Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (/ˈpɒmpədʊər/, French: [pɔ̃paduʁ] ; 29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court. She was the official chief mistress of King Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death.[1]

Madame de Pompadour
Marquise of Pompadour
Portrait by Charles-André van Loo, ca.1755
Coat of arms
Full name
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson
Born(1721-12-29)29 December 1721
Paris, Kingdom of France
Died15 April 1764(1764-04-15) (aged 42)
Paris, Kingdom of France
BuriedCouvent des Capucines
FatherFrançois Poisson
MotherMadeleine de La Motte
OccupationChief mistress of Louis XV

Pompadour took charge of the king's schedule and was a valued aide and advisor, despite her frail health and many political enemies. She secured titles of nobility for herself and her relatives, and built a network of clients and supporters. She was particularly careful not to alienate the popular Queen, Marie Leszczyńska. On 8 February 1756, the Marquise de Pompadour was named as the thirteenth lady-in-waiting to the queen, a position considered the most prestigious at the court, which accorded her with honors.[2]

Pompadour was a major patron of architecture and decorative arts, especially porcelain. She was a patron of the philosophes of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire.

Hostile critics at the time generally tarred her as a malevolent political influence, but historians are more favorable, emphasizing her successes as a patron of the arts and a champion of French pride.[3] Modern historians suggest that the critics of Pompadour were driven by fears over the overturning of the existing hierarchies that Pompadour's power and influence, as a woman who was not born into the aristocracy, represented.[4][additional citation(s) needed]

Early life edit

Jeanne Antoinette Poisson was born on 29 December 1721 in Paris to François Poisson and his wife Madeleine de La Motte. Poisson was steward to the Paris brothers, the men primarily responsible for financing the French economy at the time.[5] It is suspected that her biological father was either the rich financier Jean Pâris de Monmartel or the tax collector (fermier général) Charles François Paul Le Normant de Tournehem.[6] Le Normant de Tournehem became her legal guardian when François Poisson was forced to leave the country in 1725 after a scandal over a series of unpaid debts. Such crime at that time was punishable by death; however, he was cleared eight years later and allowed to return to France.

At age 5 Jeanne Antoinette was sent to receive the finest quality education of the day in an Ursuline convent in Poissy, where she gained admiration for her wit and charm.[7] Due to poor health, thought to be whooping cough, Jeanne Antoinette returned home in January 1730 at age 9.[8] Madeleine refused to allow this to prevent her daughter from becoming a highly educated and accomplished young lady, enrolling Jeanne Antoinette in private tutoring upon her return to Paris. Charles François Paul Le Normant de Tournehem took charge of the child's education, sparing no expense. Jeanne-Antoinette was "coached in elocution by an actor from the Comedie Francaise and the dramatist Crebillon. The opera singer Jélyotte taught her to sing", along with extensive education in the humanities, fine arts, music, and social finery.[9] During this time her mother took her to a fortuneteller, Madame de Lebon, who predicted that the girl would one day reign over the heart of a king. Pompadour left the fortune teller 600 livres in her will, for correctly predicting the impossible.

Marriage edit

Jeanne Antoinette at a toilette table applying blush (portrait by François Boucher, 1758)

At the age of twenty, Jeanne Antoinette was married to Charles Guillaume Le Normant d'Étiolles, the nephew of her guardian Charles Le Normant de Tournehem, who initiated the match and the large financial incentives that came with it.[2] On 15 December 1740, Tournehem made his nephew his sole heir, disinheriting all his other nephews and nieces: the children of his brother and sister.[2] These included the estate at Étiolles, a wedding gift from her guardian, which was situated on the edge of the royal hunting ground of the forest of Sénart. When she was married at the age of 20, she was already somewhat famous throughout the salons of Paris for her beauty, intelligence, and abundance of charm. Her husband, M. Le Normant d’Etioles, though initially displeased with their marriage arrangement, was said to fall in love with Mme Pompadour swiftly. Their marriage gave both parties something they desperately needed: M. d’Etioles received "an enormous dowry" that lifted him from relative poverty. Jeanne-Antoinette "gained a level of respectability that overshadowed her mother’s dubious past".[9] Once married, the couple seemed very much in love – Jeanne Antoinette would often joke that she would never leave him for anyone – except, of course, the king. The couple had a son who died in infancy and a daughter, Alexandrine Le Normant d'Étiolles born in 1744, who died at the age of nine.[10]

