An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who makes a significant and substantial attempt to occupy the position of Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church in opposition to the legitimately elected pope.[1] At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by important factions within the Church itself and by secular rulers.

Sometimes it was difficult to distinguish which of two claimants should be called pope and which antipope, as in the case of Pope Leo VIII and Pope Benedict V.[2]

Persons who merely claim to be pope and have few followers, such as the modern conclavist antipopes, are not classified with the historical antipopes.

History Edit

Hippolytus of Rome (d. 235) is commonly considered to be the earliest antipope, as he headed a separate group within the Church in Rome against Pope Callixtus I.[3] Hippolytus was reconciled to Callixtus's second successor, Pope Pontian, and both he and Pontian are honoured as saints by the Catholic Church with a shared feast day on 13 August. Whether two or more persons have been confused in this account of Hippolytus[4] and whether Hippolytus actually declared himself to be the Bishop of Rome, remains unclear, since no such claim by Hippolytus has been cited in the writings attributed to him.

Eusebius quotes[5] from an unnamed earlier writer the story of Natalius, a 3rd-century priest who accepted the bishopric of the Adoptionists,[6] a heretical group in Rome. Natalius soon repented and tearfully begged Pope Zephyrinus to receive him into communion.[7][8]

Novatian (d. 258), another third-century figure, certainly claimed the See of Rome in opposition to Pope Cornelius, and if Natalius and Hippolytus were excluded because of the uncertainties concerning them, Novatian could then be said to be the first antipope.

The period in which antipopes were most numerous was during the struggles between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors of the 11th and 12th centuries. The emperors frequently imposed their own nominees to further their own causes. The popes, likewise, sometimes sponsored rival imperial claimants (anti-kings) in Germany to overcome a particular emperor.

The Western Schism – which began in 1378, when the French cardinals, claiming that the election of Pope Urban VI was invalid, elected antipope Clement VII as a rival to the Roman Pope – led eventually to two competing lines of antipopes: the Avignon line as Clement VII moved back to Avignon, and the Pisan line. The Pisan line, which began in 1409, was named after the town of Pisa, Italy, where the (Pisan) council had elected antipope Alexander V as a third claimant. To end the schism, in May 1415, the Council of Constance deposed antipope John XXIII of the Pisan line. Pope Gregory XII of the Roman line resigned in July 1415. In 1417, the council also formally deposed antipope Benedict XIII of Avignon, but he adamantly refused to resign. Afterwards, Pope Martin V was elected and was accepted everywhere except in the small and rapidly diminishing area of influence of Benedict XIII.

List of historical antipopes Edit

The following table gives the names of the antipopes included in the list of popes and antipopes in the Annuario Pontificio, with the addition of the names of Natalius (in spite of doubts about his historicity) and Antipope Clement VIII (whose following was insignificant).[9]

An asterisk marks those who were included in the conventional numbering of later popes who took the same name. More commonly, the antipope is ignored in later papal regnal numbers; for example, there was an Antipope John XXIII, but the new Pope John elected in 1958 was also called John XXIII. For the additional confusion regarding popes named John, see Pope John numbering.

The list of popes and antipopes in the Annuario Pontificio attaches the following note to the name of Pope Leo VIII (963–965):

At this point, as again in the mid-11th century, we come across elections in which problems of harmonising historical criteria and those of theology and canon law make it impossible to decide clearly which side possessed the legitimacy whose factual existence guarantees the unbroken lawful succession of the successors of Saint Peter. The uncertainty that in some cases results has made it advisable to abandon the assignation of successive numbers in the list of the popes.[10]

Thus, because of the obscurities about mid-11th-century canon law and the historical facts, the Annuario Pontificio lists Sylvester III as a pope, without thereby expressing a judgement on his legitimacy. The Catholic Encyclopedia places him in its List of Popes,[11] but with the annotation: "Considered by some to be an antipope". Other sources classify him as an antipope.[12]

As Celestine II resigned before being consecrated and enthroned in order to avoid a schism, Oxford's A Dictionary of Popes (2010) says he " classified, unfairly, as an antipope,"[13] a position historian Salvador Miranda also shares.[14]

Those with asterisks (*) were counted in subsequent papal numbering.

