Guadalajara (//, Spanish: [ɡwaðalaˈxaɾa] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the central region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,460,148 inhabitants, it is Mexico's second most populous municipality. The Guadalajara metropolitan area has a reported population of 5,002,466 inhabitants, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Mexico, behind Mexico City. The municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico. It is a strong business and economic center in the Bajío region.
|Ciudad de Guadalajara|
City of Guadalajara
The Pearl of the West, The City of the Roses
Interactive map outlining Guadalajara
|Foundation||February 14, 1542|
|Founded as||Villa de Guadalajara|
|Founded by||Cristóbal de Oñate|
|Named for||Guadalajara, Spain|
|• Mayor||Ismael Del Toro Castro  (MC)|
|• City||151 km2 (58 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,734 km2 (1,056 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,566 m (5,138 ft)|
|• City||1,460,148 |
|• Density||10,361/km2 (26,830/sq mi)|
|• Metro||5,002,466 |
|• Metro density||1,583/km2 (4,100/sq mi)|
|• Demonym||Tapatío, Guadalajarense (archaic)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
Guadalajara is the tenth-largest Latin American city in population, urban area and gross domestic product. The city's economy is based on services and industry, especially information technology, with many international firms having regional offices and manufacturing facilities in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, and several domestic IT companies headquartered in the city. Other, more traditional industries, such as shoes, textiles and food processing are also important contributing factors.
Guadalajara is a major Mexican cultural center, as it is considered by most to be the home of the famous mariachi genre of music, and plays host to a number of large-scale cultural events such as the Guadalajara International Film Festival, the Guadalajara International Book Fair, and other globally renowned cultural events which draw international crowds. It is home to C.D. Guadalajara, one of the most popular football clubs in Mexico. This city was named the American Capital of Culture for 2005, and hosted the 2011 Pan American Games.
- 1 Toponymy
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy and infrastructure
- 7 Technology
- 8 Education
- 9 Culture
- 10 Urbanism
- 11 Notable people
- 12 External Relations
- 13 Twin towns – sister cities
- 14 American Capital of Culture
- 15 See also
- 16 Notes
- 17 References
- 18 Bibliography
- 19 External links
The colonizer, Cristóbal de Oñate, named the city after the conqueror of western Mexico, Nuño de Guzmán, who was born in Guadalajara, Spain. The name comes from the Arabic وادي الحجارة (wādī al-ḥajārah), which means 'Valley of the Stone', or 'Fortress Valley'.
In the center of the Atemajac Valley, where Guadalajara is currently located, there were no human settlements, only in its surroundings. To the east of the Atemajac Valley were Tonallan and Tetlán. At the extremes were Zapopan, Atemajac, Zoquipan, Thesistan, Coyula and Huentitán.
The city was established in three other places before moving to its current location. The first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as Nochistlán, Zacatecas. This site was settled by Cristóbal de Oñate as commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán, with the purpose of securing recent conquests and defending them against the still-hostile natives. The settlement did not last long at this spot due to the lack of water; in 1533 it was moved to a location near Tonalá. Four years later, Guzmán ordered that the village be moved to Tlacotán. While the settlement was in Tlacotán, the Spanish king Charles I granted the coat of arms that the city still has today.
|1532-01-05||Mesa del Cerro||Nochistlán, Zacatecas, San Juan|
|1535-03||Tlacotán||Ixtlahuacan del Rio|
|1541-10-09||Tonalá and Tetlán in Valle de Atemajac||Current location|
|1542-02-14||Valle de Atemajac||Established officially|
The colonizers were attacked during the Mixtón War in 1543 by Caxcan, Portecuex and Zacateco peoples under the command of Tenamaxtli. The war was initiated by the natives due to the cruel treatment of Indians by Nuño de Guzmán, in particular the enslavement of captured natives. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza had to take control of the campaign to suppress the revolt after the Spanish were defeated in several engagements. The conflict ended after Mendoza made some concessions to the Indians such as freeing the Indian slaves and granting amnesty.
The village of Guadalajara barely survived the war, and the villagers attributed their survival to the Archangel Michael, who remains the patron of the city. It was decided to move the city once again, this time to Atemajac, as it was more defensible. The city has remained there to this day. In 1542, records indicate that 126 people were living in Guadalajara and, in the same year, the status of city was granted by the king of Spain. Guadalajara was officially founded on February 14, 1542 in the Valley of Atemajac. The settlement's name came from the Spanish hometown of Nuño de Guzmán, Guadalajara.
In 1559, royal offices for the province of Nueva Galicia were moved from Compostela to Guadalajara, as well as the bishopric. Construction of the cathedral began in 1563. In 1575, religious orders such as the Augustinians and Dominicans arrived, which would make the city a center for evangelization efforts.
The historic city center encompasses what was four centers of population, as the villages of Mezquitán, Analco and Mexicaltzingo were annexed to the Atemajac site in 1669.
In 1791, the University of Guadalajara was established in the city, which was then the capital of Nueva Galicia. The inauguration was held in 1792 at the site of the old Santo Tomas College. While the institution was founded during the 18th century, it would not be fully developed until the 20th century, starting in 1925. In 1794, the Hospital Real de San Miguel de Belén, or simply the Hospital de Belén, was opened.
Guadalajara's economy during the 18th century was based on agriculture and the production of non-durable goods such as textiles, shoes and food products.
Guadalajara remained the capital of Nueva Galicia with some modifications until the Mexican War of Independence. After Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla decided not to attack Mexico City, despite early successes, he retreated to Guadalajara in late 1810. Initially, he and his army were welcome in the city, as living conditions had become difficult for workers and Hidalgo promised to lower taxes and put an end to slavery. However, violence by the rebel army to city residents, especially royalists, soured the welcome. Hidalgo did sign a proclamation ending slavery, which was honored in the country since after the war. During this time, he founded the newspaper El Despertador Americano, dedicated to the insurgent cause.
Royalist forces marched to Guadalajara, arriving in January 1811 with nearly 6,000 men. Insurgents Ignacio Allende and Mariano Abasolo wanted to concentrate their forces in the city and plan an escape route should they be defeated, but Hidalgo rejected this. Their second choice was to make a stand at the Puente de Calderon just outside the city. Hidalgo had between 80,000 and 100,000 men and 95 cannons, but the better-trained royalists won, decimating the insurgent army, forcing Hidalgo to flee toward Aguascalientes. Guadalajara remained in royalist hands until nearly the end of the war.
After the state of Jalisco was erected in 1823, the city became its capital. In 1844, General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga initiated a revolt against the government of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, which the president managed to quell personally. However, while Santa Anna was in Guadalajara, a revolt called the Revolution of the Three Hours brought José Joaquín Herrera to the presidency and put Santa Anna into exile. During the Reform War, President Benito Juárez had his government here in 1856. French troops entered the city during the French Intervention in 1864, and the city was retaken by Mexican troops in 1866.
Despite the violence, the 19th century was a period of economic, technological and social growth for the city. After Independence, small-scale industries developed, many of them owned by immigrants from Europe. Rail lines connecting the city to the Pacific coast and north to the United States intensified trade and allowed products from rural areas of Jalisco state to be shipped. Ranch culture became a very important aspect of Jalisco's and Guadalajara's identity during this time. From 1884 to 1890, electrical service, railroad service and the Observatory were established.
Guadalajara again experienced substantial growth after the 1930s, and the first industrial park was established in 1947. Its population surpassed one million in 1964, and by the 1970s it was Mexico's second-largest city and the largest in western Mexico. Most of the modern city's urbanization took place between the 1940s and the 1980s, with the population doubling every ten years until it stood at 2.5 million in 1980. The population of the municipality has stagnated, and even declined, slowly but steadily, since the early 1990s.
The increase in population brought with it an increase in the size of what is now called Greater Guadalajara, rather than an increase in the population density of the city. Migrants coming into Guadalajara from the 1940s to the 1980s were mostly from rural areas and lived in the city center until they had enough money to buy property. This property was generally bought in the edges of the city, which were urbanizing into fraccionamientos, or residential areas. In the 1980s, it was described as a "divided city" east to west based on socioeconomic class. Since then, the city has evolved into four sectors, which are still more or less class-centered. The upper classes tend to live in Hidalgo and Juárez in the northwest and southwest, while lower classes tend to live in the city center, Libertad in the northeast and southeast in Reforma. However, lower class development has developed on the city's periphery and upper and middle classes are migrating toward Zapopan, making the situation less neatly divided.
Since 1996, the activity of multinational corporations has had a significant effect on the economic and social development of the city. The presence of companies such as Kodak, Hewlett-Packard, Motorola and IBM has been based on production facilities built outside the city proper, bringing in foreign labor and capital. This was made possible in the 1980s by surplus labor, infrastructure improvements and government incentives. These companies focus on electrical and electronic items, which is now one of Guadalajara's two main products (the other being beer). This has internationalized the economy, steering it away from manufacturing and toward services, dependent on technology and foreign investment. This has not been favorable for the unskilled working class and traditional labor sectors.
Guadalajara in the 18th centuryEdit
During this time the inhabitants of Guadalajara achieved a high standard of living, due to the flourishing of industry, the production of the field, trades, mining and trade. Despite having been through epidemics, plagues and earthquakes, Guadalajara ended up consolidating itself as one of the most important population centers in New Spain. Guadalajara's heyday led to architects, philosophers, lawyers, scientists, poets, writers and speakers decided to move to the city, Francisco Xavier Clavijero and Matías de la Mota Padilla were some of the most prominent. In 1771 came to the city one of the most notable characters in the history of Guadalajara: Bishop Fray Antonio Alcalde, who founded the Civil Hospital and the University of Guadalajara. In 1793 the first Guadalajara printing press was run by Mariano Valdés Téllez, whose first edition was a funeral eulogy for Fray Antonio Alcalde.
