1704 (MDCCIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1704th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 704th year of the 2nd millennium, the 4th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1704, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Friday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
|Ab urbe condita||2457|
|Balinese saka calendar||1625–1626|
|English Regnal year||2 Ann. 1 – 3 Ann. 1|
|Chinese calendar||癸未年 (Water Goat)|
4400 or 4340
— to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4401 or 4341
|- Vikram Samvat||1760–1761|
|- Shaka Samvat||1625–1626|
|- Kali Yuga||4804–4805|
|Japanese calendar||Genroku 17 / Hōei 1|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||208 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2246–2247|
1830 or 1449 or 677
— to —
1831 or 1450 or 678
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1704.|
- January 25–26 – Apalachee massacre: English colonists from the Province of Carolina, and their native allies, stage a series of brutal raids against a largely pacific population of Apalachee, in Spanish Florida.
- February 29 – Raid on Deerfield (Queen Anne's War): French Canadians and Native Americans sack Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing over 50 English colonists.
- February – In America, Mardi Gras is celebrated with the Masque de la Mobile in the capital of Louisiana (New France), Mobile, Alabama.
- April 21 – The Hungarians (Kurucs) win a costly victory over the Danes in the Battle of Biskupice.
- April 24 – The first regular newspaper in the Thirteen Colonies of British North America, The Boston News-Letter, is published.
- May 28 – Kuruc rebels defeat the Austrian army and its allies in the Battle of Smolenice.
- June 13 – Austrians and their allies from Denmark, Prussia, Croatia, Germany and Vojvodina defeat the Kurucs in the Battle of Koroncó.
- July – Daniel Defoe documents the Great Storm of 1703 in England, with eyewitness testimonies, in The Storm.
- July 12 – Great Northern War – King Charles XII of Sweden forces the election of his ally Stanisław Leszczyński as King of Poland, in place of Augustus II the Strong.
- August 3 (July 23 Old Style) – War of the Spanish Succession – Gibraltar is captured from Spain, by English and Dutch forces under Sir George Rooke.
- August 7 – Battle of Orford Ness.
- August 13 (August 2 OS) – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Blenheim: Allied troops under John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy defeat the Franco-Bavarian army.
- August 24 (August 13 OS) – War of the Spanish Succession – French and English fleets clash off Málaga, causing heavy casualties on both sides, but without sinking any ships.
- September – War of the Spanish Succession – The Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar by French and Spanish troops begins.
- December 6 - Battle of Chamkaur: During the Mughal-Sikh Wars, an outnumbered Sikh Khalsa defeats a Mughal army.
- Great Northern War: Russian troops under Tsar Peter the Great capture Tartu and Narva.
- The Sultanate of Brunei cedes its north-east territories to the Sultanate of Sulu.
- The lower three counties of the Province of Pennsylvania become the colony of Delaware.
- An earthquake strikes Gondar, Ethiopia.
- A Tale of a Tub, the first major satire by Jonathan Swift (written 1694–1697), is published in London, running through three editions this year.
- Isaac Newton publishes his Opticks.
- The Students' Monument is built in Aiud, Romania.
- Rome decrees that Roman ceremonial practice in Latin (not in Chinese) is to be the law for Chinese missions.
- Thomas Darley purchases the bay Arabian horse Darley Arabian in Aleppo, Syria, and ships him to stud in England, where he becomes the most important foundation sire of all modern thoroughbred racing bloodstock.
- January 1 – Soame Jenyns, English writer (d. 1787)
- February 12 – Charles Pinot Duclos, French writer (d. 1772)
- February 28
- April 10 – Benjamin Heath, English classical scholar (d. 1766)
- June 4 – Benjamin Huntsman, English inventor and manufacturer (d. 1776)
- June 17 – John Kay, English inventor (d. 1780)
- June 22 – John Taylor, English classical scholar (d. 1766)
- June 24 – Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, French writer (d. 1771)
- July 15 – August Gottlieb Spangenberg, German religious leader (d. 1792)
- July 31 – Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician (d. 1752)
- October 29 – John Byng, British admiral (d. 1757)
- November 1 – Paul Daniel Longolius, German encyclopedist (d. 1779)
- December 29 – Martha Daniell Logan, American botanist (d. 1779)
- December 31 – Carl Gotthelf Gerlach, German organist (d. 1761)
- January 4 – Giambattista Spinola, Italo-Spanish Catholic cardinal (b. 1615)
- January 8 – Lorenzo Bellini, Italian physician, anatomist (b. 1643)
- January 26 – Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (b. 1627)
- February 2 – Guillaume François Antoine, Marquis de l'Hôpital, French mathematician (b. 1661)
- February 23
- February 21 – John Charles, Count Palatine of Gelnhausen (1654–1704) (b. 1638)
- February 23 – Steven Blankaart, Dutch entomologist (b. 1650)
- February 24 – Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer (b. 1643)
- February 25 – Isabella Leonarda, Italian composer (d. 1620)
- March 1 – Joseph Parrocel, French Baroque painter (b. 1646)
- March 16 – Deane Winthrop, 6th son of Governor John Winthrop (b. 1623)
- March 17 – Menno van Coehoorn, Dutch military engineer (b. 1641)
- April 5 – Christian Ulrich I, Duke of Württemberg-Oels (b. 1652)
- April 8 – Hiob Ludolf, German orientalist (b. 1624)
- April 8 – Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney, English statesman (b. 1641)
- April 10 – William Egon of Fürstenberg, Bishop of Strassburg (b. 1629)
- April 12 – Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French bishop and writer (b. 1627)
- April 14 – Thomas Fitch, Connecticut settler (b. 1612)
- April 15 – Johannes Hudde, Dutch mathematician and mayor of Amsterdam (b. 1628)
- April 17 – Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, leading Norwegian general during the Scanian War (b. 1638)
- April 20 – Agnes Block, Dutch horticulturalist (b. 1629)
- May 3 – Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber, Austrian composer (b. 1644)
- May 13 – Louis Bourdaloue, French Jesuit preacher (b. 1632)
- May 18 – David van der Plas, Dutch painter (b. 1647)
- June 18 – Tom Brown, English satirist (b. 1662)
- June 30 – John Quelch, English pirate (b. 1666)
- July 2 – John Adolphus, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön, German duke (b. 1634)
- July 3 – Sofia Alekseyevna of Russia, regent (b. 1657)
- July 7 – Pierre-Charles Le Sueur, French fur trader and explorer (b. c. 1657)
- July 18 – Benjamin Keach, English Particular Baptist preacher (b. 1640)
- July 20 – Peregrine White, first English child born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony (b. 1620)
- July 22 – Selim I Giray, Crimean khan
- August 2 – Estephan El Douaihy, Lebanese Maronite Patriarch, historian (d. 1704)
- August 14 – Roland Laporte, French Protestant leader (b. 1675)
- August 19 – Jane Leade, English Christian mystic (b. 1624)
- September 6 – Francesco Provenzale, Italian Baroque composer and teacher (b. 1624)
- September 21 – Maria Antonia Scalera Stellini, Italian poet (b. 1634)
- October 2 – Carlo Barberini, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1630)
- October 28
- October 30 – Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark, daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark (b. 1649)
- November 1 – John Louis I, Prince of Anhalt-Dornburg (b. 1656)
- November 4 – Andreas Acoluthus, German orientalist (b. 1654)
- November 20 – Charles Plumier, French botanist (b. 1646)
- December 1 – Joan Huydecoper II, Dutch mayor (b. 1625)
- December 5 – Louis Hennepin, Roman Catholic priest, missionary of the Franciscan Recollet Order (French (b. 1626)
- December 11 – Roger L'Estrange, English pamphleteer, author (b. 1616)
- December 22 – Paolo Boccone, Italian botanist from Sicily (b. 1633)