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Texel (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈtɛsəl] (listen)) is a municipality and an island with a population of 13,643 in the province of North Holland in the Netherlands. It is the largest and most populated island of the West Frisian Islands in the Wadden Sea. The island is situated north of Den Helder, northeast of Noorderhaaks, also known as "Razende Bol" and southwest of Vlieland.
North end of the island with the Eierland Lighthouse in 2015
Location in North Holland
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Mayor||Michiel Uitdehaag (D66)|
|• Total||463.16 km2 (178.83 sq mi)|
|• Land||161.12 km2 (62.21 sq mi)|
|• Water||302.04 km2 (116.62 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2 m (7 ft)|
|• Density||85/km2 (220/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
The name Texel is Frisian, but because of historical sound-changes in Dutch, where all -x- sounds have been replaced with -s- sounds (compare for instance English fox, Frisian fokse, German Fuchs with Dutch vos), the name is typically pronounced Tessel in Dutch.
Texel received city rights in 1415.
Texel is also famous in military history as the only place where a navy was defeated on horseback. Occupying Holland in January 1795, the French continental army learned that the Dutch navy had been frozen into the ice around Texel, so Commandant Louis Joseph Lahure and 128 men rode up to it and demanded surrender. No shots were fired.
HMS Lutine, a frigate loaded with British gold, sank along the Texel coast in a storm during 1799. Her wreck shifted in the sands; despite several intensive, well financed searches, only a few treasures have been found.  A beaker made from a silver bar is displayed in the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich. Her bell was recovered and is now in the headquarters of Lloyds of London, where it is tolled before announcing important news.
During the American Revolution, Texel was used as a haven port for the USS Bonhomme Richard before it sank off the coast of Flamborough Head in Britain in September 1779. In that final action, John Paul Jones defeated and captured the British ship HMS Serapis, which he sailed to Texel for desperately needed repairs. This event further complicated Anglo-Dutch relations.
On the night of 31 August 1940, the sea to the northwest of Texel was the scene of the sinking of two British destroyers and the severe damage of a third by German mines in what is known as the Texel Disaster.
The municipality is located at North Holland and west of the mainland of the province of Friesland. The island of Texel is situated north of the city of Den Helder, northeast of the uninhabited island of Noorderhaaks, which is part of the municipality, and southwest of the island of Vlieland.north of the mainland of the province of
The island includes the seven villages De Cocksdorp, De Koog, De Waal, Den Burg, Den Hoorn, Oosterend, and Oudeschild, and the small townships of Bargen, De Nes, Dijkmanshuizen, Driehuizen, Harkebuurt, 't Horntje, Midden-Eierland, Molenbuurt, Nieuweschild, Noorderbuurt, Ongeren, Oost, Spang, Spijkdorp, Tienhoven, Westermient, Zevenhuizen, and Zuid-Eierland.
The island of Texel was originally made up of two islands, Texel proper to the south and Eierland to the northeast, which were connected by shoals. In the early seventeenth century, the islands were connected by a dyke to keep the North Sea from ravaging the coastal areas of Texel proper. In the mid-nineteenth century a polder completed the northern half of the island. Today, Texel forms the largest natural barrier between the North Sea and the Wadden Sea.
The dune landscape along the western coast of the island is protected as Dunes of Texel National Park.
The dune landscape on Texel is a unique habitat for wildlife. Notable areas include De Slufter, where the tide comes in and meets the dunes, forming a marshy environment rich in both fauna and flora. Texel is known for its wildlife, particularly in winter, when birds of prey and geese take up residence. About one third of Texel is a protected nature reserve. A wetland called Utopia has been designed for birds to nest in.
|Climate data for Texel|
|Record high °C (°F)||13.7
|Average high °C (°F)||5.5
|Average low °C (°F)||1.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−18.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||66.2
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||64.1||91.1||134.8||194.2||235.2||219||228.2||208.2||148||114.2||63.1||51||1,751.1|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2: |
- Willem Eduard Bok (1846 in Den Burg – 1904) a Dutch-born South African Boer politician, civil servant and statesman
- Willem Hendrik Keesom (1876 in Texel – Leiden) a Dutch physicist who first froze liquid helium
- Sim Visser (1908 in Eierland – 1983) a Dutch politician
- Cornelis de Jager (born 1921 in Den Burg) a Dutch astronomer who predicts solar variation
- Imme Dros (born 1936 in Oudeschild) a Dutch writer of children's literature
- Hans Kamp (born 1940 in Den Burg) a Dutch philosopher and linguist, introduced Discourse Representation Theory
- Rene Daalder (born 1944 on Texel) a Dutch writer and director 
- Henk Zijm (born 1952 in Driehuizen) a Dutch mathematician from the University of Twente
- Alice Blom (born 1980 in Oudeschild) a volleyball player
- Dorian van Rijsselberghe (born 1988 in Den Burg) a sailor, gold medallist at the 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympics
The tourism industry forms a substantial part of the economy in Texel. Approximately 70% of activities on Texel are in some way related to tourism. Popular forms of tourism on Texel include cycling, walking, swimming and horse riding.
The municipal council of Texel consists of 15 seats, which are divided as follows (from the most recent election results in 2018 ):
Transport around the island is typically by bicycle, bus (Texelhopper) or car. Texel has an extensive cycle path network. Transport to Texel is usually by ferry (Royal TESO), from Den Helder, or by air via Texel International Airport. The ferry Texelstroom uses 80% compressed natural gas.
- "B&W samenstelling en portefeuilles" [Mayor and aldermen members and tasks] (in Dutch). Gemeente Texel. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Postcodetool for 1791AT". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Donaldson, Bruce C. (1983). Dutch: A Linguistic History of Holland and Belgium. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 151. ISBN 9789024791668.
- Ley, Willy (October 1961). "The Home-Made Land". For Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 92–106.
- Utopia voor vogels
- "Klimaatatlas| KNMI". knmi.nl. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- "www.weergegevens.nl". Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- IMDb Database retrieved 06 July 2019
- "Norske Umoe har levert verdens første trykktanker i kompositt til skip". Teknisk Ukeblad. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
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