Chen Youliang (陈友谅；1320 – October 3, 1363) was the founder and first emperor of the Chen Han (陈汉) or Da Han (大漢; literally: "Great Han"), a state in the late Yuan Dynasty and early Ming dynasty of Chinese history.
|Emperor of Da Han|
|Reign||1360 - 1363|
|Died||23 August 1363|
Chen once served as a district official before becoming a general under Ni Wenjun during the Red Turban Rebellion. Chen later killed Ni Wenjun on the excuse that Ni planned to assassinate Xu Shouhui, the Red Turban rebels' leader. Chen later turned on Xu Shouhui and killed him.
In 1357, Chen proclaimed himself "King of Han" in Jiangzhou (江州; present-day Jiujiang, Jiangxi), and emperor the next year after Xu Shouhui died. His era name, as well as his empire's name, was "Dahan" (大漢 literally "Great Han"). For 1359 to 1363 Chen's fleet was the strongest on the upper Yangtze River. His power was at least as great as that of another rebel state, Wu, led by Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming Dynasty.
In 1360 the Dahan fleet and army began a long war against Wu forces - based at that time in Jiqing (present-day Nanjing) and was later renamed "Ming" in 1368. An attack on the Wu capital was defeated thanks to excellent Wu intelligence (likely due to the defection of part of the Dahan fleet earlier in the year). The war continued till the climactic Battle of Lake Poyang where the Wu fleet narrowly defeated the larger fleet of Dahan after three days of fighting.
A month after the battle at Lake Poyang, the Dahan fleet tried to break out from Lake Poyang, during the resulting ship battles Chen was killed (he was alleged to have died from an arrow wound in the head). He was 43 years old at the time of his death in October 3, 1363.
As his crown prince Chen Shan (陳善) had been captured, Chen Youliang was succeeded by his second son, Chen Li, who was soon attacked by the fleet and army of Wu. The conquest of Dahan took an additional two years but by April 1365 the Dahan empire was gone and all its lands were now part of the Wu power base.
- Dayi (大義) 1360
- Dading (大定) 1361-1363
- Grand-ancestors: Chen Qianyi (陈千一)
- Father: Chen Pucai (陳普才) became Marquis Cheng'en (承恩侯) by Zhu Yuanzhang after the downfall of Han
- Mother: from the Wu clan (吴氏)
- Spouses: Chen Youliang had several concubines respectively surnamed Yang (杨), Lou (娄), Tao (陶) and Du (阇). Consort Du was captured along with Chen Shan. Concubines Yang and Lou predeceased Chen Youliang.
Through his established empire Chen Han, Chen Youliang is remembered as a revolutionary, even hero, who helped resist Yuan rule and pave the way for the new Ming dynasty.
- Liu Ji: "Friends trust forgiveness and trust, and cross Jing and Xiang, the second half of a few days." "Honesty and self-control Lu, worry-free. Friends dare to rob the Lord, whose name is incorrect, and whose land is high-class. Their hearts forget themselves every day, so it is advisable to map them first. When Chen is destroyed, Zhang is lonely and can be determined in one fell swoop. " 
- Zhu Yuanzhang: "Friends will die, and the world is not difficult to decide." "If you trust your friends to be arrogant and sincere, it will cause trouble if you are arrogant, but if you are small, there will be no distant picture." 
- Yang Jing: "Those who are like Chen and Zhang, steal from Wu and Chu, build boats to plug rivers, accumulate grain over mountains, and force soldiers to be invincible. However, in the First World War in Poyang, friends trusted be beheaded, and the teacher turned to the east to beg, while Zhang was bound. This is not manpower, but it is also a destiny. " 
- Rao Hanxiang: "Han River First a Hero, Third Chu is magnificent." (“江汉先英、三楚雄风。”)  Quote is essentially saying Chen was a great hero to the Han people.
- "Zhu Yuanzhang's Year to Record": "To the country of 600,000 to try the river flow, Mu Ye, Kunyang, Chibi, Lishui, and ancient emperors can use their heroes, but they have not heard of it." 
- Cai Dongfan: "I said that friends have a way to lose themselves. Jiangzhou has lost, and the fundamental place has gone. It is appropriate to gather troops and save their strength. Xu Tu can't wait to raise another one. He can't wait, put all your eggs in one basket, lose his children, lose his love, or even die, and laugh for the world. It is obvious that the rise and fall of the country is really related to people's plans, not like Xiang Yu's first Wujiang River. " 
- Historian Wu Han: "Although Chen Youliang failed, he was, after all, a hero who opposed the rule of the Mongolian and Han landlord classes in the Yuan Dynasty. He played a role in history. At that time, people sympathized with him and missed him. His grave is still preserved under the newly built Yangzi River Bridge for visitors to mourn."
