Aguascalientes (Spanish pronunciation: [ˌaɣwaskaˈljentes] ; lit.'Hot Springs'), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. At 22°N and with an average altitude of 1,950 m (6,400 ft) above sea level[8] it is predominantly of semi-arid climate (Bhs and Bhk). The state is located in west-central Mexico and is located in the northern part of the Bajío region, which is in the north-central part of the country, bordered by Zacatecas to the north, east and west, and by Jalisco to the south.

Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes
Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes (Spanish)
Magical town of Real de Asientos, San José de Gracia, El Sabinal, San Marcos Fair, landscape in Calvillo, La Estacion Theme Park, Sierra Fría mountain range, Pabellón de Hidalgo, historic centre of Aguascalientes City
Bona Terra, Bona Gens, Aqua Clara, Clarum Caelum
("Good Earth, Good People, Clear Water, Clear Sky")
Anthem: Himno de Aguascalientes
"Anthem of Aguascalientes"
State of Aguascalientes within Mexico
State of Aguascalientes within Mexico
Coordinates: 22°03′N 102°18′W / 22.050°N 102.300°W / 22.050; -102.300
AdmissionFebruary 5, 1857[1]
 • Governor María Teresa Jiménez Esquivel
 • Senators[2]
 • Deputies[3]
 • Total5,617.80 km2 (2,169.04 sq mi)
 Ranked 29th
Highest elevation3,050 m (10,010 ft)
 • Total1,425,607
 • Rank27th
 • Density250/km2 (660/sq mi)
  • Rank4th
DemonymHidrocálido (a)
 • TotalMXN 356 billion
(US$17.7 billion) (2022)
 • Per capita(US$12,028) (2022)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
Postal code
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-AGU
HDIIncrease 0.798 High Ranked 8th of 32
WebsiteOfficial Web Site

As of the 2020 census, Aguascalientes has a population of 1,425,607 inhabitants,[9] most of whom live in its capital city, also named Aguascalientes. Its name means "hot waters" and originated from the abundance of hot springs originally found in the area. The demonym for the state's inhabitants is hidrocálido or aguascalentense.

Aguascalientes is one of the smallest states of Mexico, either by population or land, being the 27th most populated state and the 29th biggest state by area;[8] nonetheless, it is the 4th state by population density,[8] and its economic development in recent years have located it as the 7th state by Human Development Index[10] and the 8th with highest GDP per capita.[11]

Aguascalientes was historically known for its former railroad and textile industry, as well as wine making, an industry that remains today. During the 2010s Aguascalientes became the fastest-growing state in the country for the whole decade.[12] Aguascalientes is also well known for its San Marcos Fair (Feria Nacional de San Marcos), the largest fair in Mexico and one of the largest in Latin America.[13][14]

History edit

Rock art at the El Ocote archeological site.

Pre-Columbian era arrowheads, potshards, and rock paintings in the caverns of the Sierra del Laurel and near the present village of Las Negritas testify to the presence of humans in this territory for more than 20,000 years.[citation needed] Later in the colonial times, Pedro Almíndez Chirino was the first Spaniard who entered the territory, perhaps by the end of 1530 or the beginning of 1531, following the instructions given by Nuño de Guzmán.[citation needed]

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the territory of what is now the State of Aguascalientes was inhabited by Chichimecas, who made the territory difficult to access. In fact, the total occupation of the lands of El Bajío was a task that would take about two centuries. With respect to this, Viceroy Luís de Velasco offered municipal benefits to those who established settlements to confront the Chichimeca. And for his part, Viceroy Gastón de Peralta decided to confront them directly, which did not end with good results.[citation needed]

It was in order to be in the territory that is presently the state inhabited by Chichimecas, the so-called Guachichiles, that the conquistadors built several forts or presidios.

Prehispanic city of La Quemada, Zacatecas, near Aguascalientes.

This was a system devised by Martín Enríquez de Almanza following the strategy that had been developing in Spain throughout the Reconquista period. Therefore, in order to protect the Camino de la Plata,[15] which stretched between Zacatecas and Mexico City, three presidios [garrisoned fortifications] founded by the Indian fighter Juan Domínguez, were to be created, which were: the presidio at Las Bocas, later called Las Bocas de Gallardo, situated on the border of Aguascalientes, in what was the jurisdiction of the mayor of Teocaltiche, presently the border of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas; the presidio at Palmillas, which was located near what is now Tepezalá; and the Ciénega Grande presidio, established around 1570. The latter was located on what are now Moctezuma and Victoria Streets, although some historians place it on the Calle 5 de Mayo (once the Camino Real) at Moctezuma, just in front of the Plaza de Armas. This was a fortress whose purpose was the protection of the Valle de los Romero and the road to Zacatecas, entering this way to secure the passage of convoys loaded with silver and other metals.