Attendance of salons edit

As a married woman, Jeanne Antoinette could frequent celebrated salons in Paris, such as those hosted by Mesdames de Tencin, Geoffrin, du Deffand and others. Within these salons she crossed paths with principal figures of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire, Charles Pinot Duclos, Montesquieu, Helvétius, and Bernard de Fontenelle. Additionally, Jeanne Antoinette created her own salon at Étiolles, which was attended by many of the cultural elite, among them were Crébillon fils, Montesquieu, the Cardinal de Bernis, and Voltaire. Within these circles she learned the fine art of conversation and developed the sharp wit for which she would later become known at Versailles.[11]

Meeting the King edit

Due to her involvement in Paris salons as well as her grace and beauty, Louis XV had heard the name of Jeanne Antoinette mentioned at court as early as 1742.[12] In 1744, Jeanne Antoinette sought to catch the eye of the King while he led the hunt in the forest of Sénart. Because she occupied an estate near this location, she was permitted to follow the royal party at a distance. However, wanting to attract the King's notice, Jeanne Antoinette drove directly in front of the King's path, once in a pink phaeton, wearing a blue dress, and once in a blue phaeton, wearing a pink dress. The King sent a gift of venison to her.[13] Though the King's current mistress Maria Anne de Mailly, named Madame de Châteauroux, had warned off Jeanne Antoinette, the position became vacant on 8 December 1744 when Châteauroux died.[14] On 24 February 1745, Jeanne Antoinette received a formal invitation to attend the masked ball held on 25 February at the Palace of Versailles to celebrate the marriage of the Dauphin Louis of France to Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain.[15] It was at this ball that the King, disguised along with seven courtiers as a yew tree, publicly declared his affection for Jeanne Antoinette. Before all of court and the royal family, Louis unmasked himself before Jeanne Antoinette, who was dressed as Diana the Huntress in reference to their encounter in the forest of Sénart.[16]

Introduction to court edit

A portrait of Madame de Pompadour and a dog at the foot of her shoes (portrait by François Boucher, 1756)

By March, she was the King's mistress, installed at Versailles in an apartment directly above his.[17] On 7 May, the official separation between her and her husband was pronounced.[6] To be presented at court, she required a title. The King purchased the marquisate of Pompadour on 24 June and gave the estate, with title and coat-of-arms, to Jeanne Antoinette, making her a Marquise.[6] On 14 September 1745, Madame de Pompadour made her formal entry before the King, presented by the King's cousin, the Princess of Conti. Determined to make her place at court secure, Jeanne Antoinette immediately attempted to forge a good relationship with the royal family. After the Queen engaged Pompadour in a conversation by enquiring after a mutual acquaintance, Madame de Saissac, Pompadour responded in delight, swearing her respect and loyalty to Marie Leszczyńska. The Queen in return favored Jeanne Antoinette instead of the King's other mistresses. Pompadour quickly mastered the highly mannered court etiquette. However, her mother died on Christmas Day of the same year, and did not live to see her daughter's achievement of becoming the undisputed royal mistress.[18]

Royal mistress edit

Through her position as court favourite, Pompadour wielded considerable power and influence. She was elevated on 12 October 1752 to duchess and in 1756 to lady-in-waiting to the Queen, the most noble rank possible for a woman at court. Pompadour effectively played the role of prime minister, becoming responsible for appointing advancements, favors and dismissals, and contributing in domestic and foreign politics.[19]

Madame de Pompadour as Diana the Huntress (portrait by Jean-Marc Nattier, 1746)

In 1755, she was approached by Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, a prominent Austrian diplomat, asking her to intervene in the negotiations which led to the Treaty of Versailles.[20] This was the beginning of the Diplomatic Revolution, which saw France allied to their former enemy Austria.

Under these changed alliances, the European powers entered the Seven Years' War, which saw France, Austria and Russia pitted against Britain and Prussia. France suffered a defeat at the hands of the Prussians in the Battle of Rossbach in 1757, and eventually lost the American colonies to the British. After Rossbach, Madame de Pompadour is alleged to have comforted the king with the now famous: "au reste, après nous, le Déluge" ("Besides, after us, the Deluge").[21] France emerged from the war diminished and virtually bankrupt.

Madame de Pompadour persisted in her support of these policies, and when Cardinal de Bernis failed her, she brought Choiseul into office and supported and guided him in all his plans: the Pacte de Famille, the suppression of the Jesuits and the Treaty of Paris (1763). Britain's victories in the war had allowed it to surpass France as the leading colonial power – something which was commonly blamed on Pompadour.[citation needed]

Pompadour protected the Physiocrates school (its leader was Quesnay, her own doctor) which paved the way for Adam Smith's theories. She also defended the Encyclopédie edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert against those, among them the Archbishop of Paris Christophe de Beaumont, who sought to have it suppressed.[22] In Diderot's first novel, Les bijoux indiscrets (The Indiscreet Jewels), the characters of Mangogul and Mirzoza are allegories of Louis XV and Pompadour respectively. Diderot portrayed Pompadour in a flattering light, most likely to ensure her support for Encyclopedie.[23] Pompadour had a copy of Les bijoux indiscrets in her library, which may explain why the crown did not pursue Diderot for such an indiscretion against the king.[24]

The marquise had many enemies among the royal courtiers who felt it a disgrace that the king would thus compromise himself with a commoner. She was very sensitive to the unending libels called poissonnades, analogous to mazarinade against Cardinal Mazarin and a pun on her family name, Poisson, which means "fish" in French. Only with great reluctance did Louis take punitive action against her known enemies, such as Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu.[citation needed]

Friend of the King edit

Jean Baptiste Pigalle: Madame de Pompadour as "Friendship" (Louvre)

Madame de Pompadour was able to wield such influence at court due to the invaluable role she played as a friend and confidante of the King. In opposition to previous mistresses of Louis XV, Pompadour made herself invaluable to the King by becoming the only person whom Louis trusted and who could be counted on to tell him the truth. Pompadour was an indispensable comfort to Louis who was prone to melancholy and boredom. She alone was able to captivate and amuse him and would entertain Louis with elegant private parties and operas, afternoons of hunting, and journeying among their various chateaux and lodgings. She would sometimes even invite his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska, with his help.[25]

Around 1750 Madame de Pompadour's role as friend of the King became her solitary role, as she ceased her sexual relationship with the King.[26] The end of this sexual relationship was in part attributed to Pompadour's poor health, as she suffered the aftereffects of whooping cough, recurring colds and bronchitis, spitting blood, headaches, three miscarriages to the King, as well as an unconfirmed case of leucorrhoea.[27] In addition Pompadour admitted to having "the misfortune to be of a very cold temperament" and attempts to increase her libido with a diet of truffles, celery and vanilla were unsuccessful.[28] Furthermore, in 1750 the Jubilee year placed pressure upon the King to repent of his sins and renounce his mistress. In order to cement her continuing importance as favourite in the face of these impediments, Pompadour took on the role of "friend of the King" which she announced through artistic patronage. Pompadour's announcement was most prominently declared through her commission from Jean Baptiste Pigalle, of a sculpture representing herself as Amitié [friendship], offering herself to a now lost pendant sculpture of Louis XV.[29] Pompadour also had a related sculpture depicted in a portrait of herself painted by François Boucher in 1759.[4][30]

The consecration and the château de Saint-Ouen[31] edit

Built in the second half of the 17th century, the château de Saint-Ouen, (near Paris, in the Seine-Saint-Denis department), has belonged to the prestigious dukes of Gesvres until its destruction in 1821, to build the actual château for the comtesse du Cayla. After the sale of her château de Crécy [fr], unexpectedly, the marquise de Pompadour did not purchase Saint-Ouen but benefited from the usufruct of this residence from 1759 until her death in 1764.

The plan of the château, originally designed by Antoine Lepautre, was a classical U-shape and consisted of a long façade with two wings prolonging the main body, facing the river Seine on the garden side.

Saint-Ouen's originality resided in its interior distribution: the main body consisted of a succession of three "salons à l'italienne", whose decoration was entirely modified by the Slodtz family in the 1750s for the Gesvres family. In French architecture, a "salon à l'italienne" is a room filling all the height of a building: a memorable example is the Grand salon at Vaux-le-Vicomte.

In addition to this layout, as soon as Madame de Pompadour acquired the estate, a vast project of reorganisation of the entire buildings (including stables and dependences) was planned, costing more than 500.000 livres. In the absence of the original plans, a restitution of the ground floor has been proposed. It seems that the architect who supervised this reorganisation was Ange-Jacques Gabriel, who, at that time, directed all the renovation and building works of the different residences of Mme de Pompadour. Using the central "salon à l'italienne" as a pivot, an apartment was created for the King as a counterpart to that of the henceforth Duchesse de Pompadour, making the prestigious château de Saint-Ouen into a reflection of her own status – a symbol of her social and political achievements.

