Ewosṭatewos (Ge'ez: ኤዎስጣቴዎስ ʾĒwōsṭātēwōs, also Ge'ez: ዮስጣቴዎስ Yōsṭātēwōs, a version of Ancient Greek: Εὐστάθιος Eustathios; July 15, 1273 – September 15, 1352 according to the Julian calendar) was an important religious leader of the Orthodox Tewahedo during the early period of the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia. He was a forceful advocate for the observation of the Sabbath in Christianity. His followers, known as the House of Ewostatewos (individuals are known as Ewostathians), have been a historic force in Tewahedo Orthodoxy.
Saint Eustathius of Ethiopia
|Born||21 Ḥamle, 1265 (Ethiopian calendar)|
15 July 1273 (Julian calendar)
22 July 1273 (Gregorian calendar)
Tsira', Enderta Province
|Died||18 Meskerem, 1345 (Ethiopian calendar)|
15 September 1352 (Julian calendar)
23 September 1352 (Gregorian calendar)
|Venerated in||Oriental Orthodoxy|
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church
|Patronage||House of Ewostatewos|
Ewostatewos was born on 21 Ḥamle as Māʿiqāba ʾIgzi (ማዕቃበ እግዚ) to Śina Ḥiywat (ሥነ ሕይወት) and his father, Kristōs Moʾā (ክሪስቶስ ሞአ). According to the 16th-century gadl (hagiography) of his pupil Ananya, Ewostatewos was born in the Tsiraʿ northeast of Mek'ele, part of Enderta Province (now located within Enderta woreda) near where he would later found the monastery of Debre Tserabi. Around 1280, while still young, he was sent to live with his uncle, Abba Daniel (monastically known as Zekaryas), the abbot of the mountain abbey of Debre Maryam Qorqor in Gar'alta, a district of Enderta Province. Daniel provided him with his earliest education and introducing him to monastic life. Māʿiqāba ʾIgzi announced his intention to become a monk at 15 and with his decision was renamed to Ewostatewos.
Career as a religious figureEdit
After being ordained a monk by his uncle, Ewostatewos left the community and founded his own monastery in Serae. There he attracted a large number of students, and explained his views until the arrival of Abuna Yaqob III (c. 1337), who was opposed to his views. Ewostatewos, accompanied by most of his disciples, including Bakamos Marqorewos and Gabra Iyasus, left Ethiopia. He first reached Cairo, where he met Pope Benjamin II of Alexandria and defended his views before the church leader. He then visited Jerusalem and eventually travelled to Armenia, where he died.
Ewostatewos view of the Sabbath was that it should be observed on both Saturday (the Lesser Sabbath) and Sunday (the Great Sabbath): Saturday for the original Sabbath of the Old Testament and Sunday in honour of the resurrection of Christ in the New. He found support for his views in the Ten Commandments and the Canons of the Apostles. This has been the historical practice of the Tewahedo Churches. Taddesse Tamrat cites evidence that suggests that the interpretation of Ewostatewos regarding the Sabbath was not his own innovation, but had been practiced in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria before his time and only declared heretical in Egypt a few centuries before.
Influence on the Orthodox TewahedoEdit
After his death, his students and disciples continued to advocate Ewostatewos' religious views. When Ewostatewos left Ethiopia (modern day Eritrea), he had entrusted his community to his senior disciple, Absadi, who had a difficult time keeping the community together until the other disciples returned to Ethiopia (modern day Eritrea) after a 14-year absence. Together they helped him establish a community at Debre Mariam. His followers later spread across northern Ethiopia, founding new monasteries that not only promoted Ewostatewos' interpretation of the Sabbath but created a religious hierarchy that was independent of the Abuna. Their persistence eventually led to their success in 1450 at the Council of Debre Mitmaq in Tegulet, where Emperor Zara Yaqob was able to convince the Egyptian leadership to acquiesce to this local observance.
- Gianfranco Ficcadori, "Ewosṭatewos" in Siegbert Uhlig, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 469.
- Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), pp. 206f.
- Taddesse Tamrat, p. 209
- James Bruce, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1805 edition), vol. 5 p. 6