The Guadalajara of the sixteenth century was a small town. It was considered a rather passing place, frequented mainly by traveling merchants. There were several epidemics that drastically reduced the population of indigenous people. For this reason, the year 1557 the first hospital was founded in Guadalajara. In 1560 Guadalajara officially became the capital of New Galicia.
Independence in GuadalajaraEdit
Miguel Hidalgo entered San Pedro (now Tlaquepaque) on November 25, 1810 and the next day he was greeted effusively in Guadalajara. On December 6, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo abolished slavery in Guadalajara On January 17, 1817, the insurgent army was defeated on the outskirts of Guadalajara in the battle of the Calderón Bridge. New Galicia, now Jalisco, adhered to the Plan de Iguala on June 13, 1821.
1992 sewer explosionsEdit
On April 22, 1992, gasoline explosions in the sewer system over four hours destroyed 8 km (5 mi) of streets in the downtown district of Analco. Gante Street was the most damaged. Officially, 206 people were killed, nearly 500 injured and 15,000 were left homeless. The estimated monetary damage ranges between $300 million and $1 billion. The affected areas can be recognized by their more modern architecture.
Three days before the explosion, residents started complaining of a strong gasoline-like smell coming from the sewers. City workers were dispatched to check the sewers and found dangerously high levels of gasoline fumes. However, no evacuations were ordered. An investigation into the disaster found that there were two precipitating causes. The first was new water pipes that were built too close to an existing gasoline pipeline. Chemical reactions between the pipes caused erosion. The second was a flaw in the sewer design that did not allow accumulated gases to escape.
Arrests were made to indict those responsible for the blasts. Four officials of Pemex (the state oil company) were indicted and charged on the basis of negligence. Ultimately, however, these people were cleared of all charges. Calls for the restructuring of PEMEX were made but they were successfully resisted.
The city has hosted important international events, such as the first Cumbre Iberoamericana in 1991, the Third Summit of Heads of State and Governments from Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union in 2004, the Encuentro Internacional de Promotores y Gestores Culturales in 2005, and the 2011 Pan American Games. It was named the American Capital of Culture in 2005, Ciudad Educadora (Educator City) in 2006 and the first Smart City in Mexico due to its use of technology in development.
In its 2007 survey entitled "Cities of the Future", FDi magazine ranked Guadalajara highest among major Mexican cities and designated Guadalajara as having the second strongest economic potential of any major North American city, behind Chicago. The magazine also ranked it as the most business-friendly Latin American city in 2007.
The Twentieth CenturyEdit
Guadalajara grew rapidly to occupy a place as a Mexican industrial, tourist and service metropolis and as the second largest economy in Mexico after Mexico City. With the Revolution of 1910, Guadalajara became the second most populous city in the country, but during the following decades came wars of a regional nature, in the states of Jalisco, Michoacán and Guanajuato. In addition, the aftermath of 29' impacted much more than desired. The 1940s were social and political lyored, and of marked growth in trade, industry and demographics.
During each government period, the city went through structural plans with which new areas and commercial hubs were born and with which transnational corporations and international industries arrived in the city. The first shopping malls emerged, which were also the first to be built in the country. The city began to expand rapidly until it found the territorial union with the municipality of Zapopan. Among the developments created during this period are the Guadalajara Expo, the light rail, shopping centers, the expansion of streets and avenues, and the birth and development of road infrastructure, services, tourism, industrial, etc. The first shopping center in Latin America emerged in the city, the first urban electric-train system in Latin America, and the first autonomous university in Mexico.
The 1990s were marked by events such as the explosions of April 22, 1992, Mexican peso crisis of 1994, and the murder of the Cardinal Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo in 1993. During the explosions of 1992 hundreds of houses, avenues, streets, businesses and infrastructure in the Analco colony were seriously damaged, "without a clear delineator of information and responsibilities to date," in one of the most tragic events in the history of Guadalajara. This event, in addition to Mexico's 1994 economic crisis, resulted in the loss of Guadalajara's industrial power; the investigation of the facts lasted more than 11 years in which insufficient evidence was found to appoint a manager, investigations are now closed attributing the events to an accident.
Post-Revolutionary Period (Post-Revolutionary Period)Edit
The Porfiriato was over and the Mexican revolution was blowing up. At that time Guadalajara reigned the apparent calm (since the conflict was concentrated in the capital). After the Cristero conflict, peace returned to Guadalajara. For a long period the city flourished and began to grow from the colony, thus born new architectural concepts that would decorate the city with styles from the 1920s to the 1980s.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Guadalajara has a humid subtropical climate (Cwa) that is quite close to a tropical climate, featuring dry, warm winters and hot, wet summers. Guadalajara's climate is influenced by its high altitude and the general seasonality of precipitation patterns in western North America.
Although the temperature is warm year-round, Guadalajara has very strong seasonal variation in precipitation. The northward movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone brings a great deal of rain in the summer months, whereas for the rest of the year, the climate is rather dry. The extra moisture in the wet months moderates the temperatures, resulting in cooler days and nights during this period. The highest temperatures are usually reached in May averaging 33 °C (91 °F), but can reach up to 37 °C (99 °F) just before the onset of the monsoon. March tends to be the driest month and July the wettest, with an average of 273 millimetres (10.7 in) of rain, over a quarter of the annual average of about 1,002 millimetres (39.4 in).
During the summer, afternoon storms are very common and can sometimes bring hail flurries to the city, especially toward late August or September. Winters are relatively warm despite the city's altitude, with January daytime temperatures reaching about 25 °C (77 °F) and nighttime temperatures about 10 °C (50 °F). However, the outskirts of the city (generally those close to the Primavera Forest) experience on average cooler temperatures than the city itself. There, temperatures around 0 °C (32 °F) can be recorded during the coldest nights. Frost may also occur during the coldest nights, but temperatures rarely fall below 0 °C (32 °F) in the city, making it an uncommon phenomenon. Cold fronts in winter can sometimes bring light rain to the city for several days in a row. Snowfall is extraordinarily rare, with the last recorded one occurring in December 1997, which was the first time in 116 years, since it last fell in 1881.
|Climate data for Guadalajara, Mexico (1951–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.0
|Average high °C (°F)||24.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||17.1
|Average low °C (°F)||9.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−1.5
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||15.6
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.1||1.2||0.7||1.1||3.5||15.2||21.6||20.0||15.5||6.4||1.8||1.8||90.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||60||57||50||46||48||63||71||72||71||68||63||64||61|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||204.6||226.0||263.5||261.0||279.0||213.0||195.3||210.8||186.0||220.1||225.0||189.1||2,673.4|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||6.6||8.0||8.5||8.7||9.0||7.1||6.3||6.8||6.2||7.1||7.5||6.1||7.3|
|Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (humidity, 1981–2000)|
|Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1941–1990)|
Guadalajara's natural wealth is represented by the La Primavera Forest, Los Colomos, and the Barranca de Huentitán. The flora is highlighted by michoacan pines, different species of oak, liquidambar, ash, willows; and introduced trees such as tabachines, jacarandas and ficus, as well as orchids, roses and various species of fungi. The fauna is reduced to the typical urban fauna, in addition to 106 species of mammals, 19 species of reptiles and six species of fish.
La Barranca de Huentitán (also known as Barranca de Oblatos) is located north of the municipality of Guadalajara. It measures approximately 1,136 hectares and has an average depth of 600 meters difference. The difference in altitudes of the highest contour (1520 m) and the lowest (1000 m) is 520 meters at the point of the fonicular rail. This canyon is also named Oblates-Huentitan because it crosses 2 areas of the city called Oblates and Huentitan respectively. From the nineteenth century in the time of the Spanish conquest, there were fights between the Indians of Huentitán and the Spanish. It was also the site of battles during the Mexican Revolution and rebellion.
The Huentitán canyon is considered a biogeographic corridor as it houses four types of vegetation: deciduous tropical forest, gallery forest, rupicle vegetation and secondary vegetation. There are also several endemic species of flora and fauna in the area. The ravine is frequented by national and international researchers as it is home to a great biological diversity due to its geographical location. On June 5, 1997 it was declared a Protected Natural Area, under the category of Area Subject to Ecological Conservation. La Cascada Cola de Caballo: it is located on the Guadalajara to Zacatecas road (km 15) a few kilometers from the Northern Peripheral just after passing the village of San Esteban. The waterfall consists of a current from the Atemajac Valley but now, being so close to Guadalajara and a colony with very little development, it is very polluted. Urban forest or colomos forest, where the Japanese garden is located, located in the northwestern part of Guadalajara. It is located in one of the areas of greatest value, making it impossible to preserve its original surface. It was one of the main sources of supply of the city, and today continues to provide that vital liquid to some surrounding colonies. Currently, this forest has 92 hectares of forest mass in which pine trees, eucalyptus trees and cedars stand out. It has interesting and varied attractions such as: jogging tracks, gardens, ponds, bird lake, areas for field day, playgrounds, camping, horses. Other places include: Camachos Aquatic Natural Park. Barranca de Huentitlán La walnut. Barranca de Oblatos, Barranca Colimilla or Rio Grande, Japanese Garden in the forest of settlers.
VT Atemajac ValleyEdit
Urban forest or forest of the Colomos, where the Japanese garden is located, located in the northwest part of Guadalajara. Located in one of the areas of greatest value, making it impossible to preserve its original surface. It was one of the main sources of supply of the city, today it continues to provide that vital liquid to some surrounding colonies. Currently, this Forest has 92 hectares with a forest mass in which the pines, eucalyptus trees and cedars stand out. It has interesting and varied attractions such as: jogging tracks, gardens, ponds, bird lake, areas for field day, playgrounds, camping, and horses.
