane "Patton Island Bridge" (the unofficial, but locally accepted name) finished construction. The bridge is part of a new corridor that will eventually see the widening of Wilson Dam Road in Muscle Shoals to Alabama 20, and the construction of a new road from the bridge to Florence Blvd. in Florence. State Route 157 is also an important road to Florence and the Shoals area, serving as a four-lane link to Interstate 65 in Cullman. After many years of political campaigning by local leaders to have the four-laning of the road completed, the project wrapped up in the summer of 2007. The road is known as the "University of North Alabama Highway".
Florence and the Shoals area does not have a direct link to an Interstate highway at the present time. One solution discussed over the years has been the "Memphis to Atlanta Highway", proposed to connect the two cities via a freeway through north Alabama. However, in recent years Mississippi has concentrated its funding on U.S. 78 (Interstate 22), also known as "Corridor X". Though U.S. 72 through Mississippi is four lanes, there are no plans to upgrade it to freeway status. Meanwhile, the state of Georgia has also not committed to the necessary work to connect the freeway from the Alabama state line to Atlanta. The highway remains in the planning stages with the Alabama Department of Transportation.
Another plan recently discussed is extending Interstate 565 west from its current terminus just outside Decatur, perhaps along Alabama 20/Alternate U.S. 72. The plan has received some support from Decatur officials, some of whom would like to see the Interstate eventually extend west of Decatur and at least into Lawrence County.
For air transportation, Florence is served by the Northwest Alabama Regional Airport in Muscle Shoals. The airport is used for commercial and general aviation, It is served commercially by Boutique Air which provides several daily flights to Atlanta and Nashville. Huntsville International Airport, another option for Florence residents, offers service to eleven domestic destinations, and is about an hour's drive from Florence.
Local industry is also served by the Tennessee Southern Railroad (TSRR), which runs from Florence to Columbia, Tennessee, and the Port of Florence on Pickwick Lake.
Numerous radio, television and low-power FM radio stations and translators serve Florence and the greater area, all of which are in the greater Florence MSA. Among them are:
- WSBM (1340 AM; 1 kW; Florence, AL; owner: Big River Broadcasting Corporation)
- WBCF (1240 AM; 1 kW; Florence, AL; owner: Benny Carle Broadcasting, Inc.)
- W280DA (103.9 FM; Florence, AL; owner: Bible Broadcasting Network, Inc.)
- WQLT-FM (107.3 FM; Florence, AL; owner: Big River Broadcasting Corporation)
- W258AE (99.5 FM; Florence, AL; owner: WAY-FM Media Group, Inc.)
- WWFA-FM (102.7 FM; Florence, AL; owner: Flinn Broadcasting)
- WFIX (91.3 FM; Florence, AL; owner: Tri-State Inspirational B/C Corp.)
- WXFL (96.1 FM; Florence, AL; owner: Big River Broadcasting Corporation)
- W253AH (98.5 FM; Florence, AL; owner: Big River Broadcasting Corporation)
- W276AM (103.1 FM; Florence, ETC., AL; owner: J AND J Broadcasting)
- W225AB (92.9 FM; Florence, AL; owner: William P. Rogers)
Television and low-power televisionEdit
- WXFL-LD (Channel 5; Florence, ETC., AL; owner: Benny Carle Broadcasting, Inc.)
- WBCF-LP (Channel 3; Florence, AL; owner: Benny Carle Broadcasting, Inc.)
- WHDF (Channel 15; Florence, AL; owner: Valley Television, LLC)
- WFIQ (Channel 36; Florence, AL; owner: Alabama Educational Television Commission)
Past television stationsEdit
- WYLE (Channel 26; Florence, AL; owner: ETC Communications Inc.)
- WOWL (Channel 15; Florence, AL)
- W57BV (Channel 57; Florence, AL; owner: Trinity Broadcasting Network)
Florence is served by Comcast and AT&T. Their services include television, internet, home phone, and home security services. Comcast has been a provider of television and other services in the Florence area since the early 1960s. AT&T has provided services to Florence since the early 2000s, when they acquired Bell South. Florence is also served by major satellite television providers, including DirecTV and Dish Network.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Florence has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
The average temperature of Florence is 59 F (15 C). The average yearly precipitation in Florence is 57.06 in (144.9 cm). On average, Florence gets 2.25 in (5.7 cm) of snow per year, which is above the average for Alabama of 0.57 in (1.44 cm).
While Florence is almost 300 miles (480 km) from the Gulf of Mexico, strong hurricanes have brought severe weather to the area. For example, in 2005, the path of Hurricane Katrina came very close to the city, causing nearly 70 mph (112 kph) winds and some storm damage.
