José María Bocanegra
José María Bocanegra (Spanish pronunciation: [xosemaˈɾia bokaˈneɣɾa]; 25 May 1787 – 23 July 1862) was a Mexican lawyer and politician who was interim president of Mexico in December of 1829. He had been chosen by congress to serve as the executive while president Vicente Guerrero attempted to lead his troops in person against a coup attempt. The coup succeeded and Bocanegra was pushed aside after only five days in office.
José María Bocanegra
Portrait of José María Bocanegra
|3rd President of Mexico|
18 December 1829 – 23 December 1829
|Vice President||Pedro Vélez|
|Preceded by||Vicente Guerrero|
|Succeeded by||Pedro Vélez|
|President of the Chamber of Deputies|
28 December 1826 – 31 January 1827
|Preceded by||Juan Cayetano Portugal|
|Succeeded by||Juan Cayetano Portugal|
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies |
1 January 1827 – 24 January 1829
|Member of the National Institutional Junta |
2 November 1822 – 29 March 1823
|Member of the First Constituent Congress |
24 February 1822 – 31 October 1822
|Born||25 May 1787|
Labor de la Troje, New Spain
(now Calvillo, Aguascalientes, Mexico)
|Died||23 July 1862 (aged 75)|
New Spanish (prior to 1821)
|Government of José María Bocanegra|
|Foreign and Interior Relations||Agustín Viesca||18 Dec. 1829 - 23 Dec. 1829|
|Justice and Ecclesiastical Affairs||José Manuel de Herrera||18 Dec. 1829 - 23 Dec. 1829|
|Treasury||Ildefonso Maniau||18 Dec. 1829 - 23 Dec. 1829|
|War and Marine||Francisco Moctezuma||18 Dec. 1829 - 23 Dec. 1829|
Bocanegra graduated from the Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City, becoming a lawyer. During the colonial period he was a lawyer for the Audiencia and a member of the College of Attorneys. He was vice-president of the Committee of Charity of the Hospice for the Poor. He became a deputy to the first Mexican Constituent Congress in 1824. He supported Agustín de Iturbide's ascent to the imperial throne (Plan de Iguala), but opposed his exercise of arbitrary power.
Bocanegra entered the Chamber of Deputies in 1827, and on 26 January 1829, President Guadalupe Victoria named him Minister of Internal and External Relations. He continued to hold this position with the change of administration to Vicente Guerrero, until 1 April 1829.
On 4 December 1829, Vice-President Anastasio Bustamante rose in revolt against Guerrero (Plan de Jalapa). Guerrero received permission from Congress to take the field to combat the rebels. On 16 December 1829, Bocanegra was appointed interim president by Congress during Guerrero's absence, by virtue of his position as president of the Supreme Court. He took office on December 18 and served from that date to 23 December 1829, only six days. On the latter date, the military garrison of Mexico City joined the Plan de Jalapa and withdrew recognition of Bocanegra. They installed an executive triumvirate of Pedro Vélez, Lucas Alamán and Luis de Quintanar. Bocanegra returned to his professional duties as a lawyer.
Later, Bocanegra was Minister of the Treasury under Presidents Valentín Gómez Farías and Antonio López de Santa Anna (26 April 1833 to 12 December 1833) and Minister of External Relations and of the Treasury under presidents Santa Anna, Nicolás Bravo and Valentín Canalizo (through 18 August 1844).
Bocanegra was known as an honorable and capable man who was uncomfortable participating in politics, but felt it his duty to do so. He wrote the Memorias para la Historia de México Independiente. His nephew Francisco González Bocanegra was the author of the Himno Nacional Mexicano (the Mexican National Anthem). José María Bocanegra died on 23 July 1862 in the Federal District.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2010-02-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Memoria de hacienda y credito publico. Mexico City: Mexican Government. 1870. p. 1029.
- "Acuerdo de la Cámara de Diputados. Elección de presidente interino de la República en el Excmo. Sr. D. José María Bocanegra" (in Spanish). Retrieved July 8, 2011.
- "José María Bocanegra asume interinamente la presidencia de la República, por licencia de Vicente Guerrero" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011.
- (in Spanish) "Bocanegra, José María" Enciclopedia de México. Mexico City, 1996, ISBN 1-56409-016-7.
- (in Spanish) Appendini, Guadalupe, Aguascalientes. 46 personajes en su historia. México, Gobierno del Estado de Aguascalientes, 1992.
- (in Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrúa, 1984.
- (in Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.
| President of Mexico
18–23 December 1829
Pedro Vélez, Lucas Alamán and Luis de Quintanar