Historical misconceptions edit

Despite misconceptions perpetuated by her contemporaries and much of historical discourse, Pompadour did not supplement her role as mistress by employing replacement lovers for the king. Following the cessation of Pompadour's sexual relationship with Louis, the King met with young women in a house in Versailles established particularly for that purpose, called the Parc-aux-Cerfs, or Stag Park. It was not, as often described, a harem; it was occupied by only one woman at a time. Pompadour was not involved, other than to accept it as a "necessity".[32] Pompadour's only contribution to the Stag Park was to accept it as a favorable alternative to a rival at court, as she stated: "It is his heart I want! All these little girls with no education will not take it from me. I would not be so calm if I saw some pretty woman of the court or the capital trying to conquer it."[33]

Patron and participant in the arts edit

Madame de Pompadour, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour, shown at the Paris Salon, 1755 (Louvre)

Madame de Pompadour was an influential patron of the arts who played a central role in making Paris the perceived capital of taste and culture in Europe. She attained this influence through the appointment of her guardian Charles François Paul Le Normant de Tournehem, and later her brother, Abel-François Poisson in the post of Directeur Général des Bâtiments, which controlled government policy and expenditures for the arts.[34] She championed French pride by constructing and later outright buying a porcelain factory at Sèvres in 1759, which became one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers in Europe, and which provided skilled jobs for the region.[35] Numerous sculptors and portrait painters were patronized by Pompadour, among them the court artist Jean-Marc Nattier, in the 1750s François Boucher, Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and François-Hubert Drouais.[22] She patronized Jacques Guay, the gemstone engraver, who taught her to engrave in onyx, jasper and other semi-precious stones.[36]

Pompadour greatly influenced and stimulated innovation in what is known as the Rococo style in the fine and decorative arts: for example, through her patronage of the artists like Boucher and the constant refurnishing of the fifteen residences she held with Louis.[37] Like Pompadour, this style was critiqued by some as a pernicious "feminine" influence, despite the fact that it was embraced by many men as well as women.[4] However it is also widely recognised that Madame de Pompadour engaged with prominent artists as a way to capture the attention of the king whilst cultivating her public image. The oil sketch of Pompadour's lost portrait by Boucher sits in the Starhemberg room at Waddesdon Manor built by Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, surrounded by Sèvres porcelain, another industry that she greatly influenced and innovated through personal dissemination across an international network of her own clientele.

In addition to supporting the arts as a patron, Pompadour also participated in them more directly. Besides being one of the few 18th-century practitioners of gem engraving, she was an acclaimed stage actress in plays staged at her private theaters at Versailles and Bellevue.[4] Some of the artworks made under Pompadour's purview by other hands, notably the 1758 portrait by Boucher of Mme de Pompadour at Her Toilette, can be viewed as collaborations with Pompadour.[4]

Madame de Pompadour is considered an amateur printmaker who made print engravings with the help of Boucher.[4] She had engraving equipment, to create the prints of works by Boucher and Guay, brought within her personal apartments in Versailles[38]

Her political mind also can be attributed to her great book collection. She collected influential books such as the History of the Stuarts, printed in 1760 with her own printing press which can be determined through the stamp markings of her arms located on the cover. Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, an avid 19th-century collector in London and Waddesdon Manor, collected a number of her books, including this previously mentioned book and a copy of her published catalogue of books from 1764, which lists her entire collection.[39]

Artwork edit

Madame de Pompadour created 52 engraved prints, of drawings by Boucher, after gemstone engravings by Guay.[40] Her collection of work, in book form, is titled Suite d'Estampes Gravées Par Madame la Marquise de Pompadour d'Apres les Pierres Gravées de Guay, Graveur du Roy,[41] which in English is Series of Prints engraved by Madame la Marquise de Pompadour after the engraved stones of Guay, engraver of the King.

The personal portfolio of Madame de Pompadour was found in the Walters Art Museum manuscript room by art historian Susan Wager.[42]

Some art historians argue whether or not she should be considered a collaborator with the artists under her patronage, since there is no documentation of how much Pompadour might have contributed to the works; whose idea, and whose composition, will remain a mystery.[43]

List of museums and libraries with a copy of her portfolio
Genius of Music; engraved print by Madame de Pompadour of a drawing by Boucher, after an engraved gemstone by Guay c. 1755.

