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1592 (MDXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1592nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 592nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1592, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2345|
|Balinese saka calendar||1513–1514|
|English Regnal year||34 Eliz. 1 – 35 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)|
4288 or 4228
— to —
壬辰年 (Water Dragon)
4289 or 4229
|- Vikram Samvat||1648–1649|
|- Shaka Samvat||1513–1514|
|- Kali Yuga||4692–4693|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 20 / Bunroku 1|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||320 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2134–2135|
1718 or 1337 or 565
— to —
1719 or 1338 or 566
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1592.|
- January 30 – Pope Clement VIII (born Ippolito Aldobrandini) succeeds Pope Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope.
- February 7 – George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, sets fire to Donibristle Castle in Scotland, and murders James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray.
- March 3 – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland's oldest university, is founded.
- March 14 – Ultimate Pi Day: the largest correspondence between calendar dates and significant digits of pi, since the introduction of the Julian calendar.
- April 4 – The future Henry IV of France, King designate of Henry III of France, announces in a declaration, so-called "Expedient," his intention to take instruction in, and convert to, the Catholic religion.
- April 13 – The Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) begin, with the Siege of Busanjin.
- April 24 – Battle of Sangju: The Japanese are victorious over the Koreans (Joseon).
- April 28 – Battle of Ch'ungju: Japan inflicts a decisive defeat on Korea.
- May 7 – Battle of Okpo: The Korean navy is victorious over Japan.
- May 29 – Battle of Sacheon: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin destroys all 13 Japanese ships taking part, using his improved turtle ship for the first time in battle.
- June 2 – Battle of Dangpo:The Korean navy is again victorious over Japan.
- June 10–19 – Siege of Bihać in the Kingdom of Croatia, by Hasan Pasha Predojević of the Ottoman Empire. Bihać is captured and lost for Croatia forever.
- July 20 – The Japanese capture the Korean capital Pyongyang, causing Seonjo to request the assistance of Ming Dynasty Chinese forces, who recapture the city a year later.
- July 30 – Alonso de Sotomayor petitions the viceroy of Peru for more troops, to help resist attacks by Indians and English pirates.
- August 9 – English explorer John Davis, commander of the Desire, probably discovers the Falkland Islands.
- August 14 – Battle of Hansan Island: The Korean navy defeats the Japanese.
- August 15 (or 19) – The great Portuguese carrack, Madre De Deus, captured in a fierce battle in the Azores, enters Dartmouth harbour on 7 September, and is then subjected to mass theft.
- September 1 – Battle of Busan: The Korean fleet makes a surprise attack on the Japanese, but fails to break their supply lines to Busan.
- October 5 – Siege of Jinju: The Korean navy is victorious over the Japanese.
- November 3 – The city of San Luis Potosí is founded.
- November 17 – John III is succeeded by his son Sigismund, as King of Sweden.
- The Collegium Melitense is founded by Bishop Garagallo.
- William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, chief adviser of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is taken seriously ill.
- Negotiations begin, for the dissolution of the childless marriage of Henry IV of France and Marguerite of Valois.
- The Confucian shrine of Munmyo is destroyed by fire.
- The Population Census Edict is promulgated by Toyotomi Hidetsugu.
- January 5 – Shah Jahan, 5th Mughal Emperor of India from 1628 to 1658 (d. 1666)
- January 22
- February 5 – Vincenzo della Greca, Italian architect (d. 1661)
- February 22 – Nicholas Ferrar, English trader (d. 1637)
- February 23 – Balthazar Gerbier, Dutch painter (d. 1663)
- March 20 – Giovanni da San Giovanni, Italian painter (d. 1636)
- March 28 – Comenius, Czech teacher and writer (d. 1670)
- April 4 – Abraham Elzevir, Dutch printer (d. 1652)
- April 9 – Jiří Třanovský, Czech priest and musician (d. 1637)
- April 11 – John Eliot, Member of Parliament, Statesman, Vice-Admiral of Devon (d. 1632)
- April 15 – Francesco Maria Brancaccio, Catholic cardinal (d. 1675)
- April 22 – Wilhelm Schickard, German inventor (d. 1635)
- April 24
- May 8 – Francis Quarles, English poet most famous for his Emblem book aptly entitled Emblems (d. 1644)
- May 14 – Alice Barnham, wife of English scientific philosopher and statesman Francis Bacon (d. 1650)
- June 7 – Balthasar Cordier, Belgian Jesuit exegete, editor (d. 1650)
- June 9 – Jean de Brisacier, French Jesuit (d. 1668)
- June 13
- July 10 – Pierre d'Hozier, French historian (d. 1660)
