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British America and the British West Indies
Colonies of England (1607–1707)
Colonies of Great Britain (1707–1783)
1607–1783
Flag
Flag of Great Britain
British colonies in North America which were part of British America (red), and the island colonies of the British West Indies near the Caribbean Sea held by the British Crown (pink)
Capital Administered from London, England
Languages English (official)
Spoken languages:
English
German
French
Spanish
Dutch
Irish
Scottish Gaelic
Ojibwe
Indian languages
Religion Anglicanism, Protestantism, Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism, Judaism, American Indian religion
Government Constitutional monarchy
Monarch
 •  1607–1625 James I & VI (first)
 •  1760–1783 George III (last)
History
 •  Colony of Virginia 1607
 •  Bermuda 1614
 •  Plymouth Council for New England (Massachusetts Bay Colony) 1620
 •  Province of Maryland 1634
 •  Jamaica 1655
 •  Rupert's Land 1670
 •  Treaty of Utrecht 1713
 •  Treaty of Paris 1783
Currency Pound sterling, Spanish dollar, colonial money, bills of credit, commodity money, and many local currencies
Preceded by
Succeeded by
New Netherland
New France
Spanish Florida
New Sweden
British North America
British West Indies
United States
Spanish Florida
Today part of

British America refers to the British Empire's colonial territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783. The British colonies in North America were formally known as British America and the British West Indies before 1776, when the Thirteen Colonies on the east coast declared their independence in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) and formed the United States of America.[1] After that, the term British North America was used to describe the remainder of Britain's continental North American possessions. That term was first used informally in 1783 by the end of the American Revolution, but it was uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report.

British America gained large amounts of new territory following the Treaty of Paris (1763) which ended British involvement in the Seven Years' War (known in America as the French and Indian War). At the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775, the British Empire included 20 colonies north and east of New Spain, including areas of Mexico and the Western United States. East and West Florida were ceded to the Kingdom of Spain in the Treaty of Paris (1783) which ended the American Revolution, and then ceded by Spain to the United States in 1819 after treaty negotiations to settle the old southwest border with Spanish Florida (eastern Louisiana, southern Alabama, Mississippi, and western Georgia). The remaining continental colonies of British North America to the northeast formed the Dominion of Canada by uniting provinces between 1867 and 1873. The Dominion of Newfoundland to the east joined Canada in 1949.

Contents

HistoryEdit

A number of English colonies were established in North America between 1606 and 1670 by individuals and companies whose investors expected to reap rewards from their speculation. They were granted commercial charters by King James I, King Charles I, Parliament, and King Charles II. The first permanent settlement was founded in 1607 on the James River at Jamestown, Virginia upstream from Chesapeake Bay by the London Company. This was followed in 1620 when the Pilgrims established the Plymouth settlement in New England. English Catholics settled the Province of Maryland in 1634, with Cecilus Calvert, second Lord Baltimore.

North American colonies in 1775Edit

Thirteen ColoniesEdit

The Thirteen Colonies formed the original states of the United States:

New England Colonies
 
A view of Fort George and the city of New York c. 1731
Middle Colonies
Southern Colonies

Former French colonies and the FloridasEdit

Several British colonies and territories were ruled by Britain from 1763 after the Seven Years' War, but were ceded to Spain (the Floridas) or the United States (the Indian Reserve and Southwestern Quebec). Others became part of Canada.

Territories that became part of the United States of America:

British colonies and territories that became part of Canada:

Colonies in the Caribbean, near-Atlantic, and South America in 1783Edit

Divisions of the British Leeward Islands
Island of Jamaica and its dependencies
Other possessions in the British West Indies

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit