This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2019)
|Ab urbe condita||2191|
|Balinese saka calendar||1359–1360|
|English Regnal year||16 Hen. 6 – 17 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||丁巳年 (Fire Snake)|
4134 or 4074
— to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
4135 or 4075
|- Vikram Samvat||1494–1495|
|- Shaka Samvat||1359–1360|
|- Kali Yuga||4538–4539|
|Japanese calendar||Eikyō 10|
|Minguo calendar||474 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1980–1981|
1564 or 1183 or 411
— to —
1565 or 1184 or 412
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1438.|
- January 1 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary.
- January 9 – The city of Cluj (Kolozsvár) is conquered, thus marking the end of the Transylvanian peasant revolt, which started at Bobâlna.
- January 10 – The Council of Florence opens in Ferrara.
- February 2 – The Unio Trium Nationum pact is established in Transylvania.
- February 10 – All Souls' College is founded in the University of Oxford by Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Henry VI of England as a graduate institution.
- March 18 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Germany.
- July 7 – Charles VII of France issues the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, giving the French church control over the appointment of bishops, and depriving the Pope of French ecclesiastical revenues.
- September 13 – Afonso V becomes King of Portugal.
- Pachacuti becomes ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and begins its expansion into the Inca Empire (Tahuantinsuyu).
- At 95 years of age, Nang Keo Phimpha becomes queen of Lan Xang for a few months before being deposed and killed.
- Just two years after the Ming dynasty court of China allowed landowners paying the grain tax to pay their tax in silver instead, the Ming court now decides to close all silver mines and prohibit all private silver mining in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. This is a concerted effort to halt the increase of silver circulating into the market. The illegal mining of silver is now an offense punishable by death; although it becomes a dangerous affair, the high demand for silver also makes it very lucrative, and so many chose to defy the government and continue to mine.
- The Sukhothai Kingdom mergers with the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
- February 5
- February 12 – Adolf, Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen (1465–1471) (d. 1477)
- March 23 – Ludovico II, Marquess of Saluzzo, Italian noble (d. 1504)
- April 3 – John III of Egmont, Dutch noble (d. 1516)
- September 7 – Louis II, Landgrave of Lower Hesse (1458–1471) (d. 1471)
- December 1 – Peter II, Duke of Bourbon, son of Charles I (d. 1503)
- date unknown – Husayn Bayqarah, Timurid ruler of Herat (d. 1506)
- probable – Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset, English nobleman and military commander during the Wars of the Roses (d. 1471)
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7126-5616-0.
- Julian Haynes Steward (1947). Handbook of South American Indians: The Andean civilizations. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 205.
- Trevor Royle (2009). The Road to Bosworth Field: A New History of the Wars of the Roses. Little, Brown. p. 454. ISBN 978-0-316-72767-9.