Pueblo mágico of Real de Asientos, founded as a mining town in northern Aguascalientes by conquistador Diego de Ibarra in 1548.

The founding of Aguascalientes as a town came from the order that King Felipe II gave the judge of the court of Nueva Galicia, Don Gerónimo de Orozco, in which he stated that he should look for a rich man to settle in the territory with the purpose of expelling the Chichimecas and of assuring safe passage. Gerónimo de Orozco, following that order, looked for someone who would accept the king's order and found a man named Juan de Montoro[16] in the city of Santa María de los Lagos. He accepted the assignment and, accompanied by eleven other people, headed to the territory and thus founded the town of Aguas Calientes on October 22, 1575. It has been noted that it was called San Marcos originally, changing its name on August 18, 1611, to the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. And finally, from June 2, 1875, it was called the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes; later changing to the city of Aguascalientes, which remains its name today.[17]

In the act of its establishment, the Villa de San Marcos (Aguascalientes) was awarded the highest mayoral jurisdiction under the Kingdom of New Galicia. As of December 4, 1786, on the occasion of the issuance of the "Ordinance of Mayors", it became a quartermaster sub-delegation.

On April 24, 1789, by order of the Superior Board of Royal Property, the sub-delegation of Aguascalientes became a dependency of Zacatecas.

In the Mexican War of Independence, in the territory which is today the state of Aguascalientes, the fires of independence were stoked by illustrious and courageous men such as Valentin Gómez Farías, Rafael Iriarte, Rafael Vázquez, and Pedro Parga.

Aguascalientes at its maximum territorial extent in 1865, under the government of Maximilian I of Habsburg. The territory included what is known as Los Altos de Jalisco.

Confusion has arisen regarding the exact date when Aguascalientes formally separated from the territory of Zacatecas. By virtue of having, de facto, defeated the liberal government of Zacatecas by rising against the central government, president Antonio López de Santa Anna passed through Aguascalientes, where he was well received by the people who had wanted to separate from Zacatecas for some time. Taking advantage of the independent souls of the Aguascalentenses, and by way of punishing Zacatecas for supporting the Revolution against them, by Federal Decree of General López de Santa Anna dated May 23, 1835, in the third article; ordered that Aguascalientes to be separated from Zacatecas territory, without granting the territory any specific category, reinstating the appointment of the political boss, Pedro Garcia Rojas. With respect to this, it must be mentioned that said order was not made official as it did not meet the legal requirements to take effect, since it was necessary that two thirds of each house, both Senators and Representatives, approved the order; furthermore it would be required that two thirds of the legislatures of the states also approved it. The second requirement not being completed, the constitutional congress convened again to develop the centralized constitution that would be known later as the Seven Laws. The constitution did not acknowledge Aguascalientes in the rank of department, but it saw fit to eliminate the states, together with the federal regime, replacing the states with departments, and because of this it continued to belong to Zacatecas. What can be said, since in the local constitution of Zacatecas of 1825, Aguascalientes was contemplated as a member of said state.

Pancho Villa, Eulalio Gutiérrez y Emiliano Zapata after the Revolutionary Convention of Aguascalientes, 1914.

It was general José Mariano Salas who, on August 5, 1846, announced the reestablishment of federalism, convening a constitutional congress that declared current the constitution of 1824, but still didn't consider Aguascalientes as a state. Subsequently, on May 18, 1847, amendments were approved to the Constitution of 1824, but neither granted to Aguascalientes the status of a state. That brought about a war between Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, and as a consequence Zacatecas would strengthen the partitions, now municipalities, of Cavillo and Rincón de Romos. In July 1848, Aguascalientes accepted the peaceful annexation to Zacatecas; but continued making efforts to separate through Miguel García Rojas. It was not until December 10, 1853, that López de Santa Anna, using his extraordinary powers, issued a decree declaring Aguascalientes a department, based on the decrees of December 30, 1836, and June 30, 1838, without ever referring to the one from March 23, 1835. Finally, in the project that would be the Constitution of 1857, that was presented on June 16, 1856, Aguascalientes was included as a state in Article 43; it was passed unanimously by the 79 deputies present, ensuring the establishment of the state of Aguascalientes on December 10, 1856. On September 16, 1857, on the strength of said constitution, Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo reclaimed his post as constitutional governor of the state.

