Taejong of Joseon

Taejong of Joseon (13 June 1367 – 8 June 1422), personal name Yi Bang-won (Korean: 이방원; Hanja: 李芳遠), was the third ruler of the Joseon dynasty of Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great.[1] Before ascending to the throne, he was known as Prince Jeongan (Korean: 정안군; Hanja: 靖安君).

Taejong of Joseon
조선 태종
King Emeritus of Joseon
Tenure19 September 1418 – 8 June 1422
PredecessorJeongjong of Joseon
SuccessorDanjong of Joseon
King of Joseon
Reign7 December 1400 – 19 September 1418
CoronationSuchang Palace, Gaegyeong, Kingdom of Joseon
PredecessorJeongjong of Joseon
SuccessorSejong of Joseon
Regent of Joseon
Tenure1398 – 1400
MonarchJeongjong of Joseon
Tenure19 September 1418 – 8 June 1422
MonarchSejong of Joseon
Crown Prince of Joseon
Tenure8 March 1400 – 7 December 1400
PredecessorCrown Prince Yi Bang-gwa
SuccessorCrown Prince Yi Je
BornYi Bang-won (이방원, 李芳遠)
13 June 1367
Yi Seong-gye's private residence, Gwiju-dong, Hamheung, Kingdom of Goryeo
Died8 June 1422(1422-06-08) (aged 54)
Byeoljeon Hall, Sugang Palace, Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
(m. 1382; died 1420)
IssueSejong of Joseon
Posthumous name
  • Joseon dynasty: King Munmu Yecheol Seongnyeol Gwanghyo the Great
    • 문무예철성렬광효대왕
    • 文武睿哲成烈光孝大王
  • Ming dynasty: Gongjeong (공정, 恭定)
Temple name
Taejong (태종, 太宗)
ClanJeonju Yi clan
DynastyHouse of Yi
FatherTaejo of Joseon
MotherQueen Sinui
ReligionKorean BuddhismKorean Confucianism (Neo-Confucianism)
Korean name
Revised RomanizationTaejong
Birth name
Revised RomanizationI Bangwon
McCune–ReischauerYi Pangwŏn
Courtesy name
Revised RomanizationYudeok


Founding of JoseonEdit

Born in 1367 as the fifth son of King Taejo and Queen Sinui, he was qualified as an official of the Goryeo dynasty in 1382. During his early days, he helped his father in earning the support of the citizens and of many influential figures in the government.[2] Yi Bang-won helped his father in the founding of the new dynasty by assassinating powerful officials such as Jeong Mong-ju, who remained loyal to Goryeo. He was called Prince Jeongan during the reign of King Taejo and was taught by Confucian scholars including Won Cheon-seok.[3][4][5]

Strifes of princesEdit

After helping in the overthrowing the previous dynasty and the establishment Joseon, he expected to be appointed as the successor to the throne. However, his father and Chief State Councillor Jeong Do-jeon favored Taejo's eighth son and Yi Bang-won's half-brother (second son of Queen Sindeok), Yi Bang-seok, as the crown prince. This conflict arose chiefly because Jeong Do-jeon, as the principal architect of the ideological, institutional and legal foundations of the new dynasty, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by its ministers through appointment by the king. In contrast, Yi Bang-won sought direct rule through an absolute monarchy. These differences ultimately contributed to an environment of deep political tension. Following the sudden death of Queen Sindeok in 1398, Yi Bang-won led a coup d'état while King Taejo was in mourning for his second wife. This event led to the deaths of Jeong Do-jeon and his supporters, as well as the late Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince. The incident became known as the "First Strife of Princes".

Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, and psychologically exhausted from the death of his second wife, King Taejo abdicated and immediately crowned his second son (the oldest-surviving son) Yi Bang-gwa, or King Jeongjong, as the new ruler. One of King Jeongjong's first acts as monarch was to revert the capital to Gaegyeong (modern-day Kaesong), where he is believed to have been considerably more comfortable. Yet Yi Bang-won retained real power and was soon in conflict with his disgruntled older brother Yi Bang-gan, Prince Hoean (회안군 이방간), who also yearned for power. In 1400, General Park Bo, who was disappointed that Yi Bang-won did not reward him enough for his actions in the First Strife of Princes, allied with Yi Bang-gan and rebelled in what came to be known as the "Second Strife of Princes". Yi Bang-won successfully defeated his brother's forces, then executed Park Bo and sent Yi Bang-gan into exile. King Jeongjong, who was afraid of his powerful brother, named Yi Bang-won as crown prince and abdicated in the same year. Yi Bang-won assumed the throne of Joseon at long last as King Taejong, the third monarch of the Joseon dynasty.[6]

