|Ab urbe condita||2268|
|Balinese saka calendar||1436–1437|
|English Regnal year||6 Hen. 8 – 7 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||甲戌年 (Wood Dog)|
4211 or 4151
— to —
乙亥年 (Wood Pig)
4212 or 4152
|- Vikram Samvat||1571–1572|
|- Shaka Samvat||1436–1437|
|- Kali Yuga||4615–4616|
|Japanese calendar||Eishō 12|
|Minguo calendar||397 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2057–2058|
1641 or 1260 or 488
— to —
1642 or 1261 or 489
- January 25 – Francis I of France is crowned (r. until 1547).
- May 13 – Mary Tudor, Queen of France, and Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, are officially married at Greenwich (near London).
- June 13 – Battle of Turnadag: The army of Ottoman sultan Selim I defeats the beylik of Dulkadir under Bozkurt of Dulkadir.
- July 2 – Manchester Grammar School is endowed by Hugh Oldham, the first free grammar school in England.
- July 22 – At the First Congress of Vienna, a double wedding takes place to cement agreements. Louis, only son of King Vladislaus II of Hungary, marries Mary of Austria, granddaughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor; and Mary's brother, Archduke Ferdinand, marries Vladislaus' daughter, Anna.
- August 25 – Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founds Havana, Cuba.
- September 13–14 – Battle of Marignano: The army of Francis I of France defeats the Swiss, thanks to the timely arrival of a Venetian army. Francis restores French control of Milan.
- November 15 – Thomas Wolsey is invested as a Cardinal.
- December 24 – Thomas Wolsey is named Lord Chancellor of England.
- Cardinal Wolsey orders construction to begin on what is to become Henry VIII's future summer residence Hampton Court Palace.
- Bartolomé de las Casas urges Ferdinand II of Aragon to end Amerindian slavery, and recommends experimental free towns.
- The Portuguese are the first Europeans to land in Timor island.
- Dürer's Rhinoceros is cut.
- The Ottomans conquer the last beyliks of Anatolia, the Beylik of Dulkadir and the Ramadanid Emirate.
- Henry Cornelius Agrippa returns to Northern Italy.
- January 1 – Johann Weyer, Dutch physician (d. 1588)
- February 4 – Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł, Polish magnate (d. 1565)
- February 14 – Frederick III, Elector Palatine, ruler from the house of Wittelsbach (d. 1576)
- February 18 – Valerius Cordus, German physician, botanist and author (d. 1544)
- March 10 – Injong of Joseon, 12th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (d. 1545)
- March 12 – Caspar Othmayr, German Protestant priest, theologian and composer (d. 1553)
- March 28 – Teresa of Ávila, Spanish Carmelite nun, poet and saint (d. 1582)
- May 2 – Sibylle of Saxony, Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg (d. 1592)
- May 12
- June 15 – Anne Parr, Countess of Pembroke, English countess (d. 1552)
- July 4 – Eleonora d'Este, Ferranese noblewoman (d. 1575)
- July 10 – Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of Peru (d. 1582)
- July 14 – Philip I, Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast (d. 1560)
- July 21 – Philip Neri, Italian Roman Catholic saint (d. 1595)
- September 8 – Alfonso Salmeron, Spanish biblical scholar and early Jesuit (d. 1585)
- September 22 – Anne of Cleves, Fourth Queen of Henry VIII of England (d. 1557)
- October 4 – Lucas Cranach the Younger, German painter (d. 1586)
- October 7 – Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães, son of King Manuel I of Portugal (d. 1540)
- October 8 – Margaret Douglas, daughter of Archibald Douglas (d. 1578)
- October 15 – Leone Strozzi, French Navy admiral (d. 1554)
- October 29
- November 22 – Mary of Guise, queen of James V of Scotland and regent of Scotland (d. 1560)
- December 15 – Maria of Saxony, Duchess of Pomerania (d. 1583)
- date unknown
- Gilbert Kennedy, 3rd Earl of Cassilis, Scottish peer (d. 1558)
- Sebastian Castellio, rector of the College of Geneva (d. 1563)
- Sehzade Mustafa, First born son of Suleiman the Magnificent by Mahidevran Sultan (d. 1553)
- Cristóbal Acosta, Portuguese doctor and natural historian (d. 1580)
- Injong of Joseon, 12th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (d. 1545)
- Pierre de la Ramée, French humanist scholar (d. 1572)
- Thomas Seckford, Master of Requests for Elizabeth I of England (d. 1587)
- Thomas Watson, English Catholic bishop (d. 1584)
- Leonard Digges, English mathematician and surveyor (d. c. 1559)
- Jean Maillard, French composer
- Laurence Nowell, English antiquarian (d. 1571)
- Cipriano de Rore, Flemish composer and teacher (d. 1565)
- Nicholas Throckmorton, English churchman, last abbot of Westminster (d. 1571)
- John Willock, Scottish reformer (d. 1585)
- January 1 – King Louis XII of France (b. 1462)
- February 6 – Aldus Manutius, Venetian printer (b. c. 1449)
- March 16 – Queen Janggyeong, Korean royal consort (b. 1491)
- April 15 – Mikołaj Kamieniecki, Polish nobleman (szlachcic) and first Great Hetman of the Crown (b. 1460)
- June 13 – Alaüddevle Bozkurt, Bey of Anatolian Dulkadir
- September 4 – Barbara of Brandenburg, Bohemian queen (b. 1464)
- September 9 – Joseph Volotsky, caesaropapist ideologist of the Russian Orthodox Church
- October – Bartolomeo d'Alviano, Venetian general (b. 1455)
- November 5 – Mariotto Albertinelli, Italian painter (b. 1474)
- December 2 – Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Spanish general and statesman (b. 1453)
- December 16 – Afonso de Albuquerque, Portuguese naval general (b. 1453)
- December 18 – Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross, Scottish prince (b. 1514)
- date unknown
- Giovanni Giocondo, Italian friar, architect and classical scholar (b. c. 1433 in Verona)
- Eoghan Mac Cathmhaoil, Irish Bishop of Clogher since 1505
- Meñli I Giray, khan of the Crimean Khanate (b. 1445)
- Pietro Lombardo, Italian Renaissance sculptor and architect (b. 1435 in Carona (Ticino))
- Nezahualpilli, Aztec philosopher (b. 1464)
- Alonso de Ojeda, Spanish conquistador (b. 1466)
- probable – Vincenzo Foppa, Italian Renaissance painter (b. 1430)
- R. J. Knecht (1994). Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-57885-1.
- British Library (2009). Henry VIII: Man and Monarch. British Library. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-7123-5025-9.
- Minster, Christopher (2015). "Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas (1484-1566) Part Two: Later Years". About.com. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "Bartoleme de las Casas". OregonState.edu. 2015. Archived from the original on December 26, 2002. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "Anne of Cleves | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
- "Marie de Guise: Biography on Undiscovered Scotland". www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk. Retrieved April 20, 2020.