Death edit

Her memorial portrait finished in 1764 after her death, but begun while she was alive, by François-Hubert Drouais

Louis XV remained devoted to Pompadour until her death from tuberculosis in 1764 at the age of 42.[44] Louis nursed her through her illness. Even her enemies admired her courage during the final painful weeks. Voltaire wrote: "I am very sad at the death of Madame de Pompadour. I was indebted to her and I mourn her out of gratitude. It seems absurd that while an ancient pen-pusher, hardly able to walk, should still be alive, a beautiful woman, in the midst of a splendid career, should die at the age of forty-two."[45] Many of her enemies were, however, greatly relieved. Looking at the rain during the departure of his mistress's coffin from Versailles, the devastated king reportedly said: "La marquise n'aura pas de beau temps pour son voyage" ("The marquise will not have good weather for her journey").[46] She was buried at the Couvent des Capucines in Paris.

Portrayals in film and television edit

Madame de Pompadour has been depicted on screen in film and television on many occasions, beginning in 1924 with Paulette Duval opposite Rudolph Valentino in Monsieur Beaucaire. A biopic came out three years later called Madame Pompadour directed by Herbert Wilcox, in which she was played by Dorothy Gish. Other actresses to have played her include:

In popular culture edit

References edit

  1. ^ Eleanor Herman, Sex with Kings: 500 Years of Adultery, Power, Rivalry, and Revenge (New York: Barnes and Noble, 2011), 9 and Gere Charlotte and Marina Vaizey, Great Women Collectors (London: Philip Wilson, 1999), 45.
  2. ^ a b c Algrant, Christine Pevitt (2002). Madame de Pompadour Mistree of France. New York: Grove Press. pp. 9, 13, 115, 187.
  3. ^ James A. Moncure, ed. Research Guide to European Historical Biography: 1450–present (4 vol 1992); 4:1646–53
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hyde, Melissa (2000). "The "Makeup" of the Marquise: Boucher's Portrait of Pompadour at Her Toilette". The Art Bulletin. 82 (3): 453–475. doi:10.2307/3051397. JSTOR 3051397.
  5. ^ Mitford, Nancy (2001). Madame de Pompadour. Online Archive: New York Review Books. p. 21.
  6. ^ a b c Antoine, Louis XV, Fayard, Paris (1989), pp. 493–95.
  7. ^ Christine Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour: mistress of France (New York: Grove Press, 2003), 8–9
  8. ^ Jones Colin, Madame De Pompadour: Images of a Mistress (London: National Gallery, 2002), 60 and Rosamond Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt after Jeanne-Antoinette de Pompadour: Patronage, Politics, Art, and the French Enlightenment (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2011), 62.
  9. ^ a b Lewis, Tess (2003). ""Madame de Pompadour: Eminence without Honor."". The Hudson Review. 56 (2): 303–314. doi:10.2307/3853245. JSTOR 3853245.
  10. ^ Thomas Kaiser, "Madame de Pompadour and the Theatres of Power", French Historical Studies 19:4 (1996): 1027.
  11. ^ Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 66 and 72.
  12. ^ Jacques Levron, Pompadour (London: Allen and Unwin, 1963), 29.
  13. ^ Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt,71 and Levron, Pompadour, 29.
  14. ^ Evelyne Lever, Madame de Pompadour: a Life (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2003), 23 and Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour, 31.
  15. ^ Margaret Crosland, Madame de Pompadour: Sex, Culture and the Power Game (Stroud: Sutton, 2002), 44.
  16. ^ Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 89.
  17. ^ "Madame de Pompadour" Archived 8 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine Château de Versailles official website. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  18. ^ Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 99–100.
  19. ^ Elise Goodman, The portraits of Madame de Pompadour: Celebrating the Femme Savante (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 11.
  20. ^ Amanda Foreman, Nancy Mitford (2001). Madame de Pompadour. New York Review of Books. p. 213. ISBN 9780940322653.
  21. ^ Herman, Sex with Kings, 9.
  22. ^ a b Évelyne Lever, Catherine Temerson (September 2003). "Chp.16—Patroness of the Arts". Madame de Pompadour: A Life. Macmillan. p. 176. ISBN 9780312310509.
  23. ^ Jean François, de La Harpe (1817). Lycée, ou Cours de littérature ancienne et moderne: Tome 2. Paris: Et. Ledoux et Tenré. p. 371.