Consolidation of royal powerEdit

In the beginning of Taejong's reign, his father Taejo refused to relinquish the royal seal that signified the legitimacy of any king's rule. Taejong began to initiate policies he believed would prove his qualification to rule. One of his first acts as king was to abolish the privilege enjoyed by the upper echelons of government and the aristocracy to maintain private armies. His revoking of such rights to field independent forces effectively severed their ability to muster large-scale revolts, and drastically increased the number of men employed in the national military. Taejong's next act as king was to revise the existing legislation concerning the taxation of land ownership and the recording of state of subjects. With the discovery of previously hidden land, national income increased twofold.[7]

He also initiated the system of hopae, an early form of identification recording the bearer's name and residence, used to control the movement of people.[8] He also set a big drum in front of the palace, so the common people, when they had some problems, could come and consult the king.[citation needed]

Movable typeEdit

Taejong is remembered for ordering 100,000 pieces of metal type and two complete fonts in 1403. Predating Gutenberg and Laurens Janszoon by several decades, he accomplished the metal movable type.[9][10][11][12]

Absolute monarchyEdit

In addition, he created a strong central government and an absolute monarchy. In 1399, Taejong had played an influential role in scrapping the Dopyeong Assembly, a council of the old government administration that held a monopoly in court power during the waning years of the Goryeo dynasty, in favor of the State Council of Joseon, a new branch of central administration that revolved around the king and his edicts. After passing the subject documentation and taxation legislation, King Taejong issued a new decree in which all decisions passed by the State Council could only come into effect with the approval of the king. This ended the custom of court ministers and advisors making decisions through debate and negotiations amongst themselves, and thus brought the royal power to new heights. Shortly thereafter, Taejong installed an office, known as the Sinmun Office, to hear cases in which aggrieved subjects felt that they had been exploited or treated unjustly by government officials or aristocrats.

However, Taejong kept Jeong Do-jeon's reforms intact for the most part. He promoted Confucianism, which was more like a political philosophy rather than a religion, thus demoting Buddhism, which was far from daily living and decayed from the power given by Goryeo. He closed many temples that were established by Goryeo kings, and seized their large possessions and added them to the national treasury. Meanwhile, he honored Jeong Mong-ju with the posthumous title of Chief State Councillor (equivalent to Prime Minister), even though it was he who assassinated Jeong — leading to an irony of history, in which Jeong Do-jeon was vilified throughout the Joseon dynasty while Jeong Mong-ju was honored despite his opposition to its foundation.[citation needed]

In foreign policy, he was a straight hardliner — he attacked the Jurchens on the northern border and Japanese pirates on the southern coast. Taejong is also known for being responsible for the Ōei Invasion of Tsushima Island in 1419.

He promoted publications, commerce and education, and also gave full independence and encouraged the Uigeumbu (roughly equivalent to the Supreme Court).

In 1418, Taejong abdicated and gave the throne to his third legitimate son Yi Do (Sejong the Great), but continued to rule with an iron fist and deciding important matters. He executed or exiled some of the supporters who helped him ascend to the throne and later expected favors, in order to strengthen the royal authority and subdue corruption. In order to limit the influence of in-laws and powerful clans, he executed Sejong's father-in-law Shim On and his younger brother Shim Jeong, as well as all four brothers of his wife Queen Wongyeong, after he discovered they and the queen had been manipulating politics.

Taejong remains a controversial figure who killed many of his rivals (including Jeong Mong-ju and Jeong Do-jeon) and yet ruled effectively to improve the populace's lives, strengthen national defense, and lay down a solid foundation for his successor Sejong's rule.[13]


Consorts and their respective issue(s):[18]

