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|Ab urbe condita||2301|
|Balinese saka calendar||1469–1470|
|English Regnal year||1 Edw. 6 – 2 Edw. 6|
|Chinese calendar||丁未年 (Fire Goat)|
4244 or 4184
— to —
戊申年 (Earth Monkey)
4245 or 4185
|- Vikram Samvat||1604–1605|
|- Shaka Samvat||1469–1470|
|- Kali Yuga||4648–4649|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 17|
|Minguo calendar||364 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2090–2091|
1674 or 1293 or 521
— to —
1675 or 1294 or 522
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1548.|
- February 14 – Battle of Uedahara: Firearms are used for the first time on the battlefield in Japan, and Takeda Shingen is defeated by Murakami Yoshikiyo.
- April 1 – Sigismund II Augustus succeeds his father, Sigismund I the Old, as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.
- May 11 – Start of the great fire in Brielle.
- June – Ming Chinese naval forces commanded by Zhu Wan destroy the pirate haven of Shuangyu, frequented by Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese smugglers.
- July 7 – A marriage treaty is signed between Scotland and France, whereby five-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots, is betrothed to the future King Francis II of France.
- August 7 – Mary, Queen of Scots, leaves for France.
- October 20 – The city of La Paz, Bolivia, is founded.
- October 31 – At the first sejm of King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland, deputies demand that the king renounce his wife Barbara Radziwiłł.
- December – Siam attacks Tavoy, beginning the Burmese–Siamese War of 1548.
- January 5 – Francisco Suárez, Spanish priest, philosopher, theologian and saint (d. 1617)
- February 6 – Francesco Panigarola, Italian bishop (d. 1594)
- March 13 – Sasbout Vosmeer, Dutch Apostolic Vicar (d. 1614)
- March 17 – Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general (d. 1610)
- March 18 – Cornelis Ketel, Dutch painter (d. 1616)
- April 15 – Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician (d. 1626)
- May – Carel van Mander, Dutch painter and poet (d. 1606)
- May 8 – Giacomo Boncompagni, illegitimate son of a Pope (d. 1612)
- May 10 – Antonio Priuli, Doge of Venice (d. 1623)
- July 8 – Kim Jang-saeng, Korean scholar and writer (d. 1631)
- July 15 – George III, Count of Erbach-Breuberg (1564–1605) (d. 1605)
- August 26 – Bernardino Poccetti, Italian painter (d. 1612)
- September 2 – Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (d. 1616)
- September 7 – Filippo Boncompagni, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1586)
- September 29 – William V, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1626)
- October 4 – Matsumae Yoshihiro, Japanese daimyō of Ezochi (Hokkaidō) (d. 1616)
- November 27 – Jacopo Mazzoni, Italian philosopher (d. 1598)
- December 14 – Fernando Ruiz de Castro Andrade y Portugal, Grandee of Spain (d. 1601)
- December 30 – David Pareus, German theologian (d. 1622)
- date unknown
- Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (d. 1600)
- Oda Nagamasu, Japanese nobleman (d. 1622)
- Luis Barahona de Soto, Spanish poet (d. 1595)
- William Stanley, English soldier (d. 1630)
- Saitō Tatsuoki, Japanese daimyō (d. 1573)
- Sidonia von Borcke, German noble and alleged witch (d. 1620)
- Tomás Luis de Victoria, Spanish composer (d. 1611)
- January 9 – Matthäus Zell, German Lutheran pastor (b. 1477)
- January 23 – Bernardo Pisano, Italian composer (b. 1490)
- February 26 – Lorenzino de' Medici, Italian writer and assassin (b. 1514)
- March 23 – Itagaki Nobukata, Japanese retainer
- March 24 – Gissur Einarsson, first Lutheran bishop in Iceland
- April 1 – King Sigismund I the Old of Poland (b. 1467)
- June 3 – Juan de Zumárraga, Spanish Catholic bishop of Mexico (b. 1468)
- June 6 – João de Castro, Portuguese explorer (b. 1500)
- June 14 – Carpentras, French composer (b. c. 1470)
- July 4 – Philip, Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg, German duke (b. 1503)
- July 29 – Gian Gabriele I of Saluzzo, Italian abbot, Marquess of Saluzzo (b. 1501)
- August 2 – Henry II, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels and Count of Glatz (b. 1507)
- September 5 – Catherine Parr, sixth and last Queen of Henry VIII of England (b. c. 1512)
- September 8 – John III of Pernstein, Bohemian land-owner, Governor of Moravia and Count of Kladsko (b. 1487)
- October 27 – Johannes Dantiscus, Polish poet and Bishop of Warmia (b. 1485)
- November 16 – Caspar Creuziger, German humanist (b. 1504)
- December 27 – Francesco Spiera, Italian Protestant jurist (b. 1502)
- date unknown