Year 1444 (MCDXLIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+(-100(C)+500(D))+(-10(X)+50(L))+(-1(I)+5(V)) = 1444.
|Ab urbe condita||2197|
|Balinese saka calendar||1365–1366|
|English Regnal year||22 Hen. 6 – 23 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||癸亥年 (Water Pig)|
4140 or 4080
— to —
甲子年 (Wood Rat)
4141 or 4081
|- Vikram Samvat||1500–1501|
|- Shaka Samvat||1365–1366|
|- Kali Yuga||4544–4545|
|Japanese calendar||Kakitsu 4 / Bun'an 1|
|Minguo calendar||468 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1986–1987|
1570 or 1189 or 417
— to —
1571 or 1190 or 418
- March 2 – The League of Lezhë, an alliance of Albanian principalities, is established in Lezhë; George Kastrioti Skanderbeg is proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance.
- May 22 – The Treaty of Tours, signed between England and France, secures a truce in the Hundred Years' War for five years.
- June 15 – Cosimo de' Medici founds a public library at San Marco, Florence.
- June 29 – Battle of Torvioll: Skanderbeg defeats an Ottoman army.
- August 6 – A Portuguese fleet of caravels, led by Lançarote de Freitas, lands 235 slaves at Algarve, Portugal.
- August 15 – The Peace of Szeged is signed between the Turkish Ottoman Empire and Hungary.
- August 26 – Old Zürich War – Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs: Charles VII of France, seeking to send away troublesome troops made idle by the truce with England, sends his son (the Dauphin Louis) with a large army into Switzerland, to support the claims of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. The massively outnumbered Swiss force is destroyed in this battle, but inflict such casualties on the French that they withdraw.
- August – After making peace with the Karamanids, Ottoman Sultan Murad II abdicates in favor of his son Mehmed II.
- November 10 – Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Władysław III of Poland and Hungary are defeated by the Turks, under Sultan Murad II. Władysław is killed, ending the Jagiellonian Union of Hungary and Poland.
- Constantine XI Palaiologos, as ruler of the Despotate of the Morea, invades the Duchy of Athens (at this time under Florentine control), and forces it to pay tribute and return Thebes to the Byzantine Empire.
- Forces of the Sultan of Egypt fail to take Rhodes from the Knights of Rhodes.
- Portuguese explorers reach the mouth of the rivers Senegal and Gambia.
- The first European slave market for the sale of African slaves, the Mercado de Escravos, opens in Lagos, Portugal.
- A serious fire occurs at Old St Paul's Cathedral in London.
- The Iguvine Tablets are discovered at Gubbio, Italy.
- Stephen II of Moldavia takes as co-ruler his step brother Petru, also brother-in-law to John Hunyadi.
- January 24 – Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan (d. 1476)
- March 15 – Francesco Gonzaga, Catholic cardinal (d. 1483)
- April 22 – Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk (d. 1503)
- May 29 – Otto III, Duke of Pomerania-Stettin (1460–1464) (d. 1464)
- June 14 – Nilakantha Somayaji, Indian astronomer-mathematician (d. 1544)
- June 28 – Charlotte, Queen of Cyprus (d. 1487)
- October 18 – John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk (d. 1476)
- January 8 – Wilhelm II, Count of Henneberg-Schleusingen (b. 1415)
- February 14 – Henriette, Countess of Montbéliard, regent of Württemberg (b. 1387)
- March 9 – Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist (b. 1374)
- April 26 – Robert Campin, Flemish painter (b. 1378)
- May 20 – Saint Bernardino of Siena, Italian Franciscan missionary (b. 1380)
- May 27 – John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, English military leader (b. 1404)
- October 15 – Niccolò Piccinino, Italian mercenary (b. 1386)
- November 10 – King Władysław III of Poland (in battle) (b. 1424)
- November 25 – Martin Gouge, French chancellor
- date unknown – Pier Paolo Vergerio the Elder, Italian humanist, statesman, and canon lawyer
- Norman, Jeremy M. (2022-12-20). "Foundation of the Library of the Dominican Convent of San Marco, the First "Public" Library in Renaissance Europe". HistoryofInformation.com. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
- Thomas, Hugh (1999). The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440 - 1870. Simon and Schuster. pp. 22. ISBN 9780684835655.
- British Museum. Department of Prints and Drawings; Richard Fisher (1886). Introduction to a Catalogue of the Early Italian Prints in the British Museum. Chiswick Press. pp. 348–.
- Raphael Holinshed (1907). Shakespeare's Holinshed: The Chronicle and the Historical Plays Compared. Chatto and Windus. p. 218.
- Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini; Pope Pius II (November 2013). Europe (c.1400-1458). CUA Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8132-2182-3.
- Jerzy Lukowski; Hubert Zawadzki (20 September 2001). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1.