  1. Queen Wongyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan (원경왕후 민씨) (11 July 1365 – 10 July 1420)[19]
    1. Princess Jeongsun (정순공주) (1385 – 25 August 1460), first daughter[20][21]
    2. Princess Gyeongjeong (경정공주) (1387 – 6 June 1455), second daughter[20][22][23]
    3. First son[24]
    4. Second son[24]
    5. Third son[24]
    6. Princess Gyeongan (경안공주) (1393 – 30 May 1415), third daughter[20][25][26]
    7. Yi Je, Grand Prince Yangnyeong (양녕대군 이제) (1394 – 7 September 1462), first (fourth) son
    8. Yi Bo, Grand Prince Hyoryeong (효령대군 이보) (6 January 1396 – 12 June 1486), second (fifth) son
    9. Yi Do, Grand Prince Chungnyeong (충녕대군 이도) (15 May 1397 – 8 April 1450), third (sixth) son
    10. Princess Jeongseon (정선공주) (1404 – 25 February 1424), fifth daughter[20][27]
    11. Yi Jong, Grand Prince Seongnyeong (성녕대군 이종) (3 August 1405 – 11 April 1418), sixth (eleventh) son[28][29][30]
    12. Eleventh (sixteenth) son (1412 – 1412)
  2. Royal Noble Consort Myeong of the (old) Andong Gim clan (명빈 김씨) (? – 1479)[31][32]
  3. Royal Noble Consort Ui of the Andong Gwon clan (의빈 권씨)[33][34][35]
    1. Princess Jeonghye (정혜옹주) (? – 1424), sixth daughter[36]
  4. Royal Noble Consort Hyo of the Cheongpung Gim clan (효빈 김씨) (? – 1454)[37][38]
    1. Yi Bi, Prince Gyeongnyeong (경녕군 이비) (13 December 1402 – 9 September 1458), fourth (eighth) son
  5. Royal Noble Consort Shin of the Yeongwol Shin clan (신빈 신씨) (? – 1435)[39][40][41]
    1. Yi In, Prince Hamnyeong (함녕군 이인) (1402 – 1467), fifth (ninth) son[42]
    2. Yi Jeong, Prince Onnyeong (온녕군 이정) (1407 – 1453), seventh (twelfth) son
    3. Princess Jeongshin (정신옹주) (? – 26 September 1452), seventh daughter[43]
    4. Princess Jeongjeong (정정옹주) (1410 – 1456), eighth daughter[44]
    5. Princess Sukjeong (숙정옹주) (? – 1456), ninth daughter[45]
    6. Princess Suknyeong (숙녕옹주), eleventh (twelfth) daughter[46]
    7. Princess Soshin (소신옹주) (? – 1437), twelfth (thirteenth) daughter[47]
    8. Princess Sosuk (소숙옹주) (? – 1456), fourteenth (fifteenth) daughter[48]
    9. Princess Sukgyeong (숙경옹주) (1420 – 1494), seventeenth (eighteenth) daughter[49]
  6. Royal Noble Consort Seon of the Sunheung Ahn clan (선빈 안씨) (? – 1468)[50][51]
    1. Yi Jeong, Prince Hyenyeong (혜령군 이정) (1407 – 1440), eighth (thirteenth) son
    2. Yi Chi, Prince Iknyeong (익녕군 이치) (1422 – 1464), thirteenth (eighteenth) son
    3. Princess Gyeongshin (경신옹주), thirteenth (fourteenth) daughter[52]
    4. Princess Sukan (숙안옹주) (? – 1464), fifteenth (sixteenth) daughter[53]
  7. Royal Noble Consort So of the Jangyeon No clan (소빈 노씨) (? – 1479)[54][55]
    1. Princess Sukhye (숙혜옹주) (1413 – 1464), tenth (eleventh) daughter[56]
  8. Royal Noble Consort Jeong of the Go clan (정빈 고씨) (? – 1426)[57]
    1. Yi Nong, Prince Geunnyeong (근녕군 이농) (1411 – 1462), ninth (fourteenth) son[58][59]
  9. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Choe clan (숙의 최씨)
    1. Fourth daughter (1400 – 1402)
    2. Yi Ta, Prince Huinyeong (희령군 이타) (1412 – 7 July 1465), tenth (fifteenth) son
  10. Royal Lady Suggong of the Cheongdo Gim clan (숙공궁주 김씨)[60][61][62]
  11. Royal Lady Uijeong of the Hanyang Jo clan (의정궁주 조씨) (? – 1454)[63]
  12. Royal Lady Hyesun of the Goseong Yi clan (혜순궁주 이씨) (? – 1438)[64]
  13. Royal Lady Sinsun of the Seongju Yi clan (신순궁주 이씨) (1390 – ?)[65][66]
  14. Princess Deoksuk of the Yi clan (덕숙옹주 이씨)
    1. Yi Gan, Prince Hunyeong (후령군 이간) (1419 – 6 October 1450), twelfth (seventeenth) son
  15. Princess Hyeseon of the Hong clan (혜선옹주 홍씨)[67]
  16. Princess Sunhye of the Andong Jang clan (순혜옹주 장씨) (? – 26 July 1423)[68]
  17. Princess Seogyeong (서경옹주)[69][70]
  18. Concubine Gim (후궁 김씨)
    1. Princess Sukgeun (숙근옹주) (? – 1450), sixteenth (seventeenth) daughter[71]
  19. Lady Yi (이씨)
    1. Princess Suksun (숙순옹주) (1421 – 1481), eighteenth (nineteenth) daughter[72]


