Sejong (Korean세종; Hanja世宗; 10 April 1397 – 17 February 1450),[ii][iii] personal name Yi Do (이도; 李祹), commonly known as Sejong the Great (세종대왕; 世宗大王), was the fourth monarch of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. Today, he is regarded as one of the greatest rulers in Korean history, and is remembered as the inventor of Hangul, the native alphabet of the Korean language.

Sejong the Great
세종대왕
世宗大王
Bronze statue of King Sejong at Deoksu Palace
King of Joseon
Reign10 August 1418 – 17 February 1450
EnthronementGeunjeongjeon Hall, Gyeongbok Palace, Hanseong
PredecessorTaejong
SuccessorMunjong
RegentCrown Prince Yi Hyang (1439–1450)
Crown Prince of Joseon
Tenure3 June 1418 – 10 August 1418
PredecessorCrown Prince Yi Je
SuccessorCrown Prince Yi Hyang
BornYi Do (이도; 李祹)
10 April 1397
Junsu-bang, Hanseong, Joseon
Died17 February 1450(1450-02-17) (aged 52)
Grand Prince Yeongeung's Mansion,[i] Hanseong, Joseon
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1408; died 1446)
Issue
among others...
Era name and dates
Adopted the era name of the Ming dynasty:
  • Yeongnak (Yongle) (영락; 永樂): 1418–1424
  • Honghui (Hongxi) (홍희; 洪熙): 1425
  • Seondeok (Xuande) (선덕; 宣德): 1426–1435
  • Jeongtong (Zhengtong) (정통; 正統): 1436–1449
  • Gyeongtae (Jingtai) (경태; 景泰): 1450
Posthumous name
  • Joseon: King Jangheon Yeongmun Yemu Inseong Myeonghyo the Great
    • 장헌영문예무인성명효대왕
    • 莊憲英文睿武仁聖明孝大王
  • Ming dynasty: Jangheon (장헌; 莊憲)
Temple name
Sejong (세종; 世宗)
ClanJeonju Yi clan
DynastyHouse of Yi
FatherTaejong of Joseon
MotherQueen Wongyeong
ReligionKorean Confucianism (Neo-Confucianism)Korean Buddhism
Korean name
Hangul
세종
Hanja
Revised RomanizationSejong
McCune–ReischauerSejong
Birth name
Hangul
이도
Hanja
Revised RomanizationI Do
McCune–ReischauerYi To
Childhood name
Hangul
막동
Hanja
Revised RomanizationMakdong
McCune–ReischauerMaktong
Courtesy name
Hangul
원정
Hanja
Revised RomanizationWonjeong
McCune–ReischauerWŏnjŏng

Initially titled Grand Prince Chungnyeong (충녕대군; 忠寧大君), he was the third son of King Taejong and Queen Wongyeong. In 1418, Sejong replaced his eldest brother, Yi Je, as crown prince; a few months later, Taejong voluntarily abdicated the throne in his favor. Despite this, Sejong was a mere figurehead, while his father continued to hold the real power and govern the country until his death in 1422.

Sejong reinforced Korean Confucian and Neo-Confucian policies, and enacted major legal amendments (공법; 貢法). He personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet,[1][2] encouraged advancements in science and technology, and introduced measures to stimulate economic growth. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin Jeongchaek (사민정책; 徙民政策; lit. 'Peasants Relocation Policy') to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he helped subjugate Japanese pirates through the Ōei Invasion.

From 1439, he became increasingly ill[3] and his eldest son, Crown Prince Yi Hyang (future King Munjong), acted as regent.

Name edit

Although the appellation "the Great" (대왕; 大王) was posthumously given to almost every monarch from the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties, this style is usually associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong.[citation needed]

Early life edit

He was born on 10 April 1397,[4] which was later adjusted to 15 May, after Korea's adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1896. This date is his officially recognized birthday, and is celebrated along with National Teachers Day in South Korea.[5]

Sejong was the son of King Taejong by his wife, Queen Wongyeong.[6] When he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong (충녕대군). During childhood, he was favored by his father over his two older brothers.

As the third son of the king, his ascension to the throne was unique. Taejong's eldest son, Yi Je (이제), was named heir apparent in 1404. However, his free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting and leisure activities resulted in his removal from the position in June 1418. Though it is said that he abdicated in favor of Sejong, there are no definitive records. Taejong's second son, Grand Prince Hyoryeong (효령대군), became a Buddhist monk upon the elevation of his younger brother.

Following Yi Je's demotion, Taejong moved quickly to secure his third son's place as heir apparent, and the government was purged of officials who disagreed with the change. In September 1418, Taejong abdicated. However, even in retirement he continued to influence government policy. Sejong's surprising political skill and creativity did not become apparent until after his father's death in 1422.

Governance edit

Religion edit

Sejong reorganized the government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants.[citation needed] Furthermore, he performed government ceremonies according to Confucianism, and encouraged people to behave according to the teachings of Confucius.[7]

He suppressed Buddhism by banning outside monks from entering Hanseong (modern Seoul) and reduced the seven schools of Buddhism down to two, Seon and Gyo, drastically decreasing the power and wealth of the religious leaders.[8] One of the key factors in this suppression was Sejong's reform of the land system. This policy resulted in temple lands being seized and redistributed for development, with the monks losing large amounts of economic influence.[9][10] During the Goryeo dynasty, monks wielded a strong influence in politics and the economy. With the dominant powers of Joseon now being devout Confucianists, Buddhism was considered a false philosophy and the monks were viewed as corrupted by power and money.[citation needed] The Seokbosangjeol (석보상절; 釋譜詳節), a 24-volume Korean-language translation of Chinese Buddhist texts (a biography of Buddha and some of his sermons), was commissioned and published in Sejong's reign by his son Grand Prince Suyang, as an act of mourning for Queen Soheon.

In 1427, Sejong also gave a decree against the Huihui (Korean Muslim) community that had held special status and stipends since Yuan dynasty's rule over Goryeo. The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their "ceremonial hall" (a mosque in the city of Gaegyeong, in present-day Kaesong) and worship like everyone else. No further mention of Muslims exist during the Joseon era.[11]

Economy edit

In the early years of the Joseon dynasty, the economy was based on a barter system with cloth, grain, and cotton being the most common forms of currency. In 1423, under King Sejong’s administration, the government attempted to develop a national currency modeled off of the Tang dynasty's kaiyuan tongbao (開元通寶). The Joseon tongbo (조선통보; 朝鮮通寶) was a bronze coin, backed by a silver standard, with 150 coins being equal to 600 grams of silver. Production of the Joseon Tongbo ceased in 1425 because they were too expensive to make, with the exchange rate falling to less than the intrinsic value of the coin.[12]

Foreign policy edit

Sejong collaborated closely with China's Ming dynasty. In relations with Jurchen people, he installed ten military garrisons in the northern part of the peninsula.[13]

He opened three ports to trade with Japan; however, he also launched expeditions to crush the Japanese pirates (왜구; 倭寇; waegu) in the East China Sea.[14]

Military edit

King Sejong was an effective military planner. He created various military regulations to strengthen the safety of his kingdom,[15] and supported the advancement of military technology, including cannon development. Different kinds of mortars and fire arrows were tested as well as the use of gunpowder.[citation needed]

In June 1419, under the advice and guidance of his father, Sejong embarked upon the Ōei Invasion. The ultimate goal of this military expedition was to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates who had been operating close to Tsushima Island. During the invasion, 245 Japanese were killed, and another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers died. More than 150 kidnap victims (146 Chinese and 8 Koreans) were also liberated. A truce was made in July 1419 and the Joseon army returned to the Korean Peninsula, but no official documents were signed until 1443. In this agreement, known as the Treaty of Gyehae, the daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the king of Joseon, and in return, the Joseon court rewarded the Sō clan with preferential rights regarding trade between the two countries.[iv][16]

In 1433, Sejong sent Kim Jong-seo, a prominent general, to the north to destroy the Jurchens (later known as the Manchus). Kim's military campaign captured several fortresses, pushed north, and expanded Korean territory, to the Songhua River.[17][15] Four forts and six posts (사군육진; 四郡六鎭) were established to safeguard the people from the Jurchens.[13]

Science, technology, and agriculture edit

 
A modern reconstruction and scaled down model of Jang Yeong-sil's self-striking water clock.

In 1420, Sejong's love for science led him to create an institute within Gyeongbok Palace known as the Hall of Worthies (집현전; 集賢殿; Jiphyeonjeon). The institute was responsible for conducting scientific research with the purpose of advancing the country's technology. The Hall of Worthies was meant to be a collection of Joseon's best and brightest thinkers, with the government offering grants and scholarships to encourage young scholars to attend.[18][19]

Sejong promoted the sciences.[20][21] He wanted to help farmers so he decided to compile a farmer's handbook. Published in 1429, the book – Nongsa Jikseol (농사직설; 農事直說; lit. 'Straight Talk on Farming') – dealt with planting, harvesting and soil treatment, and contained information about the different farming techniques that were gathered by scientists from different regions of Korea.[22] These techniques were needed in order to maintain the newly adopted methods of intensive and continuous cultivation.[22]

One of his close associates was the great inventor Jang Yeong-sil. As a young person, Jang was a naturally creative and smart thinker. Sejong noticed his skill and immediately called him to his court in Hanseong. Upon giving Jang a government position and funding for his inventions, officials protested, believing a person from the lower classes should not rise to power among nobles. Sejong instead believed he merited support because of his ability. Jang Yeong-sil created new significant designs for water clocks, armillary spheres, and sundials.[23]

In 1442, Jang Yeong-sil made one of the world's first standardized rain gauges named cheugugi (측우기; 測雨器).[24] This model has not survived, with the oldest existing Korean rain gauge being made in 1770, during the reign of King Yeongjo. According to the Daily Records of the Royal Secretariat (승정원일기; 承政院日記; Seungjeongwon Ilgi), Yeongjo wanted to revive the glorious times of Sejong the Great, and started reading chronicles from that era. When he came across the mention of a rain gauge, Yeongjo ordered a reproduction. Since there is a mark of the Qing dynasty ruler Qianlong (r. 1735–96), dated 1770,[25] this Korean-designed rain gauge is sometimes misunderstood as having been imported from China.

In 1434, Jang Yeong-sil, tasked by King Sejong, invented the gabinja (갑인자; 甲寅字), a new type of printing press. This printing press was said to be twice as fast as the previous model and was composed of copper-zinc and lead-tin alloys.

 
Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-sil during the reign of King Sejong

Sejong also wanted to reform the Korean calendar system, which was at the time based upon the longitude of the Chinese capital.[22] He had his astronomers create a calendar with the Joseon capital of Hanseong as the primary meridian.[22] This new system allowed Joseon astronomers to accurately predict the timing of solar and lunar eclipses.[22]

In the realm of traditional Korean medicine, two important treatises were written during his reign. These were the Hyangyak Jipseongbang (향약집성방; 鄕藥集成方) and the Euibang Yuchwi (의방유취; 醫方類聚), which historian Kim Yong-sik says represents "the Koreans' efforts to develop their own system of medical knowledge, distinct from that of China".[22]

Public welfare edit

In 1426, Sejong enacted a law that granted government slaves (노비; 奴婢; nobi) women 100 days of maternity leave after childbirth, which, in 1430, was lengthened by one month before childbirth. In 1434, he also granted the husbands 30 days of paternity leave.[26]

In order to provide equality and fairness in taxation for the common people, Sejong issued a royal decree to administer a nationwide public opinion poll regarding a new tax system called Gongbeop in 1430. Over the course of five months, the poll surveyed 172,806 people, of which approximately 57% responded with approval for the proposed reform.[27][28]

Joseon's economy depended on the agricultural output of the farmers, so Sejong allowed them to pay more or less tax according to the fluctuations of economic prosperity and hard times.[29] Because of this, farmers could worry less about tax quotas and instead work at maintaining and selling their crops.

It is said that once, when the palace had a significant surplus of food, the king distributed it to poor peasants who needed it.[citation needed]

Literature edit

Sejong composed the famous Yongbieocheonga ("Songs of Flying Dragons"; 1445), Seokbo Sangjeol ("Episodes from the Life of Buddha"; July 1447), Worin Cheongang Jigok ("Songs of the Moon Shining on a Thousand Rivers"; July 1447), and Dongguk Jeongun ("Dictionary of Proper Sino-Korean Pronunciation"; September 1447).

Arts edit

One of Sejong’s closest friends and mentors was the 15th century musician Bak Yeon. Together they composed over two hundred musical arrangements. Sejong’s independent musical compositions include the Chongdaeop ('Great Achievements'), Potaepyeong ('Preservation of Peace'), Pongnaeui ('Phoenix'), and Yominrak ('A Joy to Share with the People'). Yominrak continues to be a standard piece played by modern traditional Korean orchestras, while Chongdaeop and Potaepyeong are played during the Jongmyo Jerye (memorials honoring the kings of Joseon).