The historic downtown of Guadalajara is the oldest section of the city, where it was founded and where the oldest buildings are. It centers on Paseo Morelos/Paseo Hospicio from the Plaza de Armas, where the seats of ecclesiastical and secular power are, east toward the Plaza de Mariachis and the Hospicio Cabañas. The Plaza de Armas is a rectangular plaza with gardens, ironwork benches and an ironwork kiosk which was made in Paris in the 19th century.
Within Guadalajara's historic downtown, there are many squares and public parks: Parque Morelos, Plaza de los Mariachis, Plaza Fundadores, Plaza Tapatia, Plaza del Agave, Parque Revolucion, Jardin del Santuario, Plaza de Armas, Plaza de la Liberacion, Plaza Guadalajara and the Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres, the last four of which surround the cathedral to form a Latin Cross.
Construction began on the Metropolitan Cathedral in 1558 and the church was consecrated in 1616. Its two towers were built in the 19th century after an earthquake destroyed the originals. They are considered one of the city's symbols. The architecture is a mix of Gothic, Baroque, Moorish and Neoclassical. The interior has three naves and eleven side altars, covered by a roof supported by 30 Doric columns.
The Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres (Rotunda of Illustrious Men) is a monument made of quarried stone, built in 1952 to honor the memory of distinguished people from Jalisco. A circular structure of 17 columns surrounds 98 urns containing the remains of those honored. Across the street is the municipal palace which was built in 1952. It has four façades of quarried stone. It is mostly of Neoclassical design with elements such as courtyards, entrances and columns that imitate the older structures of the city.
The Palace of the State Government is in Churrigueresque and Neoclassical styles and was begun in the 17th century and finished in 1774. The interior was completely remodeled after an explosion in 1859. This building contains murals by José Clemente Orozco, a native of Jalisco, including "Lucha Social", "Circo Político", "Las Fuerzas Ocultas" and "Hidalgo" which depicts Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla with his arm raised above his head in anger at the government and the church.
The Cathedral is bordered to the east by the Plaza de la Liberación, nicknamed the Plaza de las Dos Copas, referring to the two fountains on the east and west sides. Facing this plaza is the Teatro Degollado (Degollado Theater). It was built in the mid-nineteenth century in Neoclassical design. The main portal has a pediment with a scene in relief called "Apollo and the Muses" sculpted in marble by Benito Castañeda. The interior vaulted ceiling is painted with a fresco by Jacobo Gálvez and Gerardo Suárez which depicts a scene from the Divine Comedy. Behind the theater is another plaza with a fountain called the Fuente de los Fundadores (Fountain of the Founders). The plaza is in the exact spot where the city was founded and contains a sculpture depicting Cristobal de Oñate at the event (finsemana).
The Jalisco Regional Museum (Ex seminary de San José) was built at the beginning of the 18th century to be the Seminario Conciliar de San José. From 1861 to 1914, it housed a school called Liceo de Varones. In 1918, it became the Museum of Fine Arts. In 1976, it was completely remodeled for its present use. The museum displays its permanent collection in 16 halls, 15 of which are dedicated to Paleontology, Pre-History, and Archeology. One of the prized exhibits is a complete mammoth skeleton. The other two halls are dedicated to painting and history. The painting collection includes works by Juan Correa, Cristóbal de Villalpando and José de Ibarra.
Between the Cathedral and the Hospicio is the large Plaza Tapatía which covers 70,000 m2. Its centerpiece is the large Quetzalcoátl sculpture/fountain. Southeast of this plaza is the Mercado Libertad, also called the Mercado de San Juan de Dios, one of the largest traditional markets in Mexico. The Temple of San Juan de Dios, a Baroque church built in the 17th century, is next to the market.
At the far east end is the Plaza de los Mariachis and the Ex-Hospicio Cabañas. The Plaza de los Mariachis is faced by restaurants where one can hear live mariachis play, especially at night. The Ex-Hospicio Cabañas extends along the entire east side of the Plaza. This building was constructed by Manuel Tolsá beginning in 1805 under orders of Carlos III. It was inaugurated and began its function as an orphanage in 1810, in spite of the fact that it would not be finished until 1845. It was named after Bishop Ruiz de Cabañas y Crespo. The façade is Neoclassical and its main entrance is topped by a triangular pediment. Today, it is the home of the Instituto Cultural Cabañas (Cabañas Cultural Institute) and its main attraction is the murals by José Clemente Orozco, which cover the main entrance hall. Among these murals is "Hombre del Fuego" (Man of Fire), considered to be one of Orozco's finest works.
Off this east-west axis are other significant constructions. The Legislative Place is Neoclassical and was originally built in the 18th century. It was reconstructed in 1982. The Palace of Justice was finished in 1897. The Old University Building was a Jesuit college named Santo Tomás de Aquino. It was founded in 1591. It became the second Mexican University in 1792. Its main portal is of yellow stone. The Casa de los Perros (House of the Dogs) was constructed in 1896 in Neoclassical design. On Avenida Juarez is the Sanctuary of Nuestra Señora del Carmen which was founded between 1687 and 1690 and remodeled completely in 1830. It retains its original coat of arms of the Carmelite Order as well as sculptures of the prophets Elijah and Elisha. Adjoining it is what is left of the Carmelite monastery, which was one of the richest in New Spain.
The cultural life in Guadalajara is one of the widest in the hemisphere. The city has one of the largest cultural agendas on the continent, in addition to the interest of the government, the University of Guadalajara and private institutions, to underline the cultural attributes of the city and the State of Jalisco. The city exhibits works by international artists and is a must-see for international cultural events whose radius of influence reaches most of the countries of Latin America, including the southwestern United States.
In the city there are large festivals of various topics with recognition and international scope, to mention the best known:
- May Cultural Festival
- Guadalajara International Book Fair, this fair is held every year, thanks to the auspices of the University of Guadalajara, during the last week of November. It includes a large exhibition of consolidated, independent, university, national, international publishers; books and lectures are presented; it has a special area for children and young people; it is very significant for showing during the ten days of the fair to a guest country (or region, or community), to which a pavilion is dedicated to expose the most representative of its culture. In the FIL, as it is popularly known, several awards are awarded, the most representative is the Juan Rulfo Award' Latin American and Caribbean Literature Award (formerly known as "Juan Rulfo", in honor of this author jalisciense).
- The festivities of October: These are the traditional festivals of Guadalajara, have been held since 1965 being the first headquarters the Agua Azul Park and years later it would change headquarters to the Benito Juárez auditorium that is where this celebration is currently held. Its main attractions are the mechanical games, the palenque and the auditorium where various artists, especially Mexican music are performed every night during this celebration of the October festivities.
- The Feast of the Dolls (Guadalajara International Puppet Festival).
- The International Meeting of Mariachi and Charrería. As its name says, various mariachis from different parts of the world gather. As well as the charros that come from various parts to demonstrate the national sport of Mexico. It starts with a parade and over the days events are held in various scenarios throughout the city. It is held between the months of August and September.
- Expo Ganadera.Es the largest and most important of its kind in the country. It is usually performed during the month of October.
- The Guadalajara International Film Festival (known as Guadalajara Film Fest). With more than twenty years of experience, FICG is the most important event in Mexico in terms of film, which includes an exhibition of films, an encounter with filmmakers and actors (talent campus), and the contest of realizations that are awarded in several categories: Ibero-American and Mexican short film, Mexican and Latin American documentary, a fictional feature film, among which the "Mayahuel" in which a trajectory is awarded.
- The International Festival of Contemporary Dance "Onésimo González". It was organized since 1999 organized by the Ministry of Culture of the Government of the State of Jalisco and the National Dance Coordination of INBA. Having in this choreographic examples of the most outstanding dance groups of the state of Jalisco, with some guest, national and international companies; promoting cultural exchange within Guadalajara, while offering open master classes to the public to enrich the dance language in this state. Performing every October at the Art and Culture Forum of this city.
- Expo-International Friendship Fair. This city has been the cradle and shelter of distinguished [poet], writers, painters, actors, filmmakers and representatives of art internationally. One work that accounts for the richness of the poets of this city is the book Major Poetry in Guadalajara (Poetic Annotations and Criticisms).
Its historic center houses colonial buildings of a religious and civil character, which stand out for their architectural and historical significance, and constitute a rich mixture of styles whose root is found in indigenous cultural contributions (mainly of incorporated into the Mozarabic and the castilian), and later in modern European influences (mainly French and Italian). The historic centre also has an excellent infrastructure of museums, theatres, galleries, libraries, auditoriums and concert halls. Some of these buildings date from the sixteenth and seventeenth century, such as the Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Guadalajara, among others. In terms of media, the city has several radio stations focused on culture, being XHUG-FM' Red Radio University of Guadalajara one of the most important and the one that is transmitted to the rest of the state and neighboring states and internationally through the Internet; it is also the first broadcaster via Pod Cast in the country, the city produces a fully cultural channel; XHGJG-TV' C7 dedicated to support, dissemination, and cultural entertainment and broadcast on open television, Guadalajara being the only city to produce a cultural cutting channel in the country in addition to the Mexico, D.F.A. Mexico City. Guadalajara publishes the most important cultural magazine in the country.
Guadalajara has been the first Mexican city to be accepted as a member of the International Association of Educational Cities due to its strong character and identity, potential for economic development through culture.
the museums in Guadalajara are an extension of the cultural infrastructure of this city, many of them stand out for their architectural and historical significance, there are more than 189 forums of art exhibition among cultural centers, museums, private galleries and cultural spaces of the town hall, several of them with centuries of existence and some others in the process of being built. The museums in Guadalajara belong to the cultural framework of the city, among which are in all its genres exhibiting History, Paleontology, Archaeology, Ethnography, Paintings, Crafts, Plastic, Photography, Sculpture, works of circuits international art, etc.
AAP Annex:Guadalajara Libraries Guadalajara and the surrounding metropolitan area have a wide range of public, private and digital libraries for the search and consultation of information. The promotion of culture and the enrichment of reading have made it easier for the citizen to require several facilities in the city. Some of the libraries also have a physical enclosure – among them the historic Octavio Paz Ibero-American Library of the University of Guadalajara and the Public Library of the State of Jalisco located in the adjoining city of Zapopan – with options for querying digital information over the Internet.
Guadalajara has a wide variety of typical dishes, such as pozole, tamal, toast, sopes, enchiladas, tacos, Menudo (soup), charros beans. But one that totally sets it apart from the whole country are the "Drowned Cake ", which is of salted birote (typical bread [tapatío]) smeared with refried beans, with fried pork cut into pieces – also known as "carnitas" – all in sauce tomato seasoned with spices; it is also eaten accompanied by onions deflated in lemon and hot sauce; to drink, it can be accompanied either with the famous tejuino – which is made with a base of sourdough corn, accompanied by lemon ice cream – or with the tepache (made from the bark of fermented pineapple).
Another typical meal of Guadalajara and the entire state of Jalisco is the "birria", which is usually made with meat from Capra aegagrus hircus-goat, Bos primigenius taurus-res or Ovis orientalis aries-borrego. The handcrafted birria is made in a special oven, which can be underground and covered with maguey leaves; the meat can be mixed with a tomato broth and spices, or consumed separately. The dessert that is considered as a typical tapatío is the jericalla.
Another typical dish of the tapatía kitchen is the meat in its juice This dish consists of a beef broth with beans from the pot and is accompanied by bacon, coriander, onion and radish (sliced or whole).
Guadalajara also has numerous restaurants to taste the international cuisine; it has renowned places and some of the best restaurants in the country with specialties in Spanish, French, Brazilian, Japanese, Italian, Hindu, Arabic, Lebanese, Greek, Chinese, Argentinean, Thai, Costa Rican and various restaurants specialized in vegetarian and "organic" food.
The material that is mostly used in Guadalajara's handicrafts for its ability to malleability, is mud; there are different types of mud.
The types of mud used are:
- The burnished mud
- It is the oldest technique, which has come from pre-Hispanic times. The appearance of the pieces made of this clay, is soft and smooth. Some know it as "water slab" because the utensils created with this clay are used just rightly to store the vital liquid. The special thing about burnished mud is that you only make a knead before you start molding the pieces, which are decorated with simple details such as flowers or perhaps designs.
- The smug mud
- This process is also known as glazing, not only in Guadalajara but in much of the country. It is a technique from Spain that consists of painting the clay pots with varnishes whose base is lead. This type of substance provides them with much more hardness and therefore greater durability. His utensils are one of the favorites.
- The Mud Flag
- To obtain it requires the direct intervention of the potter, in addition to several elements, such as: black mud, red sand, white mud, and green paint. The union of all these factors makes the resulting pieces have a unique and unrepeatable contrast, which allows to appreciate the beauty of the drawing in all its splendor. It is called flag mud because as you could realize, the predominant colors are the same as those that appear in the labaro patrio.
- The petatillo mud
- This technique was developed by Jalisciense artisans. It is distinguished because the background color of the piece, usually plates, is formed by very thin crisscrossed lines, simulating the lattice of a petate. The manufacturing process of this type of mud has a high level of complexity. After creating the part, it is left to dry and then sanded. It is then taken to an oven to be cooked at a low temperature in order to remove moisture, but without running the risk of it cracking. The next step is to apply a layer of enamel to it, in order to return it to the oven only now at a higher temperature. Currently this task is done leaving aside lead paints, so you can use them as dishes without health risks.
- The canelo mud
- It is mostly used for water storage, as is burnished mud. However, its reddish-brown color characterizes it and makes it distinguish itself from the rest. A tip to know if the piece is original, is to place your lips on one of its edges and if they stick to the piece, you will be sure that you take home something authentic. ajara'!
Government and politicsEdit
As the capital of the state, the city is the seat of the state's government. As a result, state politics have a heavy influence in local decision-making and vice versa. Historically, the mayorship of the city has been a common leaping platform for the state governorship. Additionally, because of the sheer size of the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area vis-à-vis the rest of the state, the city's urban agglomeration—largely dominated and coordinated by the Guadalajara city council—captures 12 of the 20 seats in the state legislature allocated by district.
All three branches of the state government are concentrated around the historic city center, with the Palace of Government, seat of the state executive, immediately southeast of the Cathedral. North, across the Plaza de la Liberación, is the State Legislature Building, and immediately east of the latter is the Supreme Tribunal of State Justice.
Like other municipalities in Mexico, Guadalajara is governed by a municipal president, who exercises executive power for three consecutive years. This office is currently occupied by Enrique Alfaro (Movimiento Ciudadano). The legislature has the cabildo, formed by the form chosen by the candidate for mayor, made up of aldermen, who are not elected by the people by direct or indirect voting, but the return happens automatically if the mayor wins.
The municipality is divided into five electoral districts for the purpose of election of representatives of the city in the federal legislature. These districts are the VIII, IX, XI, XIII and XIV of the state of Jalisco.
Municipality and the metropolitan areaEdit
The city and the municipality of Guadalajara are essentially co extensive with over 99% of the municipality living within the city limits and nearly all of the municipality urbanized. Urbanization centered on the city spreads out over seven other municipalities; of Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonalá, Tlajomulco de Zuñiga, El Salto, Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos and Juanacatlán. These areas form the "Guadalajara Metropolitan Area" (Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara in Spanish), which is the most populous in the state of Jalisco and the second most populous in the country after the Mexico City Metropolitan area. This metropolitan area had a population of 4,298,715 in 2008.
the most current figures by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography" INEGI, confirmed in 2010, the municipality of Guadalajara has a population of approximately 1 495 189, with a population in the metropolitan area of. 4 334,878, the most populous city in the state of Jalisco, the most conurbation-highest-population within the province of Jalisco. of the Guadalajara metropolitan area, and the second most populous city in Mexico; the first is Mexico City.
In 2007, the [United Nations Organization] UN]] listed the world's 100 most populous urban agglomerations. Mexico excelled with three cities on the list: Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey. Guadalajara ranked 66th in these cities, followed by Sydney and Washington, D.C. On the Latin American list, Guadalajara ranked 10th.
The municipality of Guadalajara is located in the center of the State, a little to the east, at coordinates 20-&36' 40" to 20-nbsp;45' 00" north latitude and 103- 16' 00" to 103- 24' 00" west-latitude and 103-&16' 00" to 103- 24' 00" west-west longitude , at a height of 1700 meters above sea level.
The municipality of Guadalajara is bounded to the north by Zapopan and Ixtlahuacán del Río, to the east by Tonalá (Jalisco)' Tonalá and Zapotlanejo, to the south with Tlaquepaque and to the west with Zapopan.
The growth of the city is due to Guadalajara (head) has grown and was awarded the closest communities. This was the case with the former communities Atemajac, Huentitán, Tetlán, Analco, Mexicaltzingo, Mezquitan and San Andrés, among others, which were absorbed by the growth of the municipal head and which are now an integral part of the conurbation, remaining fully urbanized.
- Ixtlahuacán del Río (21.7& km from the municipal head of Guadalajara, ).
- Santa Anita (19.6 km from Guadalajara's municipal seat, ).
- Santa Cruz de las Flores (27.9 nbsp;km from the municipal seat of Guadalajara, ).
- New Mexico (14 km from guadalajara city head, ).
- Thesis (20,8 km from the municipal head of Guadalajara, ).
- La Primavera (24.4 km from the municipal seat of Guadalajara, ).
Guadalajara's Metropolitan AreaEdit
Template:AAP The second most populous metropolitan area in the country. It is composed of 6 central and 3 exterior municipalities. The plants are Guadalajara, Zapopan, San Pedro Tlaquepaque, Tonalá ,Jalisco, Zúñiga's Tlajomulco and El Salto (Jalisco)' The Leap]]; and the external stheres are Ixtlahuachan de los Membrillos, Juanacatlán and Zapotlanejo in the [[Archivo:Mapa ZMG.svg|thumb|468x468px|Map of the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area and its respective Conurbation.|Center]]
|Total population (hab)||24 560||69 670||740 394||1 199 391||1 626 152||1 650 205||2 633 216||3 646 319||4 374 370||4 654 134||5 002 466|
|Sex||Amount||% regarding the municipality||% regarding the state||% regarding the country|
|Total||1 646 319||100||26,04||1,69|
Economy and infrastructureEdit
Guadalajara has the third-largest economy and industrial infrastructure in Mexico and contributes 37% of the state of Jalisco's total gross production. Its economic base is strong and well diversified, mainly based on commerce and services, although the manufacturing sector plays a defining role. It is ranked in the top ten in Latin America in gross domestic product and the third highest ranking in Mexico. In its 2007 survey entitled "Cities of the Future", FDi magazine ranked Guadalajara highest among major Mexican cities and designated Guadalajara as having the second strongest economic potential of any major North American city behind Chicago. FDI ranked it as the most business-friendly Latin American city in 2007.