In popular cultureEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "탐라 성주시대 413년 ~ 탐라 성주시대 464년". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  2. ^ 《백과사전》 태종 참조
  3. ^ 한국역대인물 종합정보 시스템"태종 (太宗)" Archived 2022-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ 두산 백과사전 "태종 太宗"
  5. ^ 네이버캐스트 - "인물과 역사: 태종 이방원" Archived 2022-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ 태종실록 (1431) 1권, 태종 1년 6월 12일 기사 1번째기사 Archived 2016-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ 최양진 (2008-07-04). "한비자의 냉정한 정치로 승부수 띄운 '태종'". 한국경제. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
  8. ^ Grayson, James Huntley (2002). Korea: A Religious History. United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1605-X. (p108)
  9. ^ Bridgman, Roger (2020-07-28). 1000 Inventions and Discoveries. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-7440-3096-9. Archived from the original on 2022-01-04. Retrieved 2021-12-18.
  10. ^ "Invention Is the Mother Of Necessity". archive.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 2021-08-29. Retrieved 2021-12-11.
  11. ^ "Htai Tjong | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11. Retrieved 2021-12-11.
  12. ^ Haven, Kendall F. (2006). 100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time. Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 978-1-59158-264-9. Archived from the original on 2022-01-04. Retrieved 2021-12-18.
  13. ^ 편집부 (1963-01-18). "창경궁(昌慶宮), 문화재정보". 위키트리IT/과학. Archived from the original on 2022-02-19. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  14. ^ Also known by his Mongolian name "Ulus Bukha" (吾魯思不花).
  15. ^ a b Firstly, Taejo honored his recent agnatic forefathers to the 4th degree and their legal wives with the posthumous titles "King" (Wang; 왕) & "Consort" (Bi; 비) on 16 August 1392 [Taejo Sillok, vol.1, year 1, entry 2], further confirmed on 20 November 1392 [Taejo Sillok, vol.2, year 1, entry 1]. Taejong upgraded the earlier honors bestowed on his forefathers by bestowing them the temple names "Progenitor" (Jo; 조) with the style of "the Great (King)" (Daewang; 대왕), and the title of "Queen" (Wanghu; 왕후), on 14 May 1411 [Taejong Sillok, vol.21, year 11, entry 1]. Yi Ja-chun and his wife Lady Choe were posthumously honored by their son Taejo as "King Hwan" (환왕) & "Consort Ui" (의비) respectively, and by their grandson Taejong with the temple name "Hwanjo the Great" (환조대왕) & posthumous name "Queen Uihye" (의혜왕후) respectively.
  16. ^ Taejo posthumously honored his deceased first wife as "Consort Jeol" (절비) in 1393. The title was upgraded by their second son, the then-reigning King Jeongjong, with the posthumous name "Queen Sinui" on 19 December 1398 [Taejo Sillok, vol.15, year 7, entry 1]. Taejong further honored his mother by upgrading her from "Queen" to "Great Queen" (Wangtaehu; 왕태후) on 25 September 1408, but on 6 July 1683, Sukjong reverted her posthumous name to that of "Queen". Elevated in 1897, during the Korean Empire, as "Sinui, the Empress Go" (신의고황후).
  17. ^ Also known as Grand Lady Shin of the Samhan State (삼한국대부인 신씨).
  18. ^ This compilation does not include 2 princes (1400 – 1401; 1403 – 1404) and 1 princess (1412 – 1414) whose mother(s) are not recorded in historical documents.
  19. ^ Second daughter of Left State Councillor Min Je, Internal Prince Yeoheung & Duke Mundo (좌정승 여흥부원군 문도공 민제) (1339 – 1408); and Lady Song of the Yeosan Song clan (여산 송씨), also known as Grand Lady Song of the Samhan State (삼한국대부인 송씨).
