Grand Prince Yangnyeong

Grand Prince Yangnyeong (Hangul: 양녕대군, Hanja: 讓寧大君, 1394–1462) was a former Crown Prince of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the first son and fourth child of King Taejong and his wife, Queen Wongyeong. Yangnyeong was the elder brother of Sejong the Great, and an ancestor of Syngman Rhee, an independence activist and the first President of South Korea.

Yi Je
이제
Crown Prince of Joseon
Tenure1403 – 1417[1]
PredecessorCrown Prince Yi Bang-won
SuccessorCrown Prince Yi Do
Born1394
Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
DiedSeptember 7, 1462(1462-09-07) (aged 67–68)
Burial
WifePrincess Consort Suseong of the Gwangsan Kim clan
ClanJeonju Yi clan
DynastyHouse of Yi
FatherTaejong of Joseon
MotherQueen Wongyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan
ReligionNeo-confucianism
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationYangnyeong Daegun
McCune–ReischauerYangnyŏng Taegun
Birth name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationYi Je
McCune–ReischauerYi Che
Courtesy name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationHubaek
McCune–ReischauerHupaek
Posthumous name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationGangjeong
McCune–ReischauerKangjŏng

BiographyEdit

He was born as Yi Je (Hangul: 이제, Hanja: 李禔) in 1394. Originally his father appointed him as the Crown Prince but he eventually executed Queen Wongyeong's brothers and in the 18th year of his reign replaced prince Yangnyeong with his third son prince Chungnyeong as his successor.[2] Known for his literature and calligraphy skills, the former Crown Prince viewed himself as lacking in the requisite skills for kingship and believed that Sejong was destined to become king.

Considering it his duty to make Sejong king, he purposely acted extremely rude in court. On May 1415, he caused a scandal when he had an affair with Chogungjang, the kisaeng of his uncle and former king, Jeongjong. Yangnyeong was unaware that Chogungjang was his uncle's woman.[3] On 15 February 1417, Yangnyeong secretly brought in Eori, the concubine of Gwak Seon, into the palace. She later became pregnant with the crown prince's child. Due to Yangnyeong's behavior, King Taejong dethroned Crown Prince Yangnyeong from the role of the crown prince on 3 June 1418.[4] Grand Prince Hyoryeong, Yangnyeong's second brother, had similar feelings about Chungyeong being king, and so he became a monk in a Buddhist temple. It is possible that King Taejong’s willingness to execute troublesome family members helped to encourage his first two sons to step aside, allowing King Taejong's third and favorite son to become King Sejong. This plot ultimately brought Sejong to the throne. Later, Yangnyeong became a wandering traveler and lived in the mountains.[5]

After Sejong had taken the throne, the relationship between the brothers was strong, and Sejong often invited Yangnyeong to the palace.

Yangnyeong lived as a wanderer and died in 1462, almost living for 68 years.[6]

The tomb of Prince Yangneong was reopened in 2018 to the public after 18 years of closure.[7]

FamilyEdit

  1. Princess Consort Suseong of the Gwangsan Kim clan (수성군부인 김씨)[8][9][10]
    1. Princess Jaeryeong (재령군주) or Princess Jeonui (전의현주) (1409 - 1444)[11]
    2. Yi Gae, Prince Sunseong (이개 순성군) (? - 2 September 1462)[12][13]
    3. Princess Yangcheon (영천군주) (1412 - 5 April 1442)[14]
    4. Yi Po, Prince Hamyang (이포 함양군) (1417 - 21 June 1475)[15]
    5. Yi Hye, Prince Seosan (이혜 서산군) (? - 10 April 1451)[16]
    6. Princess Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (현주 이씨)[17]
    7. Princess Yeongpyeong (영평현주)[18]
    8. Princess Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (현주 이씨)[19]
  2. Kisaeng Bong Ji-ryeon (기생 봉지련)[20]
  3. Unknown concubine
    1. Yi Gyeom (이겸)
    2. Yi Heun (이흔)[21]
    3. Yi Seong (이성)
    4. Yi Sun (이순)
    5. Yi Sim (이심)
    6. Yi Gwang-seok (이광석)
    7. Yi Gwang-geun (이광근)
  4. Kisaeng Eori (기생 어리)
    1. Princess Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (현주 이씨)[22]
  5. Kisaeng Chogungjang (초궁장)[23][24]
  6. Kisaeng Jeonghyang (기생 정향)
  7. Kisaeng Chil Jeom-saeng (기생 칠점생)
  8. Unknown concubine
    1. Lady Yi[25]
    2. Lady Yi[26]
    3. Lady Yi[27]
    4. Lady Yi[28]
    5. Lady Yi[29][30][31]
  9. Unknown slave
    1. Lady Yi[32][33]
    2. Princess Yi Gu-ji (현주 이구지)[34][35]
  10. Unknown concubine
    1. Lady Yi[36]
    2. Lady Yi[37]
    3. Lady Yi[38]
    4. Princess Yi Geon-yi (현주 이건이)

Popular cultureEdit

TriviaEdit

Today, his descendants form one of the biggest branches of the House of Yi. In addition, it is believed that the plaque on the Namdaemun Gate was personally written by him.[39]

He was an ancestor of Syngman Rhee, an independence activist and the first South Korean president.

