Antipope Honorius II
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Honorius II (c. 1010 – 1072), born Pietro Cadalo (Latin Petrus Cadalus), was an antipope from 1061 to 1072. He was born in the County of Verona, and became bishop of Parma in 1045.. He died at Parma in 1072.
Cadalo was the son of the Lombard Ingone, the son of Wicard, the son of Atone. The family may have originated at Monselice (39 miles, 63 km east-southeast of Verona), and entered the military service of the Count of Verona. In 992, Wicard is on record as owning the castle of Calmano, when he acquired territory at Lonigo in the County of Verona. His son Ingone acquired a house and other property in Verona in 1005, and in 1014 he had risen to the post of Vicecomes (vice-count, vicount) of the city of Verona. Ingone was dead by 13 July 1028, on which date his sons and heirs, Cadalo, Erizo and Giovanni, purchased additional property. It is stated in the documents that Cadalo was already in the clerical state ("clericus").
By 3 September 1030, Cadalo had been ordained a subdeacon. He was a deacon by 31 July 1034. By 11 April 1041, he held the important post of vicedomino of the Church of Verona, administrator of the possessions of the diocese.
On 24 April 1046, Bishop Cadalo founded the monastery of S. Giorgio in Braida, on land which he had acquired the previous day in a transaction with Bishop Walter of Verona. Bishop Cadalo attended the diet held by the Emperor Henry III at Pavia in October 1049; he signed the minutes.
After the death of Pope Nicholas II (1059–1061) in July 1061, two different groups met to elect a new pope. The cardinals met under the direction of Hildebrand (who later became Pope Gregory VII) and elected Pope Alexander II (1061–1073) on 30 September 1061. Alexander II had been one of the leaders of the reform party in his role as Anselm the Elder, Bishop of Lucca.
Twenty-eight days after Alexander II's election an assembly of German and Lombard bishops and notables opposed to the reform movement was brought together at Basel by the Empress Agnes as regent for her son, Emperor Henry IV (1056–1105), and was presided over by the Imperial Chancellor Wilbert. They elected on 28 October 1061, the bishop of Parma, Cadalus, who assumed the name of Honorius II.
With the support of the Empress and the nobles, in the spring of 1062 Honorius II, with his troops, marched towards Rome to claim the papal seat by force. Bishop Benzo of Alba helped his cause as imperial envoy to Rome, and Cadalus advanced as far as Sutri. On 14 April a brief but bloody conflict took place at Rome, in which the forces of Alexander II lost and antipope Honorius II got possession of the precincts of St. Peter's.
Duke Godfrey of Lorraine arrived in May 1062, and induced both rivals to submit the matter to the King's decision. Honorius II withdrew to Parma and Alexander II returned to his see in Lucca, pending Godfrey's mediation with the German court and the advisers of the young German King, Henry IV.
In Germany, meanwhile, a revolution had taken place. Anno, the powerful Archbishop of Cologne, had seized the regency, and the Empress Agnes retired to the Abbey of Fruttuaria in Piedmont. The chief authority in Germany passed to Anno, who was hostile to Honorius II.
Having declared himself against Cadalus, the new regent at the Council of Augsburg (October 1062) secured the appointment of an envoy to be sent to Rome for the purpose of investigating charges of simony against Alexander II. The envoy, Anno's nephew Burchard II, Bishop of Halberstadt, found no objection to Alexander II's election. Alexander II was recognized as the lawful pontiff, and his rival, Cadalus (Honorius II), excommunicated in 1063.
The antipope did not, however, abandon his claims. At a counter-synod held at Parma he defied the excommunication. He gathered an armed force and once more proceeded to Rome, where he established himself in the Castel Sant'Angelo.
The ensuing war between the rival Popes lasted for about a year. Honorius II eventually gave up, left Rome as a fugitive, and returned to Parma.
The Council of Mantua, on Pentecost, 31 May 1064, ended the schism by formally declaring Alexander II to be the legitimate successor of St. Peter. Honorius II, however, maintained his claim to the papal chair to the day of his death in 1072.
For further readingEdit
- Gio. M. Allodi (1856). Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Parma con alcuni cenni sui principali avvenimenti civili (in Italian). Volume I. Parma: P. Fiaccadori. pp. 117–123, 194–229.
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- F. Baix (1949). "Cadalus." In: Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclesiastique Vol. XI (Paris: Letouzey), coll. 53-99. (in French)
- Andrea Castagnetti (2014). Preistoria di Onorio II antipapa. Cadalo diacono nella società italica della prima metà del secolo XI. Verona, 2019. [Versione on line parziale dell’edizione a stampa, Spoleto, 2014 (Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, Spoleto, 2014), con omissione della bibliografia e degli indici dei nomi] (in Italian)
- P. Cenci (1924), "Documenti inediti su la famiglia e la giovinezza dell’antipapa Cadalo". In Archivio storico delle province Parmensi, n. ser., XXIII (1922-1924), pp. 185-223; XXIV (1924), pp. 309-343. (in Italian)
- Simonetta Cerrini (2000). "Onorio II, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei Papi (Treccani: 2000), pp. 185-188. (in Italian)
- Simonetta Cerrini (2013). "Onorio II, antipapa." Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani Volume 79 (Treccani: 2013) (in Italian)
- F. Herberhold (1947), "Die Angriffe des Cadalus von Parma (Gegenpapst Honorius II) auf Rom in den Jahren 1062 und 1063." Studi Gregoriani 2 (1947), 477–503. (in German)
- Henry Hart Milman (1892). History of Latin Christianity: Including that of the Popes to the Pontificate of Nicolas V. Vols. III-IV of eight volumes, republished in four. New York: A.C. Armstrong. pp. 320–341.
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- Pietro Palazzini (1973). "Il primato Romano in S. Pier Damiani." Studi cattolici 17 (1973). pp. 424-430. (in Italian)
- T. Schmidt (1977). Alexander II (1061-1073) und die römische Reformgruppe seiner Zeit. Stuttgart 1977, pp. 104-133. (in German)
- He usually subscribed his documents "Kadalo". Allodi I, p. 117.
- In a deed executed on 24 May 1045, shortly after becoming bishop of Parma, Cadalo describes himself as "filius bone memorie Ingoni de loco Sablone." S. Cerrini (2000), "Onorio II, antipapa," Enciclopedia dei Papi, p. 186.
- Wicard (Guicciardo) was Count of Sabbione, and "vicecomes" of the city of Verona. Allodi, p. 118. Castagnetti (2014), pp. 12-14.
- Castagnetti (2014), p. 31 with note 12, points out that the title of viscount may apply only to Wicard, not to Ingone.
- S. Cerrini (2000), "Onorio II, antipapa," Enciclopedia dei Papi.
- The old date of 11 April 1047 has been shown to be a misreading. F. Schneider, Aus San Giorgio in Braida zu Verona, in Papsttum und Kaisertum. Forschungen für Paul Kehr zum 65. Geburtstag dargebracht, a cura di A. Brackmann, München 1926, p. 192. S. Cerrini (2000), "Onorio II, antipapa," Enciclopedia dei Papi.
- Allodi, pp. 118-119. Castagnetti (2014), pp. 61, 65, 162.
- Allodi, p. 120. S. Cerrini (2000).
- Ferdinand Gregorovius (1896). History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages. Vol. IV, Part I. London: G. Bell & sons. pp. 124–146.
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- Oestereich, Thomas (1908). "Cadalous." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Retrieved: 9 May 2021.