Pontificate Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at election/
Death or resigned
Years as
Notes In opposition to
c. 199 – c. 200 Natalius Natalius Natalius c. 159 Rome, Roman Empire 38 / 48 1 year, 0 days (365) Later reconciled (see above) Zephyrinus
20 Dec 217 – 28 Sep 235 Saint Hippolytus Hippolytus Hippolytus 170 Rome. Roman Empire 45 / 65 (†66) 17 years, 282 days (6491) Later reconciled with Pope Pontian (see above) Callixtus I
Urban I
Mar 251 – Aug 258 Novatian Novatianus Novatian c. 200 Rome, Roman Empire 51 / 58 (†93) 7 years, 153 days (2710) Founder of Novatianism Cornelius
Lucius I
Stephen I
Sixtus II
20 Apr 309 – 16 Aug 310 Heraclius Heraclius Heraclius c. 265 Rome, Roman Empire 45 / 46 1 year, 118 days (483) Eusebius
355 – 26 Nov 365 Felix II* Felix secundus Felix c. 270 Rome, Roman Empire 80 / 90 10 years, 329 days (3982) Installed by Roman emperor Constantius II Liberius
1 Oct 366 – 16 Nov 367 Ursicinus Ursicinus Ursinus c. 300 Rome, Roman Empire 66 / 67 1 year, 46 days (411) Damasus I
27 Dec 418 – 3 Apr 419 Eulalius Eulalius Eulalius c. 370 Rome, Roman Empire 38 / 39 (†42) 1 year, 46 days (411) Boniface I
22 Nov 498 – Aug 506/08 Laurentius Laurentius Lorenzo Celio c. 460 Rome, Roman Empire 38 / 46 (†48) 9 years, 283 days (3569) Supported by Byzantine emperor Anastasius I Symmachus
22 Sep 530 – 14 Oct 530 Dioscorus Dioscurus Dióskoros c. 450 Alexandria 70 / 70 22 days (22) Boniface II
21 Sep 687 Theodore Theodorus Theodore c. 599 Rome, Duchy of Rome 88 / 88 (†92) 97 days (97) Sergius I
21 Sep 687 Paschal (I) Paschalis Pascale c. 598 Rome, Duchy of Rome 89 / 89 (†94) 97 days (97)
28 Jun 767 – 6 Aug 768 Constantine II Constantinus secundus Konstantinus c. 700 Rome, Duchy of Rome 67 / 68 (†69) 1 year, 39 days (405) Between Paul I and Stephen III
31 Jul 768 Philip Philippus Philip c. 701 Rome, Duchy of Rome 68 / 68 (†99) 0 days (0) Installed by envoy of Lombard King Desiderius Stephen III
25 Jan – 31 May 844 John VIII Joannes octavus Giovanni c. 800 Rome, Papal States 44 / 44 (†91) 151 days (151) Elected by acclamation Sergius II
Jan 855 – 31 Mar 855 Anastasius III Bibliothecarius Anastasius tertius Anastasius c. 810 Rome, Papal States 45 / 45 (†68) 89 days (89) Benedict III
3 Oct 903 – 27 Jan 904 Christopher Christophorus Christoforo c. 850 Rome, Papal States 53 / 54 116 days (116) Between Leo V and Sergius III
Jul 974 Boniface VII* Bonifacius Franco Ferrucci c. 900 Rome, Papal States 73 / 73 and 84 / 85 30 days (30)
334 days (334)
total 364 days (364 days)
Between Benedict VI and Benedict VII
20 Aug 984 – 20 Jul 985 Between John XIV and John XV
Apr 997 – Feb 998 John XVI* Joannes John Filagatto c. 941 Rossano, Calabria, Papal States (Italy) 56 / 56 (†59) 1 year, 0 days (365) Supported by Byzantine emperor Basil II Gregory V
Jun 1012 Gregory VI Gregorius Sextus Gregorio c. 960 Rome, Papal States 52 / 52 (†60) 29 days (29) Benedict VIII
4 Apr 1058 – 24 Jan 1059 Benedict X* Benedictus Decimus Giovanni Mincio dei Conti di Tusculo c. 1000 Rome, Papal States, 58 / 59 (†80) 295 days (295 ) Supported by the Counts of Tusculum Nicholas II
July 1061 – 31 May 1064 Honorius II Honorius Secundus Pietro Cadalus 1010 Verona, Papal States 51 / 54 (†62) 2 years, 335 days (1065) Supported by Agnes, regent of the Holy Roman Empire Alexander II
25 Jun 1080, 21 Mar 1084 – 8 Sep 1100 Clement III Clemens Tertius Guibert of Ravenna c. 1029 Parma, Papal States 51 / 51, 54 / 71 20 years, 44 days (7348) Supported by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Gregory VII
Victor III
Urban II
Paschal II
8 Sep 1100 – Jan 1101 Theodoric Theodoricus Theodoro c. 1030 Rome, Papal States, 70 / 71 (†72) 121 days (−244) Successor to Clement III Paschal II
Jan 1101 – Feb 1102 Adalbert or Albert Adalbertus Albert c. 1046 Atella, Campania, Papal States, 55 / 56 (†85) 31 days (31) Successor to Theodoric
8 Nov 1105 – 11 Apr 1111 Sylvester IV Sylvester Quartus Maginulf c. 1050 Rome, Papal States 49 / 55 (†56) 5 years, 324 days (31) Supported by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
10 Mar 1118 – 22 Apr 1121 Gregory VIII Gregorius Octavus Maurice Burdain c. 1057 Limousin, Occitania, France 61 / 65 (†72) 3 years, 43 days (1139) Gelasius II
Callixtus II
16 Dec 1124 Celestine II Cœlestinus Secundus Teobaldo Boccapecci c. 1050 Rome, Papal States 74 / 74 (†86) 0 days (0) Honorius II
14 Feb 1130 – 25 Jan 1138 Anacletus II Anacletus Secundus Pietro Pierleoni c. 1090 Rome, Papal States 48 / 48 7 years, 345 days (2902) Innocent II
23 Mar 1138 Victor IV Victor Quartus Gregorio Conti c. 1057 Ceccano, Papal States 81 / 81 (†90) 2 days (2) Successor to Anacletus II
7 Sep 1159 – 20 Apr 1164 Victor IV Victor Quartus Ottavio di Montecelio c. 1095 Tivoli, Papal States 64 / 69 4 years, 226 days (1687) Supported by Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Alexander III
22 Apr 1164 – 28 Sep 1168 Paschal III Paschalis Tertius Guido di Crema c. 1110 Crema, Lombardy, Papal States 54 / 58 4 years, 159 days (1620 days)
Sep 1168 – 29 Aug 1178 Callixtus III Callixtus Tertius Giovanni of Struma c. 1090 Arezzo, Papal States 78 / 88 (†90) 9 years, 362 days (3649 days)
29 Sep 1179 – Jan 1180 Innocent III Innocentius Tertius Lanzo of Sezza c. 1120 Sezze, Papal States 59 / 60 (†63) 95 days (95 days)
12 May 1328 – 12 Aug 1330 Nicholas V Nicolaus Quintus Pietro Rainalducci c. 1258 Corvaro, Papal States 70 / 74 2 years, 92 days (822 days) Supported by Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor John XXII
20 Sep 1378 – 16 Sep 1394 Clement VII Clemens Robert of Geneva 1342 Annecy, France 36/52 15 years, 361 days (5840 days) Avignon Urban VI
Boniface IX
28 Sep 1394 – 23 May 1423 Benedict XIII Benedictus Pedro de Luna 25 November 1328 Illueca, Aragon 65/94 28 years, 237 days (10463 days) Avignon
Innocent VII
Gregory XII
Martin V
25 Jun 1409 – 3 May 1410 Alexander V* Alexander Pietro Philarghi c. 1339 Crete, Republic of Venice 70 / 71 312 days (312 days) Pisa Gregory XII
25 May 1410 – 29 May 1415 John XXIII Ioannes Vicecimus Tertius Baldassare Cossa c. 1365 45 / 50 (†54) 5 years, 6 days (1832 days) Pisa
10 Jun 1423 – 26 Jul 1429 Clement VIII Clemens Octavus Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón 1370 Teruel, Aragon 52 / 59 (†77) 6 years, 49 days (2241 days) Avignon Martin V
1424–1430 Benedict XIV Benedictus Quartus Decimus Bernard Garnier 1370 France 54 / 59 (†89) 6 years, 211 days (2403 days) Claimed successor to Benedict XIII – aka "The hidden pope"  
1430–1437 Benedict XIV Benedictus Quartus Decimus Jean Carrier c. 1370 France 59 / 66 7 years, 242 days (2799 days)
5 Nov 1439 – 7 Apr 1449 Felix V Fœlix Duke Amadeus VIII of Savoy 4 September 1383 Chambéry, Savoy 56/65 (†67) 9 years, 153 days (3441) Elected by the Council of Basel Eugene IV
Nicholas V