 
Korean Imperial family. This circa 1915 image is a compilation of individual photographs taken since the Japanese did not allow them to all be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea. It shows the following royal family members, from left: Yi Kang, the sixth son of Gojong; Sunjong, the second son and the last monarch of the Korean Empire; Yi Un, the seventh son; Gojong, the former King; Empress Sunjeong, queen consort of Sunjong; Deogindang Gimbi, wife of Prince Ui; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Prince Ui. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye, Gojong's last child.
 
Syngman Rhee in 1905 dressed to meet Theodore Roosevelt

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ In lunar calendar, 6 August 1404 - 3 June 1418
  2. ^ Yi, Pae-Yong (2008). Women in Korean History 한국 역사 속의 여성들. ISBN 9788973007721.
  3. ^ "[이기환의 흔적의 역사] 태종이 밝힌 양녕대군 폐세자 이유, "대체 너 땜에 몇명이 죽었냐"". Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). 13 June 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  4. ^ Park, Hong-Kyu (December 22, 2006). "King Taejong as a statesman: From power to authority". Korea Journal. 46 (4). Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  5. ^ Naver Encyclopedia, "양녕대군 [讓寧大君, 1394~1462]", Naver"
  6. ^ Naver Encyclopedia, "양녕대군 [讓寧大君, 1394~1462]", Naver"
  7. ^ "Tomb of Grand Prince Yangnyeong to reopen to public in 18 years". www.donga.com. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  8. ^ Was firstly given the title of Crown Princess Consort Suk (숙빈, 淑嬪) when she married. When her husband was deposed, she given the title of Grand Lady Samhanguk (국대부인, 三韓國大夫人). In the 14th year of reign of Sejong, the king changed her given title to Princess Consort Suseong (수성부부인 광산 김씨, 隨城府夫人 光山 金氏)
  9. ^ Was Crown Princess of Joseon from 1407 to 1418
  10. ^ Eldest daughter of Kim Han-ro (김한로, 金漢老) (1358 - ?) and Lady Jeon (전씨)
  11. ^ Married Yi Ja (이자, 李孜) and had a son, Yi Jeung-seok (이증석, 李曾碩) (1427 - ?). His grandson, Yi Bo (이보, 李人+甫)’s daughter married Yun Won-Gae (윤원개, 尹元凱) (the older brother of Queen Munjeong)
  12. ^ Married Lady Shin (신씨, 申氏) (? - 27 November 1453) and had no issue.
  13. ^ With a concubine from Yangmin, he had a son Yi Sa-jong (이사종, 李嗣宗)
  14. ^ Married Yi Ja (지돈녕 이자)
  15. ^ Married Princess Consort Taein of the Yi clan (태인군부인 이씨, 泰仁郡夫人 李氏)
  16. ^ Married Princess Consort Yangcheon of the Ansan Kim clan (양천군부인 안산 김씨, 陽川郡夫人 安山 金氏) (? - 5 June 1464), and had 2 sons: Yi Shin, Prince Hakrim (학림군 이신, 鶴林君 李頤) and Yi Bin, Prince Chwiseong (취성군 이빈, 鷲城君 李頻)
  17. ^ Married Yi Beon (이번, 李蕃)
  18. ^ Married Kim Cheol-gyun (김철균, 金哲勻)
  19. ^ Married Park Su-jong (박수종)
  20. ^ She was a courtesan who fell in love with Grand Prince Yangnyeong 4 years after his marriage.
  21. ^ Became the 15 great-grandfather of Rhee Seung-man
  22. ^ Married Yi Jong-gyeong (이종경, 李宗慶)
  23. ^ Lady Chogungjang was also the lover of King Jeongjong, the uncle of Grand Prince Yangnyeong
  24. ^ A kisaeng from Hwangju who comforted Jeongjong after his abdication, and was involved in the eventual stripping of Prince Yangnyeong's title as "Crown Prince" [Taejong Sillok].
  25. ^ Married Kim Am (김암, 金巖)
  26. ^ Married Kim Seung-gan (김승간, 金承幹)
  27. ^ Married Kim Oh (김오, 金澳)
  28. ^ Married Kim Won (김원, 金瑗)
  29. ^ Was the first wife of Han Chi-yeong (한치형, 韓致亨) (1434 - 30 October 1502)
  30. ^ Han later became Chief State Councilor (영의정, in April 11, 1500) & the Internal Prince Cheongseong (청성부원군)
  31. ^ Han is the nephew of Han Hwak and a cousin of Queen Insu
  32. ^ Married Gwon Chi-jung (권치중, 權致中)
  33. ^ Their granddaughter, Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Gwon clan (숙의 권씨), became a concubine for King Yeonsangun
  34. ^ Married Gwon Deok-yeong (권덕영, 權德榮) and had 2 sons
  35. ^ With a slave, she had a daughter
  36. ^ Married Yu Seok-beon (유석번, 兪碩蕃)
  37. ^ Married Kim Ui (김의, 金儀)
  38. ^ Married Im Jung (임중, 林重)
  39. ^ Naver Encyclopedia, "양녕대군 [讓寧大君, 1394~1462]", Naver"

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit