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|Ab urbe condita||2196|
|Balinese saka calendar||1364–1365|
|English Regnal year||21 Hen. 6 – 22 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||壬戌年 (Water Dog)|
4139 or 4079
— to —
癸亥年 (Water Pig)
4140 or 4080
|- Vikram Samvat||1499–1500|
|- Shaka Samvat||1364–1365|
|- Kali Yuga||4543–4544|
|Japanese calendar||Kakitsu 3|
|Minguo calendar||469 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1985–1986|
1569 or 1188 or 416
— to —
1570 or 1189 or 417
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1443.|
- July 22 – Battle of St. Jakob an der Sihl (Old Zürich War): The forces of the city of Zürich are defeated, but the Swiss Confederacy have insufficient strength to besiege and take the city.
- April 15 – Queens' College, Cambridge is first founded by Margaret of Anjou.
- November 8 – Battle of Niš: John Hunyadi and the army of the Crusade of Varna defeat three armies of the Ottoman Empire, and capture the city of Niš in modern-day Serbia; Skanderbeg deserts the Ottoman camp and goes to Albania.
- November 28 – Skanderbeg and his forces, rebelling against the Ottoman Empire, liberate Krujë, in Middle Albania, and raise the Albanian flag.
- In Moldavia, the conflict between brothers and co-rulers Iliaș and Stephen II reignites, and Stephen captures Iliaș and blinds him, thus remaining sole ruler of the country.
- Portuguese explorer Nuno Tristão penetrates the Arguin Gulf, off the west coast of Africa.
- King Sejong the Great establishes Hangul, as the native alphabet of the Korean language.
- Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II.
- The Buddhist Zhihua Temple (智化寺) is built in Beijing, at the order of Wang Zhen, chief eunuch at the court of the Zhengtong Emperor of Ming Dynasty China.
- A powerful earthquake destroys the Timișoara Fortress in Kingdom of Hungary
- January 27 – Albert III, Duke of Saxony (d. 1500)
- February 2 – Elisabeth of Bavaria, Electress of Saxony (d. 1484)
- February 12 – Giovanni II Bentivoglio, Italian noble (d. 1508)
- February 23 – Matthias Corvinus, of Hungary (d. 1490)
- February – Anne de Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick (d. 1449)
- May 17 – Edmund, Earl of Rutland, brother of Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England (d. 1460)
- May 29 – Victor, Duke of Münsterberg, Reichsgraf, Duke of Münsterberg and Opava, Count of Glatz (d. 1500)
- May 31 or 1441 – Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, English noble, mother of King Henry VII, grandmother of King Henry VIII of England (d. 1509)
- June 29 – Anthony Browne, English knight (d. 1506)
- September 9 – Muhammad Jaunpuri (d. 1505)
- November 10 – Adolf III of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein, Germany noble (d. 1511)
- December 1 – Magdalena of France, French princess and regent of Navarre (d. 1495)
- December 5 – Pope Julius II (d. 1513)
- January 16 – Erasmo of Narni, Italian mercenary (b. 1370)
- January 28 – Robert le Maçon, Chancellor of France
- February – Guidantonio da Montefeltro, count of Urbino (b. 1377)
- March 24 – James Douglas, 7th Earl of Douglas (b. 1371)
- April 12 – Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury
- May 9 – Niccolò Albergati, Italian cardinal and diplomat (b. 1373)
- June 5 – Ferdinand the Holy Prince of Portugal (b. 1402)
- August 16 – Ashikaga Yoshikatsu, Japanese shōgun (b. 1434)
- September 18 – Lewis of Luxembourg, Archbishop of Rouen
- date unknown – Infante Diogo, Constable of Portugal
- Jelena Balšić, Serbian duchess (b. 1366)
- probable – Zeami Motokiyo, Japanese actor and playwright (b. 1363)