In the independent state, hidrocálidos (people of Aguascalientes) Jesús R. Macías, Manuel Rangel, Augustín Orona, José María Arellano and many other anonymous heroes distinguished themselves in the War of Reform.

Silvestre Dorador, Román Morales, Pedro Vital, Alfonso Guerrero Aguilera and Alberto Fuentes Dávila were forerunners of the Revolution. The explosion of the Maderist movement embraced the cause in the company of some other compatriots, and the rebel action of the town and the region stayed formalized.

Geography edit

Local mountain range as seen from Aguascalientes.
Headquarters of INEGI, the National Institute for Statistics and Geography.

The state is located about 480 km (300 mi) from Mexico City in the macroregion of El Bajío, specifically the Bajío Occidental (western Bajío).

It covers 5,471 km2 (2,112 sq mi), or 0.3% of the area of the country, and has a little more than one million inhabitants. Most of its inhabitants live in the densely populated metropolitan area of its capital city.

The state as it is now was created on October 27, 1857, when it was separated from Zacatecas after the tale says that the wife of the governor of the state promised to give a kiss to the President of the time, in exchange for the separation of Aguascalientes from Zacatecas, which explains the shape of a kiss the state has.[citation needed] It bears the name Aguascalientes taken from its largest city and capital also called Aguascalientes.

Climate edit

The state mostly has a semi-arid climate, with an exception in the northwestern part of the state with the Sierra Fría mountain range having a temperate highland climate. It also brings large amounts of rain that eventually flows into one of the states reservoir. [18] Mean annual temperature of the state is around 17 to 18 °C (62.6 to 64.4 °F) in which May and June are the hottest months with mean temperatures between 22 and 23 °C (71.6 and 73.4 °F).[18][19] In these months, temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86.0 °F).[18] January is the coldest month, averaging 13 to 14 °C (55.4 to 57.2 °F) with temperatures dropping down to 4 °C (39.2 °F).[18][19] Frosts frequently occur from November to February. Mean rainfall is low, averaging 526 mm (20.7 in) and is mostly concentrated in summer with winters being dry.[18]

Demographics edit

Historical population
1895 104,693—    
1900 102,416−2.2%
1910 120,511+17.7%
1921 107,581−10.7%
1930 132,900+23.5%
1940 161,693+21.7%
1950 226,965+40.4%
1960 243,363+7.2%
1970 338,142+38.9%
1980 519,439+53.6%
1990 719,659+38.5%
1995 862,720+19.9%
2000 944,285+9.5%
2005 1,065,416+12.8%
2010 1,184,996+11.2%
2015 1,312,544+10.8%
Religion in Aguascalientes (2010 census)[22]
Roman Catholicism
Other Christian
Other Religion
No religion

Government and politics edit

Government edit

Aguascalientes is subdivided into 11 municipios ("municipalities").

INEGI code Municipality Municipal Seat Area (km2) Population (2020)
001 Aguascalientes Aguascalientes 1178.85 948,990
002 Asientos Asientos 547.22 51,536
003 Calvillo Calvillo 932.62 58,250
004 Cosío Cosío 129.21 17,000
005 Jesús María Jesús María 506.32 129,929
006 Pabellón de Arteaga Pabellón de Arteaga 199.72 47,646
007 Rincón de Romos Rincón de Romos 376.77 57,369
008 San José de Gracia San José de Gracia 866.08 9,552
009 Tepezalá Tepezalá 231.70 22,485
010 El Llano Palo Alto 509.77 20,853
011 San Francisco de los Romo   San Francisco de los Romo   139.54 61,997

Economy and industry edit

Vineyards in Aguascalientes.

This state originated around the times of colonial Spanish influence. It is located in the middle of the country and is now beginning to make a name for itself as an industrial power within Mexico. The state was once a major silver miner and a major source of railroad transportation, the latter due to its strategic location, midway between the three most populous areas, namely Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey.

Today, Mexico's fast growing car industry is especially important in this state. There are two Nissan factories in Aguascalientes which together produce more than half a million cars per year.[citation needed] Infiniti may build a plant to make vehicles like the QX30.[citation needed]

In the rural area, Aguascalientes was once the largest national producer of grapes and wines. This tradition ceased gradually due to the Spanish Royalty's wishes that grape and wine production be limited to the mother country. Thanks to the influx of immigrants into Mexico, the wineries and vineyards remain and flourish. Guavas are also produced in the state, specifically in the municipality of Calvillo. This county is one of the richest counties in Aguascalientes.