- July 20 – Johan Björnsson Printz, governor of New Sweden (d. 1663)
- August 1 – François le Métel de Boisrobert, French poet (d. 1662)
- August 7 – Arnauld de Oihenart, Basque historian and poet (d. 1668)
- August 11 – Carlo de Tocco, Italian nobleman (d. 1674)
- August 13 – William of Nassau-Hilchenbach, German count (d. 1642)
- August 16 – Wybrand de Geest, Dutch painter (d. 1661)
- August 28 – George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English statesman (d. 1628)
- August 29 – Sir Benjamin Ayloffe, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1662)
- September 1 – Maria Angela Astorch, Spanish mystic and saint (d. 1665)
- September 5 – Jacopo Vignali, Italian painter (d. 1664)
- September 15 – Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, archbishop of Fermo (d. 1653)
- September 18 – Jean Guyon, French colonist (d. 1663)
- September 20 – Nicholas Stoughton, English politician (d. 1648)
- September 21 – Nathaniel Foote, American colonist (d. 1644)
- September 24 – Christopher Wandesford, English administrator and politician (d. 1640)
- September 25 – Herman Krefting, Norwegian businessman (d. 1651)
- October 7 – Henry Wenceslaus, Duke of Oels-Bernstadt, Duke of Bernstadt (1617–1639) (d. 1639)
- October 13 – Christian Gueintz, German teacher and writer-grammarian (d. 1650)
- October 22 – Gustav Horn, Count of Pori, Swedish/Finnish soldier and politician (d. 1657)
- October 30 – Giulio Benso, Italian painter (d. 1668)
- November 4
- November 5 – Charles Chauncy, English-born president of Harvard College (d. 1671)
- November 13 – Antonio Grassi, Italian priest and blessed (d. 1671)
- November 28 – Hong Taiji, Emperor of China (d. 1643)
- December 5 – Thomas Bennet, successful civil lawyer (d. 1670)
- December 6 – William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle (d. 1676)
- December 9 – Krzysztof Arciszewski, Polish-Lithuanian noble (d. 1656)
- December 29 – Johannes Matthiae Gothus, Swedish academic (d. 1670)
- Catalina de Erauso, Spanish-Mexican nun and soldier (d. 1650)
- Richard Bellingham, American colonial magistrate (d. 1672)
- John Hacket, English churchman (d. 1670)
- Angélique Paulet, French salonnière, singer, musician and actress (d. 1651)
- Ingen, Chinese Zen Buddhist poet, calligrapher (d. 1673)
- John Jenkins, English composer (d. 1678)
- John Oldham, early English settler in Massachusetts (d. 1636)
- Walatta Petros, saint in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (d. 1642)
- Sara Copia Sullam, Italian poet and writer (d. 1641)
- Étienne Brûlé, French explorer in Canada (d. 1632)
- January 5 – William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, German nobleman (b. 1516)
- January 22 – Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France (b. 1554)
- January 27 – Gian Paolo Lomazzo, Italian painter (b. 1538)
- February 2 – Ana de Mendoza, Princess of Eboli, Spanish noble (b. 1540)
- February 29 – Alessandro Striggio, Italian composer (b. 1540)
- March 4 – Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg and administrator of Ratzeburg (b. 1537)
- March 5 – Michiel Coxie, Flemish painter (b. 1499)
- March 22 – Johann VII, Duke of Mecklenburg, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1576–1592) (b. 1558)
- April 8 – Dorothea Susanne of Simmern, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar (b. 1544)
- April 13 – Bartolomeo Ammannati, Italian architect and sculptor (b. 1511)
- April 18 – George John I, Count Palatine of Veldenz (b. 1543)
- April 21 – Christoph, Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch (b. 1552)
- May 17 – Paschal Baylon, Spanish mystic and saint (b. 1540)
- May 24 – Nikolaus Selnecker, German musician (b. 1530)
- June 17 – Ernst Ludwig, Duke of Pomerania (b. 1545)
- July 1 – Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, Italian composer (b. c. 1547)
- July 4 – Francesco Bassano the Younger, Italian painter (b. 1559)
- July 6 – John George of Ohlau, Duke of Oława and Wołów (1586-1592) (b. 1552)
- July 18 – Sibylle of Saxony, Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg (b. 1515)
- July 22 – Ludwig Rabus, German martyrologist (b. 1523)
- July 26 – Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron, French soldier (b. 1524)
- August 20 – William the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1535)
- August 25
- September 3 – Robert Greene, English writer (b. 1558)
- September 13 – Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (b. 1533)
- September 20 – Francisco Vallés, Spanish physician (b. 1524)
- October 15 – Jean Vendeville, law professor, Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1527)
- October 19 – Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu, English politician (b. 1528)
- October 28 – Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Flemish diplomat
- November 17 – King John III of Sweden (b. 1537)
- November 27 – Nakagawa Hidemasa, Japanese military commander (b. 1568)
- December 3 – Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (b. 1545)
- Date unknown