On October 3, 1363, after Chen Youliang died in the Battle of Poyang Lake, his real remains disappeared. His clothes were taken back by his subordinates in a boat and sent to the south slope of Sheshan, approaching the Wuchang Bridge Head (武昌桥头) of Yangtze River Bridge in Wuhan City, Hubei Province (next to the Yellow Crane Tower, a famous scenic spot in Wuhan, Hubei Province) for burial.
It faces south, has a rectangle with rounded corners and a height of 2.2 meters. The tomb base is 12 meters long. The tomb is built on the mountain. Here is There is a hexagonal unknown pavilion nearby, and the pillars of the pavilion are engraved with handwriting.
In the Qing Dynasty, this place became a part of the garden "Naiyuan" (乃园) of Hubei Provincial Bureau of Supervision, and few people visited it. In 1908, Wan Yaohuang and Geng Zhongzhao discovered this tomb in the thirty-fourth year of Guangxu in Qing Dynasty.
In 1912, Hubei Provincial Department of Internal Affairs requested renovation, and built a 16-step tomb road and a tall archway in front of the tomb (between the archway and the tomb). On the forehead of the memorial archway, "Jiang Han Xian Ying" ("江汉先英”), and on the back, "Three Chu Xiongfeng" (“三楚雄风"), a monument was erected in front of the tomb, "Da Han Chen Youliang Tomb", and Rao Hanxiang of Guangji made an inscription. There is also a tablet pavilion on each side of the tomb. In 1913, the cemetery was renovated and surrounded by pines and cypresses.
In 1923 (after the Revolution of 1911), the Republic of China rebuilt it.
In 1949, after the founding of the People's Republic of China, it was slightly repaired.
In 1956, the tomb was listed as a cultural relic protection unit in Hubei Province.
It was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, the local government of the Communist Party of China allocated funds to restore it. In June, 1998, it was completely renovated, with brick cement tomb walls and the monument of "Rebuilding Dahan Chen Youliang Tomb".
At 9:00 on December 18, 2013, the local government opened the "Chen Youliang Memorial Hall" (陈友谅纪念馆) at 90 Pier, Mian Street, Xiantao City, Hubei Province (formerly mian yang, Hubei Province). This memorial hall has three floors of antique buildings, covering an area of 3,891 square meters, with a total construction area of 1,615 square meters. The first two floors have an exhibition hall of 920 square meters, and the last floor is an office rest area.
Yuan Mei's "Zi Bu Yu" (袁枚《子不語》), Volume 10, contains an article "Destroying Chen Youliang Temple", which tells the story of the ruined Jingzhou Chen Youliang Temple when Zhao Xili was appointed as a county magistrate. Zhao only knew that it was an unknown Wangye Temple, and thought it was an obscene temple and destroyed the temple, but he didn't know that the temple was dedicated to Chen Youliang, and he didn't know it until he asked Zhang Tianshi.
Film and TVEdit
- 1978 Heavenly Sword and Dragon Slaying Sabre《倚天屠龙记》 by Long Tiansheng (龙天生)
- 1984 《倚天屠龙记》 by Chen Xiang (陈祥 )
- 1986 《倚天屠龙记》 何贵林
- 1987 《大明群英》 刘青云 Liu Qingyun
- 1993 《朱元璋》 张矩 Zhang Ju
- 1994 《倚天屠龙记》 郑平君
- 1998 《乞丐皇帝传奇》 李志希
- 2001 《倚天屠龙记》 陈荣峻 Chen Rongjun
- 2003 《倚天屠龙记》 孙斌
- 2004 《武当》 刘旭 Liu Xu
- 2006 《传奇皇帝朱元璋》李庆祥
- 2006 《朱元璋》李明
- 2008 《飞天舞》 沉浮
- 2009 《倚天屠龙记》 周晓滨
- 2009 《真命天子》 季肖冰
- 2015 《乞丐皇帝与大脚皇后传奇》 季晨
- 2019 《倚天屠龍記》侯瑞祥
- For those cross-referencing the Mingshi, in the old Chinese calendar 至正二十三年 refers to the year 1363 CE, 七月二十日 refers to 8月29日 or August 29, and 八月二十六日 refers to 10月4日 or October 4.
- Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993, p. 251 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNgô_Sĩ_Liên1993 (help)
- 武汉地方志编纂委员会办公室. 武昌区志-第三篇 名城胜迹-第三章 遗迹 遗址. 2014-05-30 [2017-01-05] （中文（中国大陆））.
- 人民日报 (2014-05-30). "陈友谅纪念馆观史" (in Chinese). 熊泽民. Archived from the original on 2017-01-06. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
在湖北仙桃市沔街中段，新建了一个“陈友谅纪念馆”。不久前的一天，我来到这里，听讲解，看实物，历史的风云在眼前展开…… 关于陈友谅的传说很多，比如他有三口神奇的行军锅，他常常骑白马出征，他降生时有“三奇”，他从小习武，臂力过人……在纪念馆里看到，陈友谅建都旧遗址处古柏参天，环境十分幽静，青石台阶伸向密林幽静处。CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)