Quasi-cardinal-nephews Edit

Many antipopes created cardinals, known as quasi-cardinals, and a few created cardinal-nephews, known as quasi-cardinal-nephews.

Quasi-cardinal Nephew of Elevated Notes
Giacomo Alberti Antipope Nicholas V 15 May 1328 Excommunicated by Pope John XXII.[15]
Amedeo Saluzzo Antipope Clement VII 23 Dec 1383 Abandoned Antipope Benedict XIII after having been deposed by him on 21 October 1408; participated in the Council of Pisa, the election of Pope Alexander V (now regarded as an antipope), the Council of Constance, and the conclave of Pope Martin V.[15]
Tommaso Brancaccio Antipope John XXIII 6 Jun 1411 Attended the Council of Constance, and the conclave of Pope Martin V.[16]
Gil Sánchez Muñoz Antipope Clement VIII 26 Jul 1429 Submitted to Pope Martin V after his uncle abdicated.[17]

Modern minor claimants Edit

Antipopes still exist today, but all are minor claimants, without the support of any Cardinal. Examples include Palmarians, Apostles of Infinite Love Antipopes, and an unknown number of many other Sedevacantist claimants.

Antipope of Alexandria Edit

As the Patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt, has historically also held the title of pope, a person who, in opposition to someone who is generally accepted as a legitimate pope of Alexandria, claims to hold that position may also be considered an antipope. Coptic lector Max Michel became an antipope of Alexandria, calling himself Maximos I. His claim to the Alexandrine papacy was dismissed by both the Coptic Orthodox Pope Shenouda III and Pope Theodore II of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria.[18] The Coptic pope of Alexandria and the Greek pope of Alexandria currently view one another, not as antipopes, but rather as successors to differing lines of apostolic succession that formed as a result of christological disputes in the fifth century.[citation needed]

In fiction Edit

Antipopes have appeared as fictional characters. These may be either in historical fiction, as fictional portraits of well-known historical antipopes or as purely imaginary antipopes.

  • Jean Raspail's novel l'Anneau du pêcheur (The Fisherman's Ring), and Gérard Bavoux's Le Porteur de lumière (The Light-bringer).[19][20]
  • The fictional synth-pop artist Zladko Vladcik claims to be "The Anti-Pope" in one of his songs.[21]
  • Dan Simmons's novels Endymion and The Rise of Endymion feature a Father Paul Duré who is the routinely murdered antipope Teilhard I. At the end of the last novel, it is mentioned that the person calling himself the pope of the Technocore loyal Catholics is recognized by very few even among those, and he is referred to as an antipope.
  • In the Girl Genius comics series, set in a gaslamp fantasy version of Europe thrown into chaos by mad science (among other things), there is a brief reference to the existence of seven popes—all of whom apparently ordered a particular text burned.
  • Ralph McInerny's novel The Red Hat features a schism between liberals and conservatives following the election of a conservative African Pope; the liberal faction elect an Italian cardinal who calls himself "Pius XIII".
  • In the video game Crusader Kings II by Swedish developer Paradox Interactive, Catholic rulers may appoint one of their bishops as an antipope. An emperor-tier ruler such as the Holy Roman Emperor may declare war on the Papal States to install their antipope as the "true" pope, thereby vassalizing the Papacy.
  • In the video game Age of Empires II the third scenario in the game's Barbarossa campaign is called "Pope and Antipope" and is based on the Siege of Crema and the subsequent Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines.
  • In episode 3 of The Black Adder (set in the late 15th century), "The Archbishop", Baldrick remarks on selling counterfeit papal pardons, that one for the highest crimes requires the signatures of "both popes" (implying one pope and one antipope). At the end of the episode, the Mother Superior of the local convent informs Edmund that he has been excommunicated by "all three popes".
  • The Last Fisherman by Randy England features an anti-pope John XXIV elected in opposition to Pope Brendan I.
  • Bud McFarlane's Pierced by a Sword includes an anti-pope John XXIV who is elected when the assassination attempt on Pope Patrick (fictional successor to John Paul II) is believed to have succeeded. He commits suicide at the end of the book.
  • Chilling Adventures of Sabrina features an antipope who leads the Churches of Darkness. This antipope reigns in the Vatican Necropolis beneath Rome.

