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|Ab urbe condita||2186|
|Balinese saka calendar||1354–1355|
|English Regnal year||11 Hen. 6 – 12 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||壬子年 (Water Rat)|
4129 or 4069
— to —
癸丑年 (Water Ox)
4130 or 4070
|- Vikram Samvat||1489–1490|
|- Shaka Samvat||1354–1355|
|- Kali Yuga||4533–4534|
|Japanese calendar||Eikyō 5|
|Minguo calendar||479 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1975–1976|
1559 or 1178 or 406
— to —
1560 or 1179 or 407
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1433.|
- Winter – Much of the English town of Alnwick (in Northumbria) is burnt by a Scottish raiding party.
- May 31 – Sigismund is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome. There has been no crowned Emperor since the death of his father, Charles IV, in 1378.
- August 14 – Edward I becomes King of Portugal.
- September – Cosimo de' Medici, later the de facto ruler of Florence and patron of Marsilio Ficino, is exiled by the Albizzi/Strozzi faction (Cosimo returns a year later, to the day, in 1434).
- October – Iliaș of Moldavia is dethroned by his brother Stephen II (their rivalry will be arbitrated eventually by the Polish king).
- December – Kalantiaw (of what would later be known as the Philippines) supposedly promulgates the legal code eventually referred to as the Code of Kalantiaw.
- The Ming Dynasty in China disbands their naval fleet, after the last great maritime expedition, led by Admiral Zheng He, altering the balance of power in the Indian Ocean, and making it easier for Portugal and other Western naval powers to gain dominance over the seas.
- In Ming Dynasty China, cotton is listed as a permanent item of trade, on the tax registers of Songjiang prefecture.
- June 23 – Francis II, Duke of Brittany (d. 1488)
- August 31 – Sigismondo d'Este, Italian nobleman (d. 1507)
- September 17 – James of Portugal, Portuguese cardinal (d. 1459)
- September 24 – Shekha of Amarsar, Rajput chieftain (d. 1488)
- September 27 – Stanisław Kazimierczyk, Polish canon regular and saint (d. 1489)
- October 19 – Marsilio Ficino, Florentine philosopher (d. 1499)
- November 10
- date unknown – Stephen III of Moldavia, prince from 1457 (d. 1504)
- approximate date