In 1418, during Sejong's reign, scholars developed the Pyeongyeong (편경; 編磬), a lithophone modeled off of the Chinese bianqing. The Pyeongyeong is a percussion instrument consisting of two rows of 8 pumice slabs hung on a decorative wooden frame with a 16-tone range and struck with an ox horn mallet. It was manufactured using pumice mined from the Gyeonggi Province and was primarily used for ceremonies.[30]

Sejong's contribution to the arts continued long after his death; he had always wanted to use Korean music rather than Chinese music for ancestral rituals, but conservative court officials stopped his efforts. However, when Sejong's son, King Sejo, rose to the throne, he modified the ritual music composed by his father and created the 'Jongmyo court music', which was used for royal ancestral rituals and is now inscribed as an UNESCO Intangible Cultural Hertiage.[31]

Hangul (한글) edit

 
Hunminjeongeum

King Sejong profoundly affected Korea's history with the creation and introduction of hangul, the native phonetic writing system for the Korean language.[2][32] Although it is widely assumed that he ordered the Hall of Worthies to invent the script, contemporaneous records such as the Veritable Records of King Sejong and Jeong In-ji's preface to the Hunminjeongeum Haerye emphasize that Sejong invented it himself.[33]

Before the creation of the new letters, people in the country primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside phonetic writing systems based on Chinese script that predated hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil.[34][35][36][37] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages,[38] and the large number of characters that needed to be studied, the lower classes, who often lacked the privilege of education, had much difficulty in learning how to write. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created this unique alphabet (which numbered 28 letters at its introduction, of which four letters have become obsolete) to promote literacy among the common people.[39] Each consonant letter is based on a simplified diagram of the patterns made by the human speech organs (the mouth, tongue and teeth) when producing the sound related to the character, while vowels were formed by combinations of dots and lines representing heaven (a circular dot), earth (a horizontal line) and humanity (a vertical line). Morphemes are built by writing the characters in syllabic blocks. The blocks of letters are then strung together linearly.

Hangul was completed in 1443 and published in 1446 along with a 33-page manual titled Hunminjeongeum, explaining what the letters are as well as the philosophical theories and motives behind them.[40] The manual purported that anyone could learn the alphabet in a matter of days. People previously unfamiliar with it can typically pronounce Korean words accurately after only a few hours of study.

King Sejong faced backlash from the noble class as many disapproved of the idea of a common writing system, with some openly opposing its creation. Many within the nobility believed that giving the peasants the ability to read and write would allow them to find and abuse loopholes within the law. Others felt that hangul would threaten their families’ positions in court by creating a larger pool of civil servants. The Joseon elite continued to use the Chinese hanja long after Sejong’s death.[41] Hangul was often treated with contempt by those in power and received criticism in the form of nicknames, including eonmun ("vulgar script"), amkeul ("women’s script"), and ahaekkeul ("children’s script"). Despite this, the system gained popularity among women and fiction writers.

In 1504, the study and publication of hangul was banned by Yeonsangun.[42] Its spread and preservation can be largely attributed to three main factors: books published for women, its use by Buddhist monks,[43] and the introduction of Christianity in Korea in 1602.[44] Hangul was brought into the mainstream culture in the 16th century, due to a renaissance in literature and poetry. It continued to gain popularity well into the 17th century, and gained wider use after a period of nationalism in the 19th century. In 1849, it was adopted as Korea’s national writing system, and saw its first use in official government documents. After the Treaty of 1910, hangul was outlawed again until the liberation of Korea in 1945.[45][46]

Death edit

 
The tomb of Sejong the Great

Sejong was blinded by diabetes complications that eventually took his life in 1450.[47] He was buried at Yeongneung (영릉, 英陵), in the same mound as his wife, Queen Soheon, who died four years earlier. The tomb is located in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.

His successor was his first son, Yi Hyang (posthumously honored as King Munjong). Sejong judged that the sickly Munjong was unlikely to live long, and on his deathbed asked the scholars from the Hall of Worthies to look after his young grandson, Danjong.[48] As predicted, Munjong died two years after his ascension, and the political stability enjoyed in the past decades disintegrated when Danjong became the sixth king of Joseon at the age of twelve.[49] Eventually, Sejong's second son, Grand Prince Suyang (later known as King Sejo), usurped the throne in 1455. When six court officials were implicated in a plot to restore his nephew, Sejo abolished the Hall of Worthies and executed Danjong along with several ministers who served during Sejong's reign.[49][50]

Family edit

  • Father: King Taejong of Joseon (조선의 태종) (16 May 1367 – 10 May 1422)
  • Mother: Queen Wongyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan (원경왕후 민씨) (11 July 1365 – 10 July 1420)
    • Grandfather: Min Je, Internal Prince Yeoheung (여흥부원군 민제) (1339–1408)
    • Grandmother: Lady Song of the Yeosan Song clan, Grand Princess Consort of Samhan State (삼한국대부인 여산 송씨).(1342–1424)

Consorts and their respective issue(s):