In 2009 Moody's Investors Service assigned ratings of Ba1 (Global scale, local currency) and A1.mx (Mexican national scale). During the prior five years, the municipality's financial performance had been mixed but had begun to stabilize in the later two years. Guadalajara manages one of the largest budgets among Mexican municipalities and its revenue per capita indicator (Ps. $2,265) places it above the average for Moody's-rated municipalities in Mexico.
The city's economy has two main sectors. Commerce and tourism employ most: about 60% of the population. The other is industry, which has been the engine of economic growth and the basis of Guadalajara's economic importance nationally even though it employs only about a third of the population. Industries here produce products such as food and beverages, toys, textiles, auto parts, electronic equipment, pharmaceuticals, footwear, furniture and steel products. Two of the major industries have been textiles and shoes, which are still dynamic and growing. Sixty percent of manufactured products are sold domestically, while forty percent are exported, mostly to the United States. This makes Guadalajara's economic fortunes dependent on those of the U.S., both as a source of investment and as a market for its goods.
However, it is the electronics and information technology sectors that have nicknamed the city the "Silicon Valley of Mexico". Guadalajara is the main producer of software, electronic and digital components in Mexico. Telecom and computer equipment from Guadalajara accounts for about a quarter of Mexico's electronics exports. Companies such as General Electric, IBM, SANMINA, Intel Corporation, Freescale Semiconductor, Hitachi Ltd., Hewlett Packard Enterprise, HP Inc, Siemens, Flextronics, Oracle, TCS, Cognizant Technology Solutions and Jabil Circuit have facilities in the city or its suburbs. This phenomenon began after the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). International firms started building facilities in Mexico, especially Guadalajara, displacing Mexican firms, especially in information technology. One of the problems this has created is that when there are economic downturns, these international firms scale back.
In 2007, fDi magazine stated that Guadalajara has the second strongest economic potential of any major North American city, behind only Chicago. The same research noted Guadalajara as a "city of the future" due to its youthful population, low unemployment and large number of recent foreign investment deals; it was found to be the third most business-friendly city in North America.
The city has to compete with China, especially for electronics industries which rely on high volume and low wages. This has caused the it to move toward high-mix, mid-volume and value-added services, such as automotives. However, its traditional advantage of proximity to the U.S. market is one reason Guadalajara stays competitive. Mexico ranked third in 2009 in Latin America for the export of information technology services, behind Brazil and Argentina. This kind of service is mostly related to online and telephone technical support. The major challenge this sector has is the lack of university graduates who speak English.
Most of the economy revolves around commerce, employing 60% of the population. This activity has mainly focused on the purchase and sale of the following products: food and beverages, textiles, electronic appliances, tobacco, cosmetics, sport articles, construction materials and others. Guadalajara's commercial activity is second only to Mexico City.
Globalization and neoliberal reforms have affected the form and distribution of commerce in Guadalajara since the early 1990s. This has led to tensions between traditional markets, such as the Mercardo Libertad, and retailers such as department stores and supermarkets. Local governments in the metropolitan area used to invest in and heavily regulate traditional markets but this is no longer the case. To attract private corporate investment, regulatory control eased and most commercial developments now are controlled by private concerns.
The city is the national leader in the development and investment of shopping malls. Many shopping centers have been built, such as Plaza Galerias, one of the largest shopping centers in Latin America, and Andares. Galerías Guadalajara covers 160,000 m2 (1,722,225.67 sq ft) and has 220 stores. It contains the two largest movie theaters in Latin America, both with IMAX screens. It hosts art exhibits and fashion shows, and has an area for cultural workshops. Anchor stores includes Liverpool and Sears and specialty stores such as Hugo Boss, Max Mara and Lacoste, Tesla MotorsCostco . Best Buy opened its first Guadalajara store here. It has an additional private entrance on the top floor of the adjacent parking lot. Another Best Buy store was inaugurated in Ciudadela Lifestyle Center mall, which was the chain's third-largest in the world, according to the company.
Andares is another important commercial center in Zapopan. This $530 million mixed-use complex opened in 2008, designed by renowned Mexican Sordo Madaleno architecture firm features luxury residences and a high-level mall anchored by two large department stores, Liverpool and El Palacio de Hierro. The 133,000 m2 (1,400,000+ sq ft) mall offers hundreds of stores, a big food court located on the second floor and several restaurants at the Paseo Andares.
A large segment of the commercial sector caters to tourists and other visitors. Recreational tourism is mainly concentrated in the historic downtown. In addition to being a cultural and recreational attraction and thanks to its privileged geographical location, the city serves as an axis to nearby popular beach destinations such as Puerto Vallarta, Manzanillo and Mazatlán. Other types of visitors include those who travel to attend seminars, conventions and other events in fields such as academic, entertainment, sports and business. The best-known venue for this purposes is the Expo Guadalajara, a large convention center surrounded by several hotels. It was built in 1987, and it is considered the most important convention center in Mexico.[by whom?]
Foreign investment and tradeEdit
Most of Guadalajara's economic growth since 1990 has been tied with foreign investment. International firms have invested here to take advantage of the relatively cheap but educated and highly productive labor, establishing manufacturing plants that re-export their products to the United States, as well as provide goods for the internal Mexican market. A media report in early October 2013 stated that five major Indian IT (information technology) companies have established offices in Guadalajara, while several other Indian IT companies continue to explore the option of expanding to Mexico. Due to the competitiveness in the Indian IT sector, companies are expanding internationally and Mexico offers an affordable opportunity for Indian companies to better position themselves to enter the United States market. The trend emerged after 2006 and the Mexican government offers incentives to foreign companies.
Exports from the city went from 3.92 billion USD in 1995 to 14.3 billion in 2003. From 1990 to 2000, socio-economic indicators show that quality of life improved overall; however, there is still a large gap between the rich and the poor, and the rich have benefited from the globalization and privatization of the economy more than the poor. International investment has affected the labor market in the metro area and that of the rural towns and villages that surround it. Guadalajara is the distribution center for the region and its demands have led to a shifting of employment, from traditional agriculture and crafts to manufacturing and commerce in urban centers. This has led to mass migration from the rural areas to the metropolitan area.
Guadalajara is well connected by modern highways to Mexico City, to the northwest and to the major beach resorts of Manzanillo, Mazatlán and Puerto Vallarta. The main highways are Fed 15, which connects the city northwestward to Nogales, Sonora, via Tepic, Nayarit and eastwards to Mexico City via Morelia. Fed 80D leads northwest toward Aguascalientes, and Fed 54D leads southward to the coast via Colima.
The city is served by the Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport, also known as Guadalajara International Airport (ICAO code: MMGL) opened in 1966. It is 16 km (10 mi) south of downtown Guadalajara, and it was built on the Tlajomulco de Zuñiga city, way down to Chapala. This airport is the third most active in the country (after Mexico City and Cancún) with direct flights to many Mexican and American cities.
Within the city itself, there are many forms of public transportation. The Guadalajara light rail/metro system, named SITEUR (Sistema de Tren Eléctrico Urbano), Spanish for Urban Electrical Train System, provides rapid transit service within Guadalajara and the neighboring municipalities of Zapopan and Tlaquepaque. It consists of two lines: line 1, running from north to south, with 19 stations, and line 2, running from downtown to the east, with 10 stations. The trains are electric and have a top speed of 70 km/h (43 mph). Currently there are 48 articulated cars in service, built in Mexico by Concarril/Bombardier. Construction of a third line began in 2014. Line 3 will run from Zapopan, in the northwest, to Tlaquepaque and Tonalá, in the southeast, via the city center. The Guadalajara Macrobus is a public transportation system based on the concept of Bus Rapid Transit, where buses run in lanes specifically for them and have stations for boarding. Phase I of the Macrobús project opened in 2009 with a 16-kilometre-long (9.9 mi) corridor following Calzada Independencia and serving 27 stations. The Guadalajara trolleybus system has been operating since the 1970s, and there are private companies operating regular city buses. It also has a bustling network of pedestrianised streets.
Mi Bici Pública, PBSC Urban Solutions-based public bike share system, was launched in 2014. In 2016, the city implemented 242 docking stations and 2116 bikes. As of September 2018 Mi Bici has 19,664 annual subscribed users.
Guadalajara public transportation statisticsEdit
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Guadalajara, such as to and from work, on weekdays is 82 min. 23% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 15 min, while 22% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8 km, and 16% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
Guadalajara was selected as "Smart City" in 2013 by IEEE, the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
Several cities invest in the areas of research to design pilot projects and as an example, in early March in 2013 was the first "Cluster Smart Cities " in the world, composed Dublin, Ireland; San José, California; Cardiff, Wales, and Guadalajara, Jalisco, whose objective is the exchange of information and experiences that can be applied in principle to issues of agribusiness and health sciences.
The Secretariat of Communications and Transportation also reported that Guadalajara, Jalisco was chosen as the official venue for the first "Digital Creative City of Mexico and Latin America", what will be the spearhead for our country to consolidate the potential in this area.
The "Cluster Smart Cities" unprecedented in the world, will focus on what each of these cities is making in innovation and the creation of an alliance to attract technology. The Ministry of Innovation, Science and Technology ( SICyT ) of Jalisco, said the combination of talent development investments allow Jalisco enter the "knowledge economy" .
Guadalajara is an important nucleus of universities and educational centers with national prestige. The most important is the Universidad de Guadalajara, which was established on October 12, 1791, by royal decree. The entity underwent a number of reorganizations since then, but the modern university as it exists today was established in 1925, when the governor of Jalisco convened professors, students and others to re-establish the university. These precepts were organized into a law called the "Ley Organica". It was ranked fifth among the best Mexican universities in 2012.
Guadalajara is home to ITESO, a Jesuit university, and has campuses of several private schools such as the Universidad del Valle de México, Tec de Monterrey, Universidad Marista de Guadalajara, Universidad Guadalajara LAMAR, Universidad Panamericana Sede Guadalajara, as well as the Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara (UAG), which was founded in 1935 and is the oldest private university in Mexico, and Universidad del Valle de Atemajac (UNIVA). In addition, the city hosts The American School Foundation of Guadalajara (ASFG) which has 1420 students in pre-school through twelfth grade; it is the only US-accredited school in Guadalajara.
Guadalajara is the cultural center of western Mexico and the second most important cultural center in the country. It is nicknamed the "Pearl of the West". While it is a modern city, it has kept many of the rural traditions of Jalisco, such as mariachi and a strong sense of Catholicism. Cultural tourism is one of the most important economic activities, especially in the historic center. Guadalajara is a center of learning with six universities, two culinary institutes and a thriving art scene. Guadalajara has twenty two museums, which include the Regional Museum of Jalisco, the Wax Museum, the Trompo Mágico children's museum and the Museum of Anthropology. The Hospicio Cabañas in the historic center is a World Heritage Site. For these attributes and others, the city was named an American Capital of Culture in 2005.
This city has been the cradle and dwelling of distinguished poets, writers, painters, actors, film directors and representatives of the arts, etc., such as José Clemente Orozco, Dr. Atl, Roberto Montenegro, Alejandro Zohn, Luis Barragán, Carlos Orozco Romero, Federico Fabregat, Raul Anguiano, Juan Soriano, Javier Campos Cabello, Martha Pacheco, Alejandro Colunga, José Fors, Juan Kraeppellin, Davis Birks, Carlos Vargas Pons, Jis, Trino, Erandini, Enrique Oroz, Rubén Méndez, Mauricio Toussaint, Scott Neri, Paula Santiago, Edgar Cobian, L. Felipe Manzano, and (the artist formerly known as Mevna); the freeplay guitarist and music composer for the movies El Mariachi and The Legend of Zorro, Paco Rentería; important exponents of literature such as Juan Rulfo, Francisco Rojas, Agustín Yáñez, Elías Nandino, Idella Purnell, Jorge Souza, among others; classic repertoire composers such as Gonzalo Curiel, José Pablo Moncayo, Antonio Navarro, Ricardo Zohn, Carlos Sánchez-Gutiérrez and Gabriel Pareyon; film directors such as Felipe Cazals, Jaime Humberto Hermosillo, Erik Stahl, Guillermo del Toro; and actors such as Katy Jurado, Enrique Alvarez Felix, and Gael García Bernal.
The cuisine is a mix of pre-Hispanic and Spanish influences, like the rest of Mexico, but dishes have their own flavors and are made with local techniques.
One of the main distinguishing dishes is birria. This is goat or lamb meat cooked in a spicy sauce seasoned with chili peppers, ginger, cumin, black pepper, oregano and cloves. The traditional way of preparing birria is to pit roast the meat and spices wrapped in maguey leaves. It is served in bowls with minced onion, limes and tortillas.
Another dish that is strongly associated with Guadalajara is tortas ahogadas, literally "drowned tortas (sub sandwiches)". This sandwich is an oblong "bolillo" bun (made denser in Guadalajara than in the rest of the country) filled with pork and other ingredients. Then the sandwich is covered in a red tomato/chili pepper sauce.
The bread or bolillos mentioned above are usually called birotes in Guadalajara. They are a crusty, dense baguette-style bread similar to that associated with Italy or France and are very different from the soft bolillos found in most of the rest of Mexico.
Other dishes that are popular here include pozole, a soup prepared with hominy, pork or chicken, topped with cabbage, radishes, minced onions and other condiments; pipián, which is a sauce prepared with peanuts, squash and sesame seed, and biónico, a popular local dessert.
When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the Aztec empire, a few religious ceremonies included eating pozole made with hominy and human flesh. This was the first type of pozole mentioned in Spanish writing, as a ritual dish eaten only by select priests and noblemen. The meat from the thighs of slain enemy warriors was used. The Franciscan missionaries ended this custom when they banned Aztec religious ceremonies. The pozole in the local common cuisine was related to the ritual dish, but prepared with turkey meat, and later pork, not with human flesh.
Jericallas are a typical Guadalajara dessert that is similar to flan, that was created to give children proper nutrients while being delicious. It is made with eggs, milk, sugar, vanilla and cinnamon, and baked in the oven where it is broiled to the point that a burnt layer is produced. The burnt layer at the surface is what makes this dessert special and delicious.
One of the drinks that is popular in Guadalajara is Tejuino, a refreshing drink that contains a corn fermented base with sugarcane, lime, salt and chili powder.
The city hosts the Feria Internacional Gastronomía (International Gastronomy Fair) each year in September showcasing Mexican and international cuisines. Many restaurants, bars, bakeries and cafés participate as well as producers of beer, wine and tequila.
Mariachi music is strongly associated with Guadalajara both in Mexico and abroad even though the musical style originated in the nearby town of Cocula, Jalisco. The connection between the city and mariachi began in 1907 when an eight-piece mariachi band and four dancers from the city performed on stage at the president's residence for both Porfirio Díaz and the Secretary of State of the United States. This made the music a symbol of west Mexico, and after the migration of many people from the Guadalajara area to Mexico City (mostly settling near Plaza Garibaldi), it then became a symbol of Mexican identity as well Guadalajara hosts the Festival of Mariachi and Charreria, which began in 1994. It attracts people in the fields of art, culture and politics from Mexico and abroad. Regularly the best mariachis in Mexico participate, such as Mariachi Vargas, Mariachi de América and Mariachi los Camperos de Nati Cano. Mariachi bands from all over the world participate, coming from countries such as Venezuela, Cuba, Belgium, Chile, France, Australia, Slovak Republic, Canada and the United States.
The events of this festival take place in venues all over the metropolitan area, and include a parade with floats. In August 2009, 542 mariachi musicians played together for a little over ten minutes to break the world record for largest mariachi group. The musicians played various songs ending with two classic Mexican songs "Cielito Lindo" and "Guadalajara". The feat was performed during the XVI Encuentro Internacional del Mariachi y la Charreria. The prior record was 520 musicians in 2007 in San Antonio, Texas.
In the historic center of the city is the Plaza de los Mariachis, named such as many groups play here. The plaza was renovated for the 2011 Pan American Games in anticipation of the crowds visiting. Over 750 mariachi musicians play traditional melodies on the plaza, and along with the restaurants and other businesses, the plaza supports more than 830 families. A recent innovation has been the fusion of mariachi melodies and instruments with rock and roll performed by rock musicians in the Guadalajara area. An album collecting a number of these melodies was produced called "Mariachi Rock-O". There are plans to take these bands on tour in Mexico, the United States and Europe.
The city is home to a renowned symphony orchestra. The Orquesta Filarmónica de Jalisco (Jalisco Philharmonic Orchestra) was founded by José Rolón in 1915. It held concerts from that time until 1924, when state funding was lost. However, the musicians kept playing to keep the orchestra alive. This eventually caught the attention of authorities and funding was restated in 1939. Private funding started in the 1940s and in 1950, an organization called Conciertos Guadalajara A. C. was formed to continue fundraising for the orchestra. In 1971, the orchestra became affiliated with the Department of Fine Arts of the State of Jalisco. The current name was adopted in 1988, as it became the orchestra for the state, not just the city of Guadalajara although it remains based here. International soloists such as Paul Badura-Skoda, Claudio Arrau, Jörg Demus, Henryck Szeryng, Nicanor Zabaleta, Plácido Domingo, Kurt Rydl and Alfred Brendel have performed with the organization. Today the orchestra is under the direction of Marco Parisotto.
The city is also host to several dance and ballet companies such as the Chamber Ballet of Jalisco, the Folkloric Ballet of the University of Guadalajara, and University of Guadalajara Contemporary Ballet.
Guadalajara is also known for several large cultural festivals. The International Film Festival of Guadalajara is a yearly event which happens in March. It mostly focuses on Mexican and Latin American films; however films from all over the world are shown. The event is sponsored by the Universidad de Guadalajara, CONACULTA, the Instituto Mexicano de Cinematographía as well as the governments of the cities of Guadalajara and Zapopan. The 2009 festival had over 200 films shown in more than 16 theatres and open-air forums, such as the inflatable screens set up in places such as Chapultepec, La Rambla Cataluña and La Minerva. In that year, the event gave out awards totaling 500,000 USD. The event attracts names such as Mexican director Guillermo del Toro, Greek director Constantin Costa-Gavras, Spanish actor Antonio Banderas and U.S. actor Edward James Olmos.
The Guadalajara International Book Fair is the largest Spanish language book fair in the world held each year over nine days at the Expo Guadalajara. Over 300 publishing firms from 35 countries regularly attend, demonstrating the most recent productions in books, videos and new communications technologies. The event awards prizes such as the Premio FIL for literature, the Premio de Literatura Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, also for literature, and the Reconocimento al Mérito Editorial for publishing houses. There is an extensive exposition of books and other materials in Spanish, Portuguese and English, covering academia, culture, the arts and more for sale. More than 350,000 people attend from Mexico and abroad. In 2009, Nobel prize winner Orhan Pamuk, German children's author Cornelia Funke and Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa participated with about 500 other authors present. Activities include book presentations, academic talks, forums, and events for children.
The Danza de los Tastoanes is an event hosted annually on July 25th at the Municipal President’s building, where the folklore dancers perform one of the oldest traditional dances and combat battle performance to honor the combats against the Spanish.
The Festival Cultural de Mayo (May Cultural Festival) began in 1988. In 2009, the event celebrated the 400th anniversary of relations between Mexico and Japan, with many performances and exhibitions relation to Japanese culture. The 2009 festival featured 358 artists in 118 activities. Each year a different country is "invited". Past guests have been Germany (2008), Mexico (2007), Spain (2006) and Austria (2005). France is the 2013 guest.