There are several projects for economic development such as: the Financial District Río San Pedro, a monorail, a suburban train, the construction of the newest and most modern WTC in Mexico, over four shopping malls, two theme parks, two Executive Hotels and one whose qualification is five stars, eight bridges for the next five years, a Financial District around the Airport, A Texas Instruments Assembly-Test Plant, A Nissan Assembly plant, a Toyota assembly plant and several others projects place Aguascalientes as the third most competitive state in Mexico with more than US$12,000,000 in foreign direct investment per year (around 8 percent of Mexico's FDI) even though its population is just about 1.03 percent of the country.

However, recently it has also benefited from heavier tourism, since the capital city has gained prestige and status as a national destination for its colonial beauty and cleanliness. In addition, the haciendas and baths around the state have historic and recreational importance.

Tourism edit

The Museo Espacio of the MECA (Macroespacio para la Cultura y las Artes), housed in a former railway workshop. The 86 hectare MECA complex is composed of museums, a library, auditorium, former industrial buildings and sports facilities.

Although this state is not often billed as a tourist center, international visitors, as well as citizens from all over Mexico, are attracted to San Marcos Fair, which is considered the national fair of Mexico[23] and contributes much to Mexico's economy.

Recently, its capital city has gained the reputation as a great destination for its superb colonial architecture visible in the colonial center, as well as the modernity and dynamism in the outskirts.

The city is home to Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo International Airport, where 9 flights per day depart to Mexico City, Tijuana, Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston.[24]

The city also hosts many conventions every year. It benefits from its excellent central location. The city is also famed for its environment of relaxation, and for its safety and cleanliness, as it is often described by people when traveling to this part of the country for conventions or tourism.

Most tourists go to the capital. A few tourists explore the former mining towns in the north of the state (in the municipalities of Asientos and Tepezalá), which are now almost ghost cities. The haciendas, hot springs, and baths scattered around the state are also of historical and recreational relevance.

The municipality of Calvillo has a humid subtropical climate, The largest producer of guavas in Mexico,[25] it attracts some fans of watersports to its reservoirs.

Dance performance (Ferial) at the National Fair of San Marcos.

The state has a Natural Protected Reserve in the higher mountains called Sierra Fría. Located at a height of 2,500 to 3,000 m (8,202 to 9,843 ft) above sea level, it comprises oak and pine forests. Its attractions include observing exuberant landscape and wide ravines, in which, there are pumas, lynxes, boar, white-tailed deer, wild turkey, raccoons and many other animals. There are steep-sided cycle paths, camping and picnic areas as well as several hunting clubs. It is the mountain climate and fauna that attracts locals for camping activities. In winter, the temperature sometimes falls to −4.44 °C (24.01 °F) when the weather is poor. Usually, Sierra Fría is the only part of the state that gets snow during winter.

In the city of Aguascalientes one of the best sunsets in the world can be seen in Cerro del Muerto; the hill resembles the shape of a man lying down. The city of Aguascalientes is called "el corazón" which means "the heart" of Mexico because it lies in the middle of the country. This city is often considered, by its locals, to be one of the safest and cleanest in Mexico. Also, the city of Aguascalientes is known as "the land of the good people".

Sports edit

Boca de Túnel, climbing park at the San José de Gracia municipality.

Club de Fútbol Gallos Hidrocálidos de Aguascalientes was a football club from Aguascalientes, Mexico.

The club was founded in 1994, when Salvador López Monroy, a restaurant business owner from Los Angeles,[26] bought a second division franchise which he relocated to Aguascalientes where there was no professional football club.[27]

The club played its last tournament in 2000-2001 when the Governor of Aguascalientes bought first division club Necaxa, with its national following, and relocated it from Mexico City. Gallos de Aguascalientes was then sold to Chivas, which changed its name to F.C. Tapatio de Guadalajara, affiliated to Chivas.[27]

The city is home to the soccer team Club Necaxa, which plays in Mexican first division. The club left Mexico City and relocated to Aguascalientes following the 2003 opening of Estadio Victoria, which is now the club's home venue and one of the best stadiums in the country.

The state has one football team in the Mexican Premiere League, Club Necaxa, one professional baseball team in the Mexican League, Rieleros de Aguascalientes (The railroad men), and one professional basketball team, Panteras de Aguascalientes (Aguascalientes Panthers)

In December 2009, Necaxa was represented on the field and played their final 2009 match within the Primera División (First Division) tier in the 2009 season after losing 1-0 vs Club América. Under the rules of regulation, Necaxa would not be able to participate in the First Division competition play in the fall 2009 and spring 2010 year.

Victoria Stadium, home of Liga MX team Club Necaxa.

Necaxa's closing spring 2010 league performance had some accomplishments. They had an undefeated record at home throughout the fall 2009. In the spring 2010 campaign, Necaxa's only loss in the season came against F.C León, Necaxa faced this other soccer team on May 8, 2010, for the second leg of the Bicentennial Closing Spring Tournament of 2010. Necaxa won 4–2 on aggregate. Necaxa abandoned the Liga de Ascenso and returned to First Division fall 2010 season. As a result of this match Necaxa won the bi-championship in the Liga de Ascenso and First Promotion title in their franchise history.

On April 16, 2011, after a draw 1–1 with Atlante F.C., the club's first key game in 2011, Necaxa could not cumulate enough points in order to evade relegation. For a second time, Club Necaxa was relegated to the Liga de Ascenso, the second tier, for the 2011–2012 season. One of the biggest soccer to live Judith Ramírez played for this team from 2001 to 2017.

Basketball edit

Aguascalientes hosts the Panteras de Aguascalientes headquarters. This team plays in the Mexican Professional Basketball League.

Baseball edit

Aguascalientes also hosts the baseball professional team Rieleros.

Racing edit

Aguascalientes also has important racetracks for the car and motorbike races at a national and international level.

Media edit

Newspapers of Aguascalientes include: Ahí, El Heraldo de Aguascalientes, El Sol del Centro de Aguascalientes, Hidrocálido, La Jornada Aguascalientes, and Picacho Panorama de Aguascalientes.[28][29]

Major communities edit

Notable people edit

See also articles in the category People from Aguascalientes

References edit

  1. ^ "Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on April 11, 2010.
  2. ^ "Senadores por Aguascalientes LXI Legislatura" (in Spanish). Senado de la Republica. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Aguascalientes" (in Spanish). Camara de Diputados. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  4. ^ "Superficie" (in Spanish). Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  5. ^ "Relieve" (in Spanish). Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  6. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 17, 2020. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  7. ^ Citibanamex (June 13, 2023). "Indicadores Regionales de Actividad Económica 2023" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved August 13, 2023.
  8. ^ a b c INEGI (January 1, 2016). "México en Cifras". (in Spanish). Archived from the original on December 7, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  9. ^ Nuño, Eugenio Herrera (December 26, 2018). "Aguascalientes: Cierre 2018 y futuribles 2030/ El Apunte". LJA Aguascalientes (in Mexican Spanish). Archived from the original on December 31, 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  10. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Subnational HDI – Global Data Lab". Archived from the original on July 25, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  11. ^ En cifras, ¿cómo vamos? 2019 (PDF) (in Spanish). Mexico City: México en Cifras. 2019. p. 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 2, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  12. ^ Espinosa, Camila Ayala. "Aguascalientes, con el mayor crecimiento económico del país". El Economista (in Spanish). Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  13. ^ "Aguascalientes prepares for one of world's 10 largest fairs". Mexico News Daily. April 17, 2019. Archived from the original on July 25, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  14. ^ "The San Marcos Fair in Aguascalientes – Doña Cholita Tortilleria". Archived from the original on March 11, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  15. ^ La Guerra Chichimeca, POWELL, PHILIP W., Fondo de la Cultura Económica
  16. ^ "La fundación de Aguascalientes". Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  17. ^ Evolución Constitucional del Estado de Aguascalientes, José Alfredo Muñoz Delgado, Ed. Piqueta.
  18. ^ a b c d e "Clima". Información por entidad (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Clima" (in Spanish). Gobierno del estado de Aguascalientes. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  20. ^ "Censo Aguascalientes 2020".
  21. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 17, 2020. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  22. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010". INEGI. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  23. ^ "San Marco National Fair, Mexico City, Mexico". World Reviewer. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  24. ^ "Grupo Aeroportuario del Pacifo". Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
  25. ^ Bucur, Diodora (December 4, 2009). "December guava fair in Calvillo, Aguascalientes : Mexico Travel". Archived from the original on October 24, 2020. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  26. ^ "Desfalco a los Gallos" [Embezzlement in the Roosters] (in Spanish). Imagen. June 19, 1999. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013.
  27. ^ a b García Esparza, Karla Lizbeth (July 31, 2012). "Desmienten Regreso de los Gallos de Aguascalientes al Futbol Profesional" [Roosters of Aguascalientes denied a return to professional football] (in Spanish). Pagina 24. Archived from the original on February 19, 2013.
  28. ^ "Publicaciones periódicas en Aguascalientes". Sistema de Información Cultural (in Spanish). Gobierno de Mexico. Archived from the original on March 7, 2020.
  29. ^ "Latin American & Mexican Online News". Research Guides. US: University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries. Archived from the original on March 7, 2020.

External links edit