  1. Queen Soheon of the Cheongsong Shim clan (소헌왕후 심씨) (28 September 1395 – 24 March 1446)[51][52]
    1. Princess Jeongso (정소공주) (1412 – 25 February 1424), first daughter
    2. Crown Prince Yi Hyang (왕세자 이향) (3 October 1414 – 14 May 1452), first son
    3. Princess Jeongui (정의공주) (12 July 1415 – 11 February 1477), second daughter[53]
    4. Yi Yu, Grand Prince Suyang (수양대군 이유) (29 September 1417 – 8 September 1468), second son
    5. Yi Yong, Grand Prince Anpyeong (안평대군 이용) (19 September 1418 – 18 October 1453), third son
    6. Yi Gu, Grand Prince Imyeong (임영대군 이구) (6 January 1420 – 21 January 1469), fourth son
    7. Yi Yeo, Grand Prince Gwangpyeong (광평대군 이여) (2 May 1425 – 7 December 1444), fifth son
    8. Yi Yu, Grand Prince Geumseong (금성대군 이유) (28 March 1426 – 21 October 1457), seventh son
    9. Yi Im, Grand Prince Pyeongwon (평원대군 이임) (18 November 1427 – 16 January 1445), ninth son[54]
    10. Yi Yeom, Grand Prince Yeongeung (영응대군 이염) (15 April 1434 – 2 February 1467), fifteenth son[55][56]
  2. Royal Noble Consort Shin of the Cheongju Gim clan (신빈 김씨) (1406 – 4 September 1464)[57][58]
    1. Fourth daughter (? – 1426)
    2. Yi Jeung, Prince Gyeyang (계양군 이증) (12 August 1427 – 16 August 1464), eighth son[59]
    3. Yi Gong, Prince Uichang (의창군 이공) (1428 – 27 February 1460), tenth son
    4. Fifth daughter (? – 1429)
    5. Yi Chim, Prince Milseong (밀성군 이침) (1430 – 1 January 1479), twelfth son
    6. Yi Yeon, Prince Ikhyeon (익현군 이연) (1431 – 4 May 1463), fourteenth son
    7. Yi Jang, Prince Yeonghae (영해군 이장) (20 March 1435 – 5 May 1477), seventeenth son
    8. Yi Geo, Prince Damyang (담양군 이거) (8 January 1439 – 10 March 1450), eighteenth son
  3. Royal Noble Consort Hye of the Cheongju Yang clan (혜빈 양씨) (? – 9 November 1455)[60][61]
    1. Yi Eo, Prince Hannam (한남군 이어) (8 September 1429 – 29 May 1459), eleventh son
    2. Yi Hyeon, Prince Suchun (수춘군 이현) (13 July 1431 – 5 June 1455), thirteenth son
    3. Yi Jeon, Prince Yeongpung (영풍군 이전) (17 August 1434 – 20 June 1456), sixteenth son
  4. Royal Noble Consort Yeong of the Jinju Gang clan (영빈 강씨) (? – 20 January 1483)[62]
    1. Yi Yeong, Prince Hwaui (화의군 이영) (5 September 1425 – ?), sixth son[63]
  5. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Miryang Park clan (귀인 박씨)[64]
  6. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Jeonju Choe clan (귀인 최씨)[65]
  7. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Jo clan (숙의 조씨)
  8. Royal Consort So-yong of the Hong clan (숙용 홍씨) (? – 4 February 1452)
  9. Royal Consort Sug-won of the Yi clan (숙원 이씨)[66]
    1. Princess Jeongan (정안옹주) (1441 – 16 October 1461), seventh daughter[67]
  10. Court Lady Song (상침 송씨) (1396 – 21 August 1463)[68]
    1. Princess Jeonghyeon (정현옹주) (1425 – 6 November 1480), third daughter[69]
  11. Court Lady Cha (사기 차씨) (? – 1444)[70]
    1. Sixth daughter (1430 – 1431)

Issue by unknown mother(s):

  1. Yi Dang (이당) (1442 – ?), nineteenth son

Ancestry edit

Legacy edit

Statue and museum exhibit edit

In 2009, a 9.5-meter-high (31 ft) bronze statue of King Sejong was placed on a concrete pedestal on the boulevard of Gwanghwamun Square and directly in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts in Seoul.[71] The sculptor was Kim Young-won.[72] The pedestal contains one of the several entrances to the 3,200 m2 underground museum exhibit entitled "The Story of King Sejong".[73][74] It was unveiled on Hangul Day in celebration of the 563rd anniversary of the invention of the Korean alphabet.[75]

Namesakes edit

Sejong Street (Sejongno; 세종로, 世宗路) and the Sejong Centre for the Performing Arts, both located in central Seoul, are named after King Sejong.[76]

In early 2007, the government of the Republic of Korea decided to create a special administrative district from a part of the South Chungcheong Province, near what is presently Daejeon. The district was named "Sejong Special Autonomous City".