The Expo Ganadera is an event hosted annually in the month of October where people from all over the country attend to display the best examples of breed and their quality that is produced in Jalisco. The event also works to promote technological advances in agriculture. The event also has separate sections for the authentic Mexican cuisine, exhibitions of livestock, charreria and other competitions that display the Jalisco traditions.
Despite the Guadalajara area historically being an ethnically Caxcan region, the Nahua peoples form the majority of Guadalajara's indigenous population. There are several thousand indigenous language speakers in Guadalajara although the majority of the indigenous population is integrated within the general population and can speak Spanish.
The style of architecture prevalent in Europe during the founding of Guadalajara is paralleled in the city's colonial buildings. The Metropolitan Cathedral and Teatro Degollado are the purest examples of neoclassical architecture. The historical center hosts religious and civil colonial buildings, which are noted for their architectural and historical significance and are a rich mix of styles which are rooted in indigenous cultural contributions (mainly from Ute origin), incorporated in the Mozarabic and castizo, and later in modern European influences (mainly French and Italian) and American (specifically, from the United States). The French-inspired "Lafayette" neighborhood has many fine examples of early 20th-century residences that were later converted into boutiques and restaurants.
Guadalajara's historical center has an excellent assortment of museums, theaters, galleries, libraries, auditoriums and concert halls, particular mention may be made to Hospicio Cabañas (which dates from the 18th century), the Teatro Degollado (considered the oldest opera house in Mexico), the Teatro Galerías and the Teatro Diana. The Hospicio Cabañas, which is home to some of the paintings (murals and easel) by José Clemente Orozco, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1997. Among the many structures of beauty is the International Headquarters Temple of La Luz del Mundo in Colonia Hermosa Provincia, which is the largest in Latin America.
During the Porfiriato the French style invaded the city because of the passion of former president Porfirio Díaz in the trends of French style, also Italian architects were responsible for shaping the Gothic structures that were built in the city. The passage of time reflected different trends from the baroque to churrigueresque, Gothic and neoclassical pure. Even the architectural lines typical of the decades of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s the Art Deco and bold lines of postmodern architects of the time. Architectural styles found in the city include Baroque, Viceregal, Neoclassical, Modern, Eclectic, Art Deco and Neo-Gothic.
The modern architecture of Guadalajara has numerous figures of different architectural production from the neo-regionalism to the primitiveness of the 1960s. Some of these architects are: Rafael Urzua, Luis Barragán, Ignacio Díaz Morales, Pedro Castellanos, Eric Coufal, Julio de la Peña, Eduardo Ibáñez Valencia, Félix Aceves Ortega
Guadalajara's modern architecture has figures of diverse architectural output from neo-regionalism to the brutalism of the 1970s. One of these architects are: Rafael Urzua, Luis Barragán, Ignacio Díaz Morales, Pedro Castellano, Eric Coufal, July de la Peña, Eduardo Ibáñez Valencia
Guadalajara is home to four professional football teams; Guadalajara, also known as Chivas, Atlas, C.D. Oro and Universidad de Guadalajara. Guadalajara is the most successful and the most followed club in the country, Atlas also plays in the Mexican Primera División, due to their fine football game style of playing, they are known in the country as 'The Academy', hence they have provided Mexico's finest football players, among them: Rafael Márquez, Oswaldo Sánchez, Pável Pardo, Andrés Guardado, and from "Chivas", Javier (Chicharito) Herandez, and Mexico national team's former top scorer Jared Borgetti from Atlas. Atlas also won several Championships on Amateur Tournaments, and first Football Championship of a Guadalajara Team back in 1951. Atlas fans are collectively called La Fiel (the faithful) by themselves; younger followers are gathered as "Barra 51" ; La Barra 51 is a strong organized supporter group. His name recalls Atlas' the year of first championship in the Primera División de México in 1951. Estudiantes was associated with the Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara A.C.. It played in the Primera División, with home games in the Estadio 3 de Marzo (March 3 Stadium, for the University's 1935 date of founding). They've won also a single Championship back in 1994 as they defeated Santos. The team moved to Zacatecas and became the Mineros de Zacatecas in May 2014.
Starting in October 2014, Guadalajara rejoined the Liga Mexicana del Pacífico baseball tournament with the Charros de Jalisco franchise in play at the Athletic Stadium. Charreada, the Mexican form of rodeo and closely tied to mariachi music, is popular here. The biggest place for Charreada competitions, the VFG Arena, is located near the Guadalajara Airport founded by singer Vicente Fernández. Every September 15, charros make a parade in the downtown streets to celebrate the Charro and Mariachi Day.
Guadalajara hosted the 2011 Pan American Games. Since winning the bid to host the Games, the city had been undergoing extensive renovations. The games brought in more than 5,000 athletes from approximately 42 countries from the Americas and the Caribbean. Sports included aquatics, football, racquetball and 27 more, with six others being considered. COPAG (the Organizing Committee for the Pan American Games Guadalajara 2011) had a total budget of $250 million USD with the aim of updating the city's sports and general infrastructure. The center of the city was repaved and new hotels were constructed for the approximately 22,000 rooms that were needed in 2011. The new bus rapid transit (BRT) system, Macrobús, was launched in March and runs along Avenida Independencia. The Pan-American village was built around the Bajio Zone. After the Games, the buildings will be used for housing. There are already 13 existing venues in Guadalajara that the games will use, including the Jalisco Stadium, UAG 3 de Marzo Stadium, and the UAG Gymnasium. Eleven new sporting facilities were created for the event. Other works included a second terminal in the airport, a highway to Puerto Vallarta and a bypass for the southern part of the city.
Lorena Ochoa, a retired and former #1 female golfer, Formula One driver Sergio Pérez who drives for Sahara Force India F1 Team and Javier "Chicharito" Hernández, a forward who currently plays for West Ham United and the Mexico national team were also born in the city.
The urban trace within the municipality of Guadalajara can be considered varied, since within it are several forms of streets, avenues, colonies and fractions that have different strokes such as the ortogonality (mathematics)-orthogonal, that is, with horizontal and vertical lines that intersect, and [irregular], that is, streets and unmeaning avenues, but in general we can say that Guadalajara has a star trace, which are five exits, with several road rings around and crossing in them .
At the beginning of Guadalajara, it had an orthogonal trace, that is, with horizontal and vertical lines that intersect, however over the years and as it grew towards the San Juan de Dios river, this trace was tilted although it was followed with the same trend , unlike the north, west and south side, where the same street lines were followed.
This would change when the railway was introduced to Guadalajara in 1888, since in the twentieth century when it was urbanized in the south, it suffered another inclination, it is the same case as in San Juan de Dios. With the passage of time and the attachment of towns, first Analco, Mexicaltzingo, Mezquitan and San Juan de Dios, and subsequently have made Guadalajara have a varied trace, to this is added its accelerated growth in the twentieth century, which generated the aforementioned trace in the first paragraph.
During the government of José de Jesús González Gallo, between 1947 and 1953, Guadalajara was the subject of great public works that changed in part the urban landscape of the historic center of the city.
Highlights include the extensions of the avenues Mayor-16 of September and Juárez, which were no longer sufficient for the growing number of cars that, day by day, circulated through the city center. Thus, to enlarge the avenues it was necessary to break down buildings and match the street stroke. These demolitions have not ceased to generate controversy, because, although efforts to modernize and expedite the center of Guadalajara are not regrettable, the irreparable loss of many old buildings with architectural and historical value is unfortunate.
Some other buildings around Guadalajara Cathedral were demolished with the purpose of leaving large open spaces on the four sides of the episcopal seat, shaping a large Latin cross in the center of which the Cathedral stands out.
Major Avenues and StreetsEdit
[[File:Streets GDL.svg-thumb-300px Map of the ZMG with the main road arteries of the city.]] AAP Annex:Main roads of Guadalajara (Jalisco) There are currently 17,200 streets and avenues, many of which have been traced according to the need of the population; some streets cease to function as such to become avenues, expanding their road layout. Modifications, repairs and work are at the cost of the municipal government of Guadalajara.
Guadalajara is made up of more than 2300 colonies in which the Metropolitan Area extends, the first painting of the city is made up mostly of houses of more than 2 levels with architectural styles ranging from the Churrigueresco, Baroque and European styles of the Nineteenth century, the first painting of the city is made up of the central areas and its surroundings, such as the Neighborhood of the Sanctuary, Mezquitan, Analco, San Juan de Dios and colonia Centro.
Towards the west of the first painting begin to rise the houses of the nineteenth century, residence of distinguished characters in the history of the city, neoclassical structures and houses of the Porfiriato, this painting is made up colonies such as Lafayette, Americana, Modern, Arcos Vallarta, in which their respective expansions correspond to constructions of the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. In its surroundings Guadalajara expands in a second frame where the flourishing of the new architectural trends of the 1960s and 1970s left the mark of colonies such as the Colonia Americana, Vallarta Poniente, Moderna, Providencia, Vallarta San Jorge, Forest Gardens, Chapalita, etc. Among which are from the postmodernist lines, Art Deco to the architectural legacy of one of the world icons of Mexican architecture: Luis Barragán Morfín' Luis Barragán.
The city has the most distinguished residential developments and private communities in the west of the country. These colonies are located both in the municipality of Guadalajara, as well as in its neighboring municipality of Zapopan and some in the south of the city, in the municipality of Tlajomulco. Some of these colonies are: Colinas de San Javier, Puerta de Hierro, Providencia, Chapalita, Jardines de San Ignacio, Ciudad del Sol, Valle Real, Lomas del Valle, Santa Rita, Monraz, Santa Anita Golf Club, El Cielo, Santa Isabel, Virreyes, Bugambilias, Las Cañadas, The Stay, etc.
The city limits are mostly made up of middle-class colonies and housing complexes developed as part of government plans. The west of the city, is collectively the area that represents the highest economic index, while the east shows a lower level. The city extends to the west in colonies such as Pinar de la Calma, Las Fuentes, Paseos del Sol, El Colli Urbano, La Estancia, annexing its metropolitan area to the municipality of Zapopan; while to the east it does so in colonies such as St. John Bosco, St. Andrew, Oblates, St. Onofre, Insurgents, Gardens of Peace, Garden of Poets, to name a few.
It is expected that in 2010 there will be approximately five hundred more colonies in the ZMG. The expansion of housing and demographic demand forces the government to allocate more names and household numbers each year. As well as allocate more resources in infrastructure for the capital development of the city. Parks, gardens, zoos and forests
Parks and forests are important in Guadalajara; of the three most important cities in Mexico, it has the most green areas and plants. Not all are found in the city of Guadalajara, but are distributed in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara (ZMG). The most important parks are:
- Dr. Atl Garden.
- Francisco Zarco Garden.
- The Botanical Garden.
- Sanctuary Garden.
- Chapalita roundabout Zapopan.
- Garden of St. Francis of Assisi.
- Garden of San Sebastian de Analco.
- Jardin del Carmen.
- Garden of the Archaeological Museum.
- José Clemente Orozco Garden.
- Avila Camacho Park.
- Revolution Park.
- Independence Lookout Park or Barranca de Huentitán.
- Dr. Atl Viewpoint Park Zapopan.
- Oblate Park.
- Yellow Park (Colonia Jardines Alcalde).
- Talpita Park
- Tucson Park (Colonia Jardines Alcalde).
- Park The Colomos.
- Morelos Park.
- Soap Box Park.
- [[Guadalajara Metropolitan Park] Metropolitan Park]] Zapopan.
- Mayor Park.
- Park Blue Water (Park)' Blue Water.
- González Gallo Park.
- Solidarity Park Tonalá (Jalisco)' Tonalá.
- Liberation Park.
- Expenal Park (Esplanade 18 marz)
- Roberto Montenegro Park El Salto (Jalisco)' The Leap.
- San Rafael Park.
- San Jacinto Park.
Artists and designersEdit
- Teresa Aguilar Suro, artist and painter
- Dr. Atl, artist and writer
- Isabel Villaseñor, artist
- Luis Barragán, architect
Filmmakers, actors, and modelsEdit
- Jorge Blanco Güereña, actor and singer
- Guillermo del Toro, filmmaker and writer
- Vicente Fernández, singer, actor, film producer
- Gael García Bernal, actor
- Ximena Navarrete, actress, model, beauty queen (Miss Universe 2010)
- Emma Laura, actress 
- Susana Dosamantes, actress 
- Manuel Garcia-Rulfo, actor 
- José Ron, actor 
- Katy Jurado, actress 
- Erick Elías, actor 
- Juan Ferrara, actor 
- Vicente Fernández, singer 
- Alejandro Fernández, singer
- Pedro Fernández, singer, songwriter, actor
- Pepe Guízar, composer
- Rita Guerrero, singer 
- Paty Cantú, singer 
- Marco Antonio Muñiz, singer 
- Fher Olvera, musician, songwriter
- Ramón Corona, general and diplomat
- Mariano Otero, governor and writer
- Ignacio Vallarta, jurist and governor
- Agustín Yáñez, writer and politician
- Guillermo González Camarena, scientist and inventor
- Irene Robledo (1890-1988), educator and humanist
Writers and journalistsEdit
- Ulises Dávila, football player
- Alexa Grasso (born 1993), mixed martial artist
- Javier Hernández, football player
- Guillermo Ochoa, football player
- Brenda Velez, ballerina
- Saúl Álvarez, boxer
- Andrés Guardado, football player
- Lorena Ochoa, golfer
- Sergio Pérez, F1 racing driver
- Alejandro González Jr., boxer
- Máximino "Max" Linares Moreno, professional wrestler better known under the ring name "Rayo de Jalisco" ("Lightning from Jalisco")
- Rayo de Jalisco, Jr, professional wrestler, (real name undisclosed)
- Isaac Hernández, ballet dancer, a lead principal with English National Ballet
Guadalajara maintains a broad relationship with countries, and sister cities around the world. Headquartered in Ave. Juarez no. 20, Cuauhtémoc. The Honorary Consuls and Consules General currently residing in Guadalajara are:- Width-100% A-valign-top
- GER Honorary Consulate of Germany
- AUT Honorary Consulate of Austria
- BEL Honorary Consulate of Belgium
- BRA Honorary Consulate of Brazil
- CAN Honorary Consulate of Canada
- CHI Honorary Consulate of Chile
- CYP Honorary Consulate of Cyprus
- CRC Honorary Consulate of Costa Rica
- DEN Honorary Consulate of Denmark
- ECU Honorary Consulate of Ecuador
- SLV Honorary Consulate of El Salvador
- ESP Honorary Consulate of Spain
- USA Honorary Consulate of the United States
- RUS Honorary Consulate of Russia
- PHI Honorary Consulate of the Philippines
- FIN Honorary Consulate of Finland
- GUA Honorary Consulate of Guatemala
- HAI Honorary Consulate of Haiti
- HUN Honorary Consulate of Hungary
- IND Honorary Consulate of India
- ISR Honorary Consulate of Israel
- ITA Honorary Consulate of Italy
- JPN Honorary Consulate of Japan
- LIB Honorary Consulate of Lebanon
- MAS Honorary Consulate of Malaysia
- NIC Honorary Consulate of Nicaragua
- NOR Honorary Consulate of Norway
- NED Honorary Consulate of the Netherlands
- PAK Honorary Consulate of Pakistan
- PAN Honorary Consulate of Panama
- PAR Honorary Consulate of Paraguay
- PER Honorary Consulate of Peru
- POL Honorary Consulate of Poland
- CZE Honorary Consulate of Czech Republic
- DOM Honorary Consulate of the Dominican Republic
- GBR Honorary Consulate of the United Kingdom
- RUM Honorary Consulate of Romania
- ZAF Honorary Consulate of South Africa
- SWE Honorary Consulate of Sweden
- SUI Honorary Consulate of Switzerland
- URU Honorary Consulate of Uruguay
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- United States Downey, United States (since 1960) 
- United States Tucson, (since 1972) 
- United States San Antonio, (since 1974) 
- Italy Milan, (since 1976) 
- Philippines Cebu, (since 1976) 
- Equatorial Guinea Malabo, (since 1976) 
- Guam Hagatna, (since 1976) 
- Costa Rica San José, (since 1976) 
- El Salvador San Salvador, (since 1976) 
- Honduras Tegucigalpa, (since 1976) 
- Jamaica Kingston, (since 1976) 
- Peru Lima, (since 1976) 
- Dominican Republic , DR (since 1976) 
- Panama Panama, (since 1976) 
- Venezuela Caracas, (since 1976) 
- Spain Sevilla, (since 1977) 
- Poland Krakow, (since 1978) 
- Japan Kyoto, (since 1978) 
- Spain Guadalajara, (since 1982) 
- United States Portland, (since 1983) 
- Costa Rica Alajuela, (since 1983) 
- Mexico Magdalena de Kino, (since 1984) 
- Mexico Toluca, (since 1984) 
- United States Albuquerque, (since 1985) 
- United States Lansing, (since 1990) 
- Spain Cigales, (since 1992) 
- United States Kansas City, (since 1993) 
- Brazil Curitiba, (since 1995) 
- Poland Wroclaw, (since 1995) 
- Mexico Nochistlán, (since 1997) 
- South Korea Daejeon, (since 1997) 
- Italy Florence, (since 2000) 
- Greece Thessaloniki, (since 2000) 
- Spain Oñati, (since 2003) 
- China Xiamen, (since 2003) 
- Belgium City of Brussels, (since 2004) 
- Mexico Cocula, (since 2005) 
- United States Laredo, (since 2006) 
- Mexico San Luis Potosí, (since 2006) 
- Mexico Oaxaca, (since 2007) 
- France Lyon, (since 2007) 
- Mexico Zihuatanejo, (since 2007) 
- Mexico Boca del Rio, (since 2007) 
- Mexico Cozumel, (since 2010) 
- Kazakhstan Almaty, (since 2010) 
- Russia Saint Petersburg, (since 2011) 
- Ireland Dublin, (since 2011) 
- United States San Jose, California, (since 2011).
- United Kingdom Liverpool, (since 2012) 
- Brazil São Paulo, (since 2012) 
- New Zealand Auckland, (since 2013) 
- United Kingdom Edinburgh, (since 2013) 
- Australia Perth, (since 2014) 
- Australia Gold Coast, Queensland, (since 2014) 
- Germany Hamburg, (since 2015) 
- Israel Tel Aviv, (since 2015) 
- United States Washington, D.C. (since 2016) 
- United States San Francisco (since 2016) 
- Hungary Budapest, (since 2017) 
- Netherlands Rotterdam, (since 2017) 
- United States Anchorage, Alaska (since 2018) 
- Denmark Copenhagen (since 2018) 
- Sweden Stockholm (since 2018) 
- United Arab Emirates Sharjah (since 2019) 
American Capital of CultureEdit
|predecessor||Organization of American States||successor|
|Córdoba, Argentina.Argentina.||Guadalajara Jalisco. Mexico||Santiago.Chile|
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