- Walt Aldridge, songwriter and record producer
- Malcolm Armstead, professional basketball player
- Ron Billingsley, former professional football player
- Whitney Boddie, professional basketball player in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)
- Sterling Bose, jazz trumpeter
- Jeff Brantley, former Major League Baseball pitcher
- Jeff Briggs, video game developer and CEO of Firaxis Games
- Roger Briggs, composer
- Greg Burdine, member of the Alabama House of Representatives
- Thomas Burrows, professional baseball player
- The Butler Twins, Detroit blues musicians
- Jerry Carrigan, drummer and record producer
- Stewart Cink, PGA golfer, 2009 British Open Champion
- John Coffee, General during the War of 1812
- Dennis Condrey, professional wrestler and member of The Midnight Express
- Oscar De Priest, the first African American to be elected to Congress from outside the southern states and the first in the 20th century
- Bud Dunn, horse trainer who won the Tennessee Walking Horse World Grand Championship twice
- Ronnie Flippo, U.S. Representative from 1977 to 1991
- Byron Franklin, former National Football League (NFL) wide receiver
- Donnie Fritts, musician and songwriter
- Eric "Red Mouth" Gebhardt, singer-songwriter
- Donna Jean Godchaux, singer, The Grateful Dead
- Brett Guthrie, U.S. Representative from Kentucky
- Elbert Bertram Haltom, Jr., former United States federal judge
- W. C. Handy, blues musician, known as "father of the blues"
- Dorrit Hoffleit, astronomer
- Kelvin Holly, musician, guitarist for Little Richard, The Amazing Rhythm Aces
- John Hood, Rear admiral in the United States Navy during World War I
- Patterson Hood, guitarist, singer and songwriter for Drive-By Truckers
- Autry Inman, rockabilly musician
- Tammy Irons, member of the Alabama State Senate
- Jason Isbell, musician
- Thomas Jeter, fencer
- Jim Jones, football player
- Buddy Killen, former owner of Killen Music Group
- Julianne Kirchner, swimmer
- Hank Klibanoff, professor at Emory University
- Lenny LeBlanc, songwriter
- Jesse Marsh, comic book artist and animator
- Dewey Martin, actor
- Floyd Matthews, former member of the United States Navy
- Alison McCreary, Miss Alabama 1996
- Fran McKee, first female Rear Admiral in the United States Navy
- Don Leslie Michael, recipient of the Medal of Honor during the Vietnam War
- Tom Monroe, disc golfer
- Melba Montgomery, country music singer
- Charles Moore, civil rights photographer
- John Mortvedt, soil scientist at the Tennessee Valley Authority in Muscle Shoals
- Harryette Mullen, professor at the University of California, Los Angeles
- Emmet O'Neal, 34th Governor of Alabama
- Mary Phagan, 13-year-old girl murdered in Atlanta, Georgia, on April 26, 1913
- Sam Phillips, record producer, discovered Elvis Presley
- Norbert Putnam, record producer
- James T. Rapier, U.S. Representative from 1873 to 1875
- Billy Reid, fashion designer
- Milton P. Rice, former Attorney General of Tennessee and former Secretary of State of Tennessee
- Al Romine, former professional football player
- Jonathan Rosenbaum, film critic
- Wimp Sanderson, former college basketball coach
- Dred Scott, of the Dred Scott vs. Sanford case
- Oscar Streit, former professional baseball pitcher
- T. S. Stribling, 20th-century novelist
- Randy Tate, former Major League Baseball pitcher
- Mark Thompson, radio personality and member of The Mark & Brian Show
- Chris Tompkins, musician and Grammy-winning songwriter
- Lamonte Turner, University of Tennessee Basketball player aka "Father of Kentucky Wildcats basketball"
- Frank R. Walker, rear admiral in the United States Navy during World War II
- Gary Weaver, former professional football linebacker
- White Dawg, Crunk thugrapper
- John Paul White, guitarist, singer and songwriter for Grammy Award-winning duo The Civil Wars
- Josh Willingham, former Major League Baseball player, member of 2014 American League champion Kansas City Royals
- S. A. M. Wood, Confederate States Army general
- Larry Woods, former professional football player
- Tom York, radio announcer WOWL and Channel 6
- Act 95. "AN ACT to incorporate the town of Florence in the state of Alabama." Archived 2010-03-16 at the Wayback Machine Acts Passed at the Seventh Annual Session of the General Assembly of the State of Alabama. 1825. Pages 70-73.
- "2018 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 4, 2019.
- Knight, Ben (Nov 19, 1975). "A look at early Florence, Sheffield". Times Daily. p. 4. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Early history". Times Daily. Apr 30, 1948. p. 4. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- "Cox Creek Complex". City of Florence, Alabama. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- "Florence Harbor – Where the skies are so blue!". Florenceharbor.com. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Veterans Memorial Park Course. Professional Disc Golf Association. Accessed 2012-03-12.
- "Woodrow Wilson Park 1818". The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "Florence Harbor Marina". Retrieved 2012-04-01.
- "Florence, Alabama Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "Florence, AL Weather". Usa.com. Retrieved 30 July 2018.