  20. ^ a b c d As a legitimate daughter of the king, her title properly translates to "Royal Princess" (Gongju; 공주, 公主).
  21. ^ Married Yi Baek-gang, Duke Jeongjeol (정절공 이백강), created Internal Prince Cheongpyeong (청평부원군); second son of Yi Geo-yi, Internal Prince Seowon & Duke Mundo (서원부원군 문도공 이거이).
  22. ^ She was previously known as "Princess of Pyeongyang Commandery" or "Princess Pyeongyang of the Second Senior Rank" (평양군궁주), "Royal Lady Gyeongjeong" (경정궁주), and "(Royal) Princess Jeonggyeong" (정경공주).
  23. ^ Married Jo Dae-rim, Duke Gangan (강안공 조대림), created Internal Prince Pyeongyang (평양부원군); son of Chief State Councillor Jo Jun (영의정 조준).
  24. ^ a b c While the exact dates of their births and deaths are unknown, the three boys are speculated to have been born between 1388 and 1392, as they were older than Princess Gyeongan (born 1393), but are said to be younger than Princess Gyeongjeong (born 1387).
  25. ^ Married Gwon Gyu (권규) (1393 – 1421), created Prince Gilchang (길창군); second son of Gwon Geun, Internal Prince Gilchang (길창부원군 권근) (1352 – 1409).
  26. ^ The son of her eldest brother-in-law Gwon Je (권제), was Gwon Ram, one of Sejo's supporters who led the 1453 coup that dethroned King Danjong and helped enthrone Sejo himself.
  27. ^ Married Nam Hwi, Duke Sogan (소간공 남휘), created Prince Uisan (의산군); son of Nam Gyeong-mun (남경문).
  28. ^ Married Lady Seong of the Changnyeong Seong clan (창녕 성씨, 昌寧成氏), also known as Grand Lady Seong of the Samhan State (삼한국대부인 성씨, 三韓國大夫人 成氏). They had no biological issue.
  29. ^ He had two adoptive sons. The first, Yi Yong, Grand Prince Anpyeong (안평대군 이용, 安平大君 李瑢), was the third son of his third older brother, King Sejong. The second was Yi Ui, Prince Woncheon & Duke Ando (원천군 안도공 이의, 原川君 安悼公 李宜), the sixth son of his second older brother, Grand Prince Hyoryeong.
  30. ^ Died from smallpox or measles.
  31. ^ Daughter of Gim Gu-deok (김구덕) (? – 1428) and Lady Shin of the Yeongwol Shin clan (영월 신씨).
  32. ^ Through her younger brother, Gim Oh-mun (김오문), she became the aunt of Deposed Crown Princess Gim, a former wife of King Munjong (Taejong's grandson).
  33. ^ Daughter of Gwon Hong (권홍), an Akjeong of Sungkyunkwan.
  34. ^ Also known as "Royal Lady Jeongui" (정의궁주) and "Lady Yeongsu" (Yeongsugung; literally "Palace of Repose and of Long Life"; 영수궁, 寧壽宮).
  35. ^ She became Taejong's first concubine in 1402.
  36. ^ Married Park Jong-wu (박종우) (1405 – 1464), created Prince Unseong (운성군); son of Chamchan Park Shin (참찬 박신).
  37. ^ Formerly known as "Royal Lady Hyosun" (효순궁주), she was promoted to Bin (first senior rank; 빈, 嬪) during Gojong's reign.
  38. ^ She was said to have been a maidservant of Queen Sindeok, but in the Records of the Joseon dynasty, it is stated that she was originally one of Queen Wongyeong's servants back at her old household.
  39. ^ Daughter of Shin Yeong-gwi (신영귀).
  40. ^ Originally one of Queen Wongyeong's retinue of nain (palace maids; 나인).
  41. ^ Also known as "Royal Lady Shinnyeong" (신녕궁주) and "Princess Shinnyeong" (신녕옹주). The latter title was granted on 13 January 1414, during her pregnancy.
  42. ^ Married Lady Choe of the Jeonju Choe clan (전주 최씨) and had issue (1 son and 2 daughters).
  43. ^ Married Yun Gye-dong (윤계동), created Prince Yeongpyeong (영평군); son of Yun Hang (윤항).
  44. ^ Married Jo Seon, Duke Sohwoe (소회공 조선), created Prince Hanwon (한원군); son of the Minister of Military Affairs Jo Mal-saeng (병조판서 조말생).