The King Sejong Station, a research station for the Korea Antarctic Research Program, is named after King Sejong.

The King Sejong Institute, a South Korean gubermental organization that promotes Korean language education internationally, is named for King Sejong.[77]

Portrait in Korean currency edit

 
King Sejong the Great, as depicted on the Bank of Korea's 10,000 won banknote (Series VI).

A portrait of Sejong is featured on the 10,000 won banknote of the South Korean won, along with various scientific tools invented under his reign.

In popular culture edit

Television series and films edit

His life was depicted in the KBS historical drama The Great King, Sejong in 2008.[78]

Television series
Year Portrayed by Title
1983 Han In-soo [ko] 500 Years of Joseon Dynasty: Tree with Deep Roots
1998–2000 Song Jae-ho The King and the Queen
2008 Lee Hyun-woo The Great King, Sejong
Kim Sang-kyung
2011 Kang San [ko] Deep Rooted Tree
Song Joong-ki
Han Suk-kyu
Jeon Moo-song Insu, the Queen Mother
2015 Yoon Doo-joon Splash Splash Love
2016 Nam Da-reum Six Flying Dragons
Kim Sang-kyung Jang Yeong-sil
2021 Jang Dong-yoon Joseon Exorcist
2022 Kim Min-gi The King of Tears, Lee Bang-won
Films
Year Portrayed by Title
2008 Ahn Sung-ki The Divine Weapon
2012 Ju Ji-hoon I Am the King
2019 Song Kang-ho The King's Letters
Han Suk-kyu Forbidden Dream