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "Antipope". Encyclopædia Britannica. 30 May 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  2. ^ Of Pope Leo VIII, the Annuario Pontificio, the Holy See's yearbook, says: "At this point, as again in the mid-eleventh century, we come across elections in which problems of harmonizing historical criteria and those of theology and canon law make it impossible to decide clearly which side possessed the legitimacy whose factual existence guarantees the unbroken lawful succession of the Successors of Saint Peter. The uncertainty that in some cases results has made it advisable to abandon the assignation of successive numbers in the list of the Popes" (note 19 to the list of popes in the Annuario Pontificio). Of Pope Benedict V it says: "If Pope Leo VIII was lawful Pope, [...] Benedict V is an antipope" (note 20 to the list of popes).
  3. ^ Saint Hippolytus of Rome. Retrieved 6 December 2021. {{cite encyclopedia}}: |website= ignored (help)
  4. ^ Dal Covolo, Enrico (September 1997). "The catacombs the destination of the great jubilee". Tertium Millennium. Archived from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  5. ^ Historia Ecclesiastica, V, 28
  6. ^ Dix, Gregory; Chadwick, Henry (2013). The Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition of St Hippolytus of Rome, Bishop and Martyr. Routledge. p. xvii. ISBN 978-1-1361-0146-5. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  7. ^ Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature: Zephyrinus
  8. ^ Monarchians – Dynamists, or Adoptionists. 1911. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007 – via New Advent. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  9. ^ "Pope Martin V". Catholic Encyclopedia – via New Advent.
  10. ^ Annuario Pontificio. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2012. p. 12. ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0.
  11. ^ "List of Popes". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20 August 2015 – via New Advent.
  12. ^ Previté-Orton, Charles William (1952). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Vol. 1 (1975 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 477. ISBN 978-0-5212-0962-5.
  13. ^ Kelly, J. N. D.; Walsh, Michael J. (eds.). Celestine (d. 1124). ISBN 978-0-1992-9581-4. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  14. ^ Boccapecora Miranda, Salvatore (2018). "Boccapecora, Teobaldo". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  15. ^ a b Miranda, Salvador (1998). "14th Century (1303–1404)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  16. ^ Miranda, Salvador (1998). "Antipope] John XXIII (1410–1415): Consistory of 6 June 1411 (I)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Biographical Dictionary. Florida International University. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  17. ^ Miranda, Salvador (1998). "15th Century (1404–1503)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University.
  18. ^ "Common Statement Between The Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa Regarding Max Michel" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  19. ^ Jean Raspail, L'Anneau du pêcheur, Paris: Albin Michel, 1994. 403 p. ISBN 2-226-07590-9
  20. ^ Gérard Bavoux, Le Porteur de lumière, Paris: Pygmalion, 1996. p. 329 ISBN 2-85704-488-7
  21. ^ Zladko Vladcik – I am the Antipope. 21 January 2007. Archived from the original on 22 November 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2015 – via YouTube.

External links and bibliography Edit