  45. ^ Married Jeong Hyo-jeon, Duke Chunggyeong (충경공 정효전), created Prince Ilseong (일성군), and future Minister of Military Affairs (병조판서); son of Minister Jeong Jin (판서 정진).
  46. ^ Married Yun U (윤우), created Prince Paseong (파성군); son of Vice-Minister Yun So-mi (참판 윤수미).
  47. ^ Married Byeon Hyo-sun, Duke Kangyi (강이공 변효순), created Prince Consort Yucheon (유천위); son of Byeon Sang-ju (변상주).
  48. ^ Married Yun Yeon-myeong, Duke Pyeongdo (평도공 윤연명), created Prince Haepyeong (해평군); son of Yun Dal-seong (윤달성).
  49. ^ Married Yun Am, Duke Jedo (제도공 윤암), created Prince Papyeong (파평군); son of Yun Tae-san (윤태산).
  50. ^ Daughter of Ahn Ui (안의).
  51. ^ Also known as "Princess Sukseon" (숙선옹주). The title was granted in 1421.
  52. ^ Married Yi Wan (이완), created Prince Jeonui (전의군); son of Yi Gong-jeon (이공전).
  53. ^ Married Hwang Yu, Duke Yangdo (양도공 황유), created Prince Consort Hoecheon (회천위); son of Hwang Ja-hu (황자후).
  54. ^ Daughter of Scholar of the Office of Special Advisors No Gu-san (제학 노구산); and Lady Choe of the Chungju Choe clan (충주 최씨), whose father was Right State Councillor Choe Ryeom (우의정 최렴).
  55. ^ Also known as "Royal Lady Sohye" (소혜궁주) and "Princess Sohye" (소혜옹주). The first title was granted on 20 November 1411.
  56. ^ Married Yi Jeong-nyeong, Duke Jangjeol (장절공 이정녕), created Prince Consort Seongwon (성원위); son of Yi Sa-hu (이사후) and grandson of Yi Jik, Internal Prince Seongsan (성산부원군 이직).
  57. ^ Park Yeong-gyu's book (조선의 왕실과 외척) claims her real son is Prince Hyenyeong, not Prince Geunnyeong; but Seonwon Gyebo Giryak (선원계보기략) states that Hyenyeong's birth mother is another concubine named Lady Ahn, as Taejong had 1 son and 3 daughters by Lady Ahn (also known as Royal Noble Consort Seon).
  58. ^ Some sources claim his mother is Royal Noble Consort Shin, but Seonwonrok (선원록) & Seonwon Gyebo Giryak (선원계보기략) indicate his real mother is Royal Noble Consort Jeong, since she died in 1426 and the other claimant died 9 years later.
  59. ^ Married Lady Heo of the Hayang Heo clan (하양 허씨), also known as Princess Consort Taean (태안군부인) and had issue (3 sons and 6 daughters).
  60. ^ Daughter of Gim Jeom (김점) (1369 – 1457) and Lady Gwon (권씨).
  61. ^ On 20 November 1411 (the 11th year of King Taejong's reign), she became a concubine along with Lady Gim (future Royal Noble Consort Myeong) and Lady No (future Royal Noble Consort So).
  62. ^ In 1421 (the 3rd year of King Sejong's reign), it became known that her father had received numerous bribes while he was the governor of Pyongan Province.
  63. ^ Daughter of Jo Noe (조뇌).
  64. ^ Daughter of Yi Un-ro (이운로).
  65. ^ Daughter of Yi Jik (이직) (1362 – 1431), and Lady Heo (허씨).
  66. ^ Her younger sister married Min Mu-hyul (민무휼) (? – 1416), the younger brother of Queen Wongyeong.
  67. ^ Also known as "Princess Gayi" (가이옹주).
  68. ^ Daughter of Jang Sa-gil (장사길) (? – 1418), and courtesan Bokdeok (기생 복덕).
  69. ^ In the Records of the Joseon dynasty, she is recorded as "Geumyeong" (금영, 金英). It is not clear whether the character 金 (translating to both "gold" and "Gim") is her surname or part of her first name.
  70. ^ However, it is clear that she had been serving Taejong since before he ascended to the throne.
  71. ^ Married Gwon Gong, Duke Yanghyo (양효공 권공), created Prince Hwacheon (화천군); son of Gwon Bok (권복).
  72. ^ Married Yun Pyeong (윤평), created Prince Consort Pawon (파원위); son of Yun Chang (윤창).
Taejong of Joseon
Born: 13 June 1367 Died: 8 June 1422
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Joseon
7 December 1400 – 19 September 1418
Succeeded by