Video games edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Kim-Renaud, Young-Key (1997). The Korean Alphabet: Its History and Structure. University of Hawaii Press. p. 15. ISBN 9780824817237.
  2. ^ a b "알고 싶은 한글" [The Korean language I want to know]. National Institute of Korean Language (in Korean). Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  3. ^ "조선왕조실록 – 강무를 세자에게 위임하도록 하는 논의를 하다" [Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty – Discussing the delegation to the Crown Prince of the prerogative to conduct the hunting ritual]. sillok.history.go.kr (in Korean). Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  4. ^ Szczepanski, Kallie (15 May 2019). "Biography of King Sejong the Great of Korea, Scholar and Leader". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  5. ^ "King Sejong the Great commemorated on his birthday". Korea.net. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  6. ^ Ackermann, Marsha; Schroeder, Michael; Terry, Janice; Lo Upshur, Jiu-Hwa; Whitter, Mark (6 January 2008). Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. II. Infobase Publishing. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4.
  7. ^ "King Sejong the Great And The Golden Age of Korea". Asia Society. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  8. ^ Pratt, Keith (15 August 2007). Everlasting Flower: A History of Korea. Reaktion Books. p. 125. ISBN 978-1861893352.
  9. ^ "South Korea – The Choson Dynasty". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  10. ^ "Hangul | Alphabet Chart & Pronunciation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  11. ^ Baker, Don (6 December 2006). "Islam Struggles for a Toehold in Korea". Harvard Asia Quarterly. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  12. ^ "Korean Coins". Primal Trek. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
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  21. ^ Selin, Helaine (11 November 2013). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 505–506. ISBN 9789401714167.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Kim (1998), 57.
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  24. ^ Strangeways, Ian (2010). "A History of Rain Gauges". Weather. 65 (5): 133–138. Bibcode:2010Wthr...65..133S. doi:10.1002/wea.548.
  25. ^ Kim (1998), 51.
  26. ^ Lee, Bae-yong (20 October 2008). Women in Korean History. Ewha Womans University Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-8973007721.
  27. ^ Oh, Gi-su (2011). "세종대왕의 조세사상과 공법 연구 : 조세법 측면에서" [The Study of Gongbeop of King Sejong the Great and Thoughts on Taxation: From the Perspective of Tax Law]. Korean Journal of Taxation Research (in Korean). 28 (1): 369–405. ISSN 1225-1399 – via National Assembly Library.
  28. ^ "한국 전통과학의 전성기, 세종 시대" [The heyday of Korean traditional science, the Sejong era]. science.ytn.co.kr (in Korean). 31 January 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  29. ^ "'어쩌다 어른' 설민석, '경청의 1인자 세종대왕'…역사가 이렇게 재미있을 줄이야!" [Seol Min-seok of 'No Way I'm an Adult', 'King Sejong the Great, the No. 1 listener'…I never thought history could be this interesting!]. Aju Business Daily (in Korean). 10 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  30. ^ "편경 編磬 Pyeongyeong LITHOPHON – Korea Music". michaelcga.artstation.com. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  31. ^ "King Sejo and Music". KBS World. 17 July 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  32. ^ Kim, Jeong-su (1 October 1990). 한글의 역사와 미래 [The history and future of Hangul] (in Korean). Yeolhwadang. ISBN 9788930107235.
  33. ^ "Want to know about Hangeul?". National Institute of Korean Language. December 2003. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  34. ^ Hannas, William C. (1 June 1997). Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780824818920.
  35. ^ Chen, Jiangping (18 January 2016). Multilingual Access and Services for Digital Collections. Libraries Unlimited. p. 66. ISBN 9781440839559.
  36. ^ "Invest Korea Journal". 23. Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency. 1 January 2005. They later devised three different systems for writing Korean with Chinese characters: Hyangchal, Gukyeol and Idu. These systems were similar to those developed later in Japan and were probably used as models by the Japanese. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  37. ^ "Korea Now". Korea Herald (13–26 ed.). 29. 2000.
  38. ^ Hunminjeongeum Haerye, postface of Jeong In-ji, p. 27a; translation from Gari Ledyard, The Korean Language Reform of 1446, p. 258
  39. ^ Koerner, E. F. K.; Asher, R. E. (28 June 2014). Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9781483297545.
  40. ^ Fifty Wonders of Korea Volume 1: Culture and Art (2nd ed.). Korean Spirit & Culture Promotion Project. 2009. pp. 28–35.
  41. ^ Griffis, Ben (18 January 2021). "Sejong the Great". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  42. ^ Bernstein, Brian; Kamp, Harper; Kim, Janghan; Seol, Seungeun. "The Design and Use of the Hangul Alphabet in Korea" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  43. ^ "Want to know about Hangeul?". National Institute of Korean Language. December 2003. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  44. ^ King, Ross (2004). "Western Protestant Missionaries and the Origins of Korean Language Modernization". Journal of International and Area Studies. 11 (3): 7–38. JSTOR 43107101.
  45. ^ Blakemore, Erin (28 February 2018). "How Japan Took Control of Korea". History. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  46. ^ Haboush, Jahyun Kim (2003). "Dead Bodies in the Postwar Discourse of Identity in Seventeenth-Century Korea: Subversion and Literary Production in the Private Sector". The Journal of Asian Studies. 62 (2): 415–442. doi:10.2307/3096244. JSTOR 3096244. S2CID 154705238.
  47. ^ Lee, Gisu (11 October 2009). "세종대왕도 당뇨 망막증으로 실명?… 장기간 앓게되면 대부분 위험" [Is King Sejong also blind due to diabetic retinopathy? Most risks of prolonged illness]. 국민일보(KUKMINILBO) (in Korean). Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  48. ^ Nam, Min (29 April 2013). "[테마있는 명소] 단종① 영월 청령포ㆍ관풍헌--550년 전 단종 그 '슬픈인연' 속으로" [[Theme Attractions] Danjong ① Yeongwol Cheongnyeongpo and Gwanpungheon - Danjong 550 years ago into the "Sad Love"]. 헤럴드경제(Herald Corporation) (in Korean). Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  49. ^ a b Jo, Munho (10 June 2006). "역사속의 오늘-단종 폐위, 세조 즉위" [Today in History - Abolition of Danjong, King Sejo's enthronement]. 매일신문(MAEIL) (in Korean). Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  50. ^ Park, Jong-In (13 December 2022). "단종 복위 운동 벌어진 죽계천에는 핏물이 흘렀다[박종인의 땅의 歷史]" [Blood flowed through Jukgyecheon, where the Danjong Restoration Movement took place]. The Chosun Ilbo(Chosunilbo) (in Korean). Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  51. ^ Daughter of Shim On, Internal Prince Cheongcheon & Duke Anhyo (청천부원군 안효공 심온) (1375 – 25 December 1418); and Lady Ahn of the Sunheung Ahn clan (순흥 안씨). Granddaughter of Shim Deok-bu (심덕부) (1328 – 1401).
  52. ^ Her paternal uncle, Shim Jong (심종, 沈悰), was the husband of Princess Gyeongseon (the youngest daughter of King Taejo and Queen Sinui).
  53. ^ Married Ahn Maeng-dam (안맹담), Prince Consort Yeonchang (연창위) (? – 1469); son of Ahn Mang-ji (안망지). Their 2 daughters eventually married the sons of Jeong In-ji and Han Hwak.
  54. ^ Married Lady Hong of the Namyang Hong clan (남양 홍씨, 南陽洪氏) (? – 1483), also known as Grand Princess Consort Gangnyeong (강녕부부인, 江寧府夫人), a maternal first cousin of Queen Sohye (popularly known as Queen Insu).
  55. ^ Married Lady Jeong of the Haeju Jeong clan (해주 정씨, 海州 鄭氏), also known as Grand Princess Consort Chunseong (춘성부부인, 春城府夫人). She was the older sister of Jeong Jong (정종, 鄭悰), Princess Gyeonghye's husband.
  56. ^ Remmaried to Lady Song of the Yeosan Song clan (여산 송씨, 礪山宋氏), also known as Grand Princess Consort Daebang (대방부부인, 帶方府夫人). She was the paternal aunt of Queen Jeongsun.
  57. ^ Daughter of Gim Won (김원).
  58. ^ Originally a slave of Naejasa Temple (내자사; 內資寺); she entered the palace as lady-in-waiting in 1418, serving under Queen Wongyeong, and later under Queen Soheon.
  59. ^ Married Lady Han of the Cheongju Han clan, also known as Princess Consort Jeongseon (정선군부인 한씨). She was Han Hwak's first daughter, making her the eldest sister of the future Queen Sohye (widely known as Queen Insu).
  60. ^ Daughter of Yang Gyeong (양경); and Lady Yi (이씨). Granddaughter of Yang Cheom-sik (양첨식) and great-granddaughter of Yang Ji-su (양지수).
  61. ^ Given the posthumous name 'Minjeong' (민정) in 1791.
  62. ^ Daughter of Gang Seok-deok (강석덕); and Lady Shim of the Cheongseong Shim clan (Shim On's second daughter and Queen Soheon's younger sister), making her Queen Soheon's niece.
  63. ^ Died after 1489.
  64. ^ Also known as 'Royal Princess Jangui' (장의궁주). The title was granted in 1424.
  65. ^ Also known as 'Royal Princess Myeongui' (명의궁주). The title was granted in 1424.
  66. ^ Died after 1490.
  67. ^ Married Shim An-ui (심안의); created Prince Consort Cheongseong (청성위).
  68. ^ Lady-in-waiting of the fifth senior rank (상침; 尙寢; sangchim). After the Grand Code for State Administration was promulgated in the late 15th century, Sangchim was downgraded from fifth senior rank (정5품) to sixth senior rank (정6품).
  69. ^ Married Yun Sa-ro (윤사로), Internal Prince Yeongcheon (영천부원군) (1423 – 1463); son of Yun Eun (윤은). Their eldest son eventually married an older sister of Queen Gonghye.
  70. ^ Lady-in-waiting of the sixth senior rank (사기; 司記; sagi). Sagi was later renamed sanggi (상기; 尙記), and downgraded from sixth senior rank (정6품) to sixth junior rank (종6품).
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  76. ^ "Tour Guide". Tourguide.vo.kr. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  77. ^ Dong-woo, Chang (18 December 2017). "(Yonhap Interview) King Sejong Institute seeks more overseas branches". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  78. ^ "The Great King Sejong". KBS (in Korean). Retrieved 26 March 2023.

Notes edit

  1. ^ At the time, the residence was also called the Eastern Detached Palace (동별궁; 東別宮; Dongbyeolgung); today, it is known as the Andong Detached Palace (안동별궁; 安洞別宮; Andongbyeolgung).
  2. ^ Unless otherwise noted, all dates in this article are given in the lunar calendar.
  3. ^ Born on 15 May 1397 and died on 30 March 1450 according to the solar calendar.
  4. ^ 500 years later, the 39th head of the Sō clan, Count Sō Takeyuki, married Princess Deokhye, youngest daughter of Emperor Gojong and half-sister of Sunjong, the last Emperor of Korea.

Further reading edit

  • Kim, Yung Sik (1998). "Problems and Possibilities in the Study of the History of Korean Science". Osiris. 13 (2): 48–79.
  • Kim-Renaud, Young-Key (1 May 1997). King Sejong the Great: the Light of Fifteenth Century Korea (Revised ed.). International Circle of Korean Linguistics. ISBN 978-1882177011.
  • Kim-Renaud, Young-Key (2000). "Sejong's theory of literacy and writing". Studies in the Linguistic Sciences. 30 (1): 13–46.
  • Rutt, Richard (1 January 1982). James Scarth Gale and his History of the Korean People. Seoul Computer Press.

External links edit

Sejong the Great
Born: 10 April 1397 Died: 17 February 1450
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Joseon
10 August 1418 – 17 February 1450
Succeeded by