  24. ^ Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the monarch : studies on discourse, power, and history. [Amsterdam]: Amsterdam University Press. p. 153. ISBN 9789053567678. OCLC 85838955.
  25. ^ Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 102.
  26. ^ Posner, Donald (1990). "Mme. de Pompadour as a patron of the visual arts". The Art Bulletin. 72 (1): 74–105 (81). doi:10.2307/3045718. JSTOR 3045718..
  27. ^ Levron, Pompadour, 119 and Colin, Madame De Pompadour, 60.
  28. ^ Hooper-Hamersley, "The Hunt", 121.
  29. ^ Katherine K. Gordon, ""Madame de Pompadour, Pigalle, and the Iconography of Friendship,"" The Art Bulletin 50:3 (1968): 248.
  30. ^ "Site officiel du musee du Louvre". 1758.
  31. ^ Guillaume Garcia-Moreau, « Le château de Saint-Ouen et Madame de Pompadour », Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de l'Art français, 2003, p. 221-240 Read the article
  32. ^ Mitford, Madame de Pompadour, 190.
  33. ^ Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour, 159.
  34. ^ Posner, "Mme de Pompadour", 74.
  35. ^ Sarah Coffin, Rococo: The Continuing Curve, 1730–2008 (New York: Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, 2008), 89.
  36. ^ Younger, Fletcher William (1897). Bookbinding in England and France. Рипол Классик. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-141-52870-7. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  37. ^ Posner, "Mme. de Pompadour", 74–6.
  38. ^ Stein, Perrin (10 January 2013). Artist and Amateurs: Etching in 18th-Century France. 1000 Fifth Avenue, NY: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 3, 5, 125, 179. ISBN 978-1-58839-498-9.
  39. ^ Jacobs, Rachel (2 March 2018). "Beautiful books and bindings". Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  40. ^ Adhemar, Jean (1964). Graphic Art of the 18th Century (2nd ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 43, 106, 108, 113.
  41. ^ Wager, Susan (2017). "The earliest known version of Madame de Pompadour's d'Estampes' rediscovered". The Burlington Magazine. 159 (1369): 285.
  42. ^ Stamberg, Susan. "More than a Mistress: Madame de Pompadour was a Minister of the Arts". NPR.
  43. ^ Gordon, Alden R. (Fall 2003). "Searching for the Elusive Madame de Pompadour". Eighteenth-Century Studies. 37 (1): 91–111. doi:10.1353/ecs.2003.0062. S2CID 144477737.
  44. ^ Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour, 225.
  45. ^ Amanda Foreman, Nancy Mitford (2001). Madame de Pompadour. New York Review of Books. p. 272. ISBN 9780940322653.
  46. ^ Ramage, Craufurd Tait (1866). Beautiful Thoughts from French and Italian Authors: With English Translations and Lives of the Authors. E. Howell. p. 379.
  47. ^ Pixley, Andrew (6 November 2006). "Episode 4: The Girl in the Fireplace". Doctor Who Magazine – Series Two Companion (Special Edition 14): 44–50.
  48. ^ Casanova (2015) at IMDb  
  49. ^ a b Holmes, Richard (2002). Redcoat (paperback). London: HarperCollins. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-00-653152-4.
  50. ^ Adams, Cecil (27 September 1985). "Were champagne glasses modeled on the breasts of Madame de Pompadour?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
  51. ^ Operetta: A Theatrical History. Psychology Press, 2003, pp. 269–80, ISBN 0-415-96641-8
  52. ^ Bloom, Ken (2004). Broadway: Its History, People, and Places – An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 338. ISBN 9780415937047.
  53. ^ "Henri Matisse. Madame de Pompadour". Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  54. ^ "History of Marquise Cut Diamonds". Diamond Rocks (London). 14 March 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  55. ^ "Madame de Pompadour". Madame de Pompadour. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  56. ^ Sherrow, Victoria (2006). Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 309. ISBN 9780313331459.
  57. ^ "Libretto – Pique Dame – KAREOL".

Further reading edit

  • Algrant, Christine Pevitt. Madame de Pompadour: Mistress of France (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Jones, Colin. Madame de Pompadour: Images of a Mistress (2002), by a leading scholar
  • Mitford, Nancy. Madame De Pompadour (1954) excerpt and text search

Historiography edit

  • Moncure, James A. ed. Research Guide to European Historical Biography: 1450–Present (4 volumes, 1992); 4:1646–53

External links edit