Augsburg

Augsburg (UK: /ˈɡzbɜːrɡ/ OWGZ-burg,[3] US: /ˈɔːɡz-/ AWGZ-,[4] German: [ˈaʊksbʊʁk] (About this soundlisten); Swabian German: Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany, around 50 km west of Bavarian capital Munich. It is a university town and regional seat of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben with an impressive Altstadt (city centre). Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria (after Munich and Nuremberg) with a population of 300,000 inhabitants, with 885,000 in its metropolitan area.[5]

Augsburg
Augsburg - Markt.jpg
Maximilianmuseum.jpg
Gasse in der Fuggerei, Augsburg.JPG
Der Hohe Dom zu AugsburgDSC 2136.jpg
Flag of Augsburg
Coat of arms of Augsburg
Location of Augsburg
Augsburg is located in Germany
Augsburg
Augsburg
Augsburg is located in Bavaria
Augsburg
Augsburg
Coordinates: 48°22′N 10°54′E / 48.367°N 10.900°E / 48.367; 10.900Coordinates: 48°22′N 10°54′E / 48.367°N 10.900°E / 48.367; 10.900
CountryGermany
StateBavaria
Admin. regionSwabia
DistrictUrban district
Government
 • Lord mayor (2020–26) Eva Weber[1] (CSU)
Area
 • City146.84 km2 (56.70 sq mi)
Elevation
494 m (1,621 ft)
Population
 (2020-12-31)[2]
 • City295,830
 • Density2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
 • Metro
885,000
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
86150–86199
Dialling codes0821
Vehicle registrationA
Websitewww.augsburg.de

After Neuss and Trier, Augsburg is Germany's third oldest city, founded in 15 BC by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum, named after the Roman emperor Augustus. It was a Free Imperial City from 1276 to 1803 and the home of the patrician Fugger and Welser families that dominated European banking in the 16th century. The city played a leading role in the Reformation as the site of the 1530 Augsburg Confession and 1555 Peace of Augsburg. The Fuggerei, the oldest social housing complex in the world, was founded in 1513 by Jakob Fugger.

In 2019, UNESCO recognized the Water Management System of Augsburg as a World Heritage Site.[6]

GeographyEdit

Augsburg lies at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach and on the Singold. The oldest part of the city and the southern quarters are on the northern foothills of a high terrace, which has emerged between the steep rim of the hills of Friedberg in the east and the high hills of the west. In the south extends the Lechfeld, an outwash plain of the post ice age between the rivers Lech and Wertach, where rare primeval landscapes were preserved. The Augsburg city forest and the Lech valley heaths today rank among the most species-rich middle European habitats.[7]

Augsburg borders on the nature park Augsburg Western Woods - a large forestland. The city itself is also heavily verdant. As a result, in 1997 Augsburg was the first German city to win the Europe-wide contest Entente Florale for Europe's greenest and most livable city.

View of Augsburg, from the west

Suburbs and neighbouring municipalitiesEdit

Augsburg is surrounded by the counties Landkreis Augsburg in the west and Aichach-Friedberg in the east.

The suburbs of Augsburg are Friedberg, Königsbrunn, Stadtbergen, Neusäß, Gersthofen, Diedorf.

Neighbouring municipalities: Rehling, Affing, Kissing, Mering, Merching, Bobingen, Gessertshausen.

HistoryEdit

 
Silver coin: 1 conventionsthaler Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1765

Early historyEdit

 
Panorama of Augsburg, 1493
 
Perlach market place in 1550.

The city of Augsburg was founded in 15 BC on the orders of Emperor Augustus.[8] Emperor Augustus conducted extensive military campaigns and established administrative settlements. The settlement that became Augsburg was known as Augusta Vindelicorum, meaning "the Augustan city of the Vindelici".[9] The settlement was established at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach. In 120 AD Augsburg became the administrative capital of the Roman province Raetia.[10] Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century AD, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, and by Welf I, Duke of Bavaria in the 11th century.[citation needed]

Augsburg ConfessionEdit

Mixed Imperial City of Augsburg
Paritätische Reichsstadt Augsburg
1276–1803
(Occupied by Sweden 1632–35)
Coat of arms of Augsburg before 1985
StatusMixed Imperial City [de]
(State of the Holy Roman Empire)
CapitalAugsburg
GovernmentRepublic
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Bishopric established
4th century
c. 888
• City gained immediacy
1276
1530
• Joined Schmalkadic League
1537
• Peace of Augsburg
1555
• Occupied by Sweden
1632–35
1803
Preceded by
Succeeded by
  Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg
Kingdom of Bavaria  

Augsburg was granted the status of a Free Imperial City on 9 March 1276 and from then until 1803, it was independent of its former overlord, the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg. Frictions between the city-state and the prince-bishops were to remain frequent however, particularly after Augsburg became Protestant and curtailed the rights and freedoms of Catholics. With its strategic location at an intersection of trade routes to Italy, the Free Imperial City of Augsburg became a major trading center.[citation needed]

Augsburg produced large quantities of woven goods, cloth and textiles. Augsburg became the base of two banking families that rose to great prominence, the Fuggers and the Welsers. The Fugger family donated the Fuggerei part of the city devoted to housing for needy citizens in 1516, which remains in use today.[11]

In 1530, the Augsburg Confession was presented to the Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Augsburg. Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, after which the rights of religious minorities in imperial cities were to be legally protected, a mixed Catholic–Protestant city council presided over a majority Protestant population; see Paritätische Reichsstadt.[citation needed]

Witch huntsEdit

At the end of the 16th century the witch hunts reached Augsburg. Following the 1585-1588 plague epidemic, southeast Germany was shattered by the 1589-1591 witch hunts. Following the 1592-1593 plague epidemic, cities in southeast Germany entered a period of inflation, marked by brutal witch hunts in urban areas.[12]

Thirty Years' WarEdit

Religious peace in the city was largely maintained despite increasing tensions until the Thirty Years' War, which started 1618 and lasted until 1648. In 1629 the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which restored the legal situation of 1552. The inequality of the Edict of Restitution was revoked when in April 1632, when Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden occupied Augsburg.[citation needed]

In 1634 the Swedish army was defeated at the nearby Battle of Nördlingen. By October 1634, Catholic troops had surrounded Augsburg. The Swedish army refused to surrender and a siege ensued through the winter of 1634/35 and thousands died from hunger and disease. During the Swedish occupation and the siege by Catholic troops the population of the city was reduced from about 70,000 to about 16,000. Diseases such as typhus and the Black Death ravaged the city.[13]

GuildsEdit

In the first half of the 17th century Augsburg was pivotal in the European network of goldsmiths. Augsburg attracted goldsmith journeymen from all over Europe and in the 18th century a large number of silversmiths and goldsmiths became master craftsman in Augsburg.[14]

Nine Years' WarEdit

In 1686 the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I formed the League of Augsburg, also known as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined in 1689. The coalition consisted at various times of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Electorate of the Palatinate, Portugal, Savoy, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic. The coalition was formed to defend the Electorate of the Palatinate and fought against France in the Nine Years' War.[citation needed]

Fugger and Welser monopoliesEdit

Augsburg's economic boom years occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to the bank and metal businesses of the merchant families Fugger and Welser. These families held a near total monopoly on their respective industries.[citation needed] In the 16th century Augsburg became one of Germany's largest cities. Augsburg was a major manufacturing center for textiles, armor, scientific instruments, as well as gold- and silver-smithing. The prolific printers of Augsburg also made the city the largest producer of German-language books in the Holy Roman Empire. Like other free imperial cities, Augsburg was an independent entity, and had authority over its tax policies.[15]

Augsburg's wealth attracted artists seeking patrons. The city rapidly became a creative centre for sculptors and musicians. Augsburg became the base of the Holbein family, starting with Hans Holbein the Elder. The composer Leopold Mozart was born and educated in Augsburg.[16] Rococo became so prevalent that it became known as "Augsburg style" throughout Germany.[citation needed]

End of Free Imperial City statusEdit

 
Early 18th century map of Augsburg and surrounding area.
 
A map of Augsburg in 1800.

The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss or Final Recess of 1803 saw the annexation of nearly all of the 51 Free Imperial Cities, excepting Augsburg and five others. However, when the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, Napoleon encouraged his German allies to mediatize their smaller neighbours, and Augsburg lost its independence. It was annexed to the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1817, the city became an administrative capital of the Oberdonaukreis, then administrative capital in 1837 for the district Swabia and Neuburg.[citation needed]

Industrial revolutionEdit

During the end of the 19th century, Augsburg's textile industry again rose to prominence followed by the connected machine manufacturing industry.[citation needed]

Second World War and Cold WarEdit

Augsburg was historically a militarily important city due to its strategic location. During the German re-armament before the Second World War, the Wehrmacht enlarged Augsburg's one original Kaserne (barracks) to three: Somme Kaserne (housing Wehrmacht Artillerie-Regiment 27); Arras Kaserne (housing Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 27) and Panzerjäger Kaserne (housing Panzerabwehr-Abteilung 27 (later Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27)). Wehrmacht Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27 was later moved to Füssen.

 
A Polish woman weeps as she tells American soldiers of her life as a slave labourer for the Nazis. She was liberated in Augsburg when the third largest Bavarian city fell to the Americans (23 April 1945).

The MAN factory at Augsburg was the largest German manufacturer of engines for U-boats in World War II and became the target of the Augsburg Raid. When the Avro Lancaster bomber was new in service, the RAF sent 12 at low level to bomb the factory in daylight, 17 April 1942. The bombers were intercepted en route and only five returned, all damaged. The factory was damaged but production continued; the factory was repeatedly bombed later. A subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp outside Augsburg supplied approximately 1,300 forced labourers to local military-related industry, especially the Messerschmitt AG military aircraft firm headquartered in Augsburg.[17][18]

In 1941, Rudolf Hess, without Adolf Hitler's permission, secretly took off from a local Augsburg airport and flew to Scotland to meet the Duke of Hamilton, and crashed in Eaglesham in an attempt to mediate the end of the European front of World War II and join sides for the upcoming Russian Campaign.

The Reichswehr Infanterie Regiment 19 was stationed in Augsburg and became the base unit for the Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 40, a subsection of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27 (which later became the Wehrmacht Panzerdivision 17). Elements of Wehrmacht II Battalion of Gebirgs-Jäger-Regiment 99 (especially Wehrmacht Panzerjäger Kompanie 14) was composed of parts of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27. The Infanterie Regiment 40 remained in Augsburg until the end of the war, finally surrendering to the United States when on 28 April 1945, the U.S. Army occupied the city. The city and its Messerschmitt works were bombed on three occasions during the war. Collateral damaged included the destruction of just under 25% of all homes in the city and the deaths of several hundred people.[19]

Following the war, the three Kaserne would change hands confusingly between the American and Germans, finally ending up in US hands for the duration of the Cold War. The former Wehrmacht Kaserne became the three main US barracks in Augsburg: Reese, Sheridan and FLAK. US Base FLAK had been an anti-aircraft barracks since 1936 and US Base Sheridan "united" the former infantry barracks with a smaller Kaserne for former Luftwaffe communications units.

The American military presence in the city started with the U.S. 5th Infantry Division stationed at FLAK Kaserne from 1945 to 1955, then by 11th Airborne Division, followed by the 24th Infantry Division, U.S. Army VII Corps artillery, USASA Field Station Augsburg and finally the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade, which returned the former Kaserne to German hands in 1998. Originally the Heeresverpflegungshauptamt Südbayern and an Officers' caisson existed on or near the location of Reese-Kaserne, but was demolished by the occupying Americans.

PoliticsEdit

MunicipalityEdit

From 1266 until 1548, the terms Stadtpfleger (head of town council) and Mayor were used interchangeably, or occasionally, simultaneously. In 1548 the title was finally fixed to Stadtpfleger, who officiated for several years and was then awarded the title for life (though no longer governing), thus resulting confusingly, in records of two or more simultaneous Stadtpfleger.

After the transfer to Bavaria in 1806, Augsburg was ruled by a Magistrate with two mayors, supported by an additional council of "Community Commissioners": the Gemeindebevollmächtige.

As of 1907, the Mayor was entitled Oberbürgermeister, as Augsburg had reached a population of 100,000, as per the Bavarian Gemeindeordnung.

Town CouncilEdit

Election results of the Town Council since 1972 in percent[20]
Year CSU SPD FDP Grüne ÖDP Linke REP NPD Pro Augsburg AfD other
1972 44,9 46,5 2,3 0,7 0,9 4,7
1978 46,8 44,5 2,7 0,4 0,6 4,9
1984 32,9 44,9 1,3 4,2 0,2 0,7 15,8
1990 43,1 28,4 2,5 10,8 10,0 5,2
1996 44,1 29,4 1,7 10,5 2,8 11,5
2002 43,5 36,4 3,5 8,7 1,8 1,2 4,9
2008 40,1 30,1 2,7 10,3 1,5 3,5 9,4 2,4
2014[21] 37,7 22,4 1,6 12,4 1,9 3,2 5,1 5,9 9,6
Seats
2014
23 13 1 7 1 2 3 4 62

12002 PDS, until 1984 DKP    2Christlich Soziale Mitte (CSM): 3, Freie Wähler: 2, Polit-WG e.V: 1

Members of the BundestagEdit

Augsburg is located in the Wahlkreis 253 Augsburg-Stadt constituency, which includes Königsbrunn and parts of the District of Augsburg (Landkreis Augsburg).

Volker Ullrich of the CSU was directly elected to the Bundestag in the 18th German Bundestag.

Indirectly elected to the Bundestag to adhere to the Landesliste were Ulrike Bahr for the SPD and Claudia Roth for Bündnis 90/Die Grünen.[22]

ClimateEdit

Augsburg has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) or, following the 0 °C isotherm, a humid continental climate (Dfb).

Climate data for Augsburg (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
4.1
(39.4)
8.9
(48.0)
13.6
(56.5)
18.5
(65.3)
21.4
(70.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.5
(74.3)
18.8
(65.8)
13.4
(56.1)
6.6
(43.9)
3.1
(37.6)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
0.2
(32.4)
4.4
(39.9)
8.2
(46.8)
13.0
(55.4)
15.9
(60.6)
18.1
(64.6)
17.7
(63.9)
13.6
(56.5)
9.1
(48.4)
3.5
(38.3)
0.3
(32.5)
8.6
(47.5)
Average low °C (°F) −3.9
(25.0)
−3.7
(25.3)
−0.2
(31.6)
2.7
(36.9)
7.3
(45.1)
10.5
(50.9)
12.3
(54.1)
11.9
(53.4)
8.3
(46.9)
4.8
(40.6)
0.3
(32.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
4.0
(39.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 40.1
(1.58)
36.6
(1.44)
47.8
(1.88)
50.7
(2.00)
85.5
(3.37)
90.0
(3.54)
99.7
(3.93)
92.2
(3.63)
65.9
(2.59)
52.8
(2.08)
52.1
(2.05)
53.5
(2.11)
766.9
(30.2)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 64.1 90.1 127.3 173.8 211.8 218.1 240.1 223.2 159.3 107.9 59.1 48.7 1,723.5
Source: Météoclimat

Main sightsEdit

 
Augsburg Town Hall and Perlachturm (left)
 
The Fuggerei
 
Fugger's City Palace
  • Town Hall, built in 1620 in the Renaissance style with the Goldener Saal
  • Perlachturm, a bell tower built in 989
  • Fuggerei, the oldest social housing estate in the world, inhabited since 1523
  • Fuggerhäuser (Fugger houses), restored renaissance palatial homes of the Fugger banking family
  • Bishop's Residence, built about 1750 in order to replace the older bishop's palace; today the administrative seat of Swabia
  • Cathedral, founded in the 9th century
  • St. Anne's Church, medieval church building that was originally part of a monastery built in 1321
  • St. Mary's Syriac Orthodox Church on the Zusamstraße in Lechhausen, built 1998 by Suryoye (Assyrians)
  • Augsburg Synagogue, one of the few German synagogues to survive the war, now restored and open with a Jewish museum inside
  • Augsburg textile and industry museum-or just tim, organises it displays under headings Mensch-Maschine-Muster-Mode.
  • Schaezlerpalais, a Rococo mansion (1765) now housing a major art museum
  • St. Ulrich and St. Afra—one church is Roman Catholic, the other Lutheran, the duality being a result of the Peace of Augsburg concluded in 1555 between Catholics and Protestants
  • Mozart Haus Augsburg (where composer's father Leopold Mozart was born and Mozart visited it several times)
  • Augsburger Puppenkiste, a puppet theatre
  • Luther Stiege, museum located in a church, that shows Martin Luthers life and different rooms. (free admission)
  • Eiskanal, the world's first artificial whitewater course (venue for the whitewater events of the 1972 Munich Olympics)
  • Dorint Hotel Tower
  • Childhood home of Bertolt Brecht
  • The Augsburg Botanical Gardens (Botanischer Garten Augsburg)
  • Maximillian Museum
  • Bahnpark Augsburg home of 29 historic locomotives, blacksmith, historic roundhouse
  • 3 magnificent renaissance fountains, the Agustus Fountain, Mercury Fountain and Hercules Fountain from 15th century, build for the 1500 anniversary of city foundation
  • Walter Art Museum at the Glas Palast ("Glas-Palace")
  • Roman Museum located in the former Monastery of St. Margaret (closed at the moment due to risk of collapsing). Renovation is taking place and the museum is expected to reopen in 2017.[23]
  • Medieval canals, used to run numerous industries, medieval arms production, silver art, sanitation and water pumping
  • Kulturhaus Abraxas

Urban legendsEdit

 
The "Stoinerne Ma"

Goddess Cisa and the StadtpirEdit

The pagan goddess Cisa has been linked to the civic emblem of Augsburg, known as Stadtpir. Cisa and the Stadtpir came to represent the prosperity of the city. The Stadtpir was stamped on cloth that was approved by the town cloth inspector. Metalworks produced in the city were also stamped with the Stadtpir. The Stadtpir adorns the 17th century town hall.[24]

The Stoinerne MaEdit

The "Stoinerne Ma" ("Stony Man") is a life-size stone figure on the eastern Augsburg city wall in the area of the so-called "Sweden staircase", which is located in the immediate vicinity of the Galluskirche and St. Stephan convent (on the outside of the city wall). It is probably a one-armed baker with a loaf of bread and a shield. In the area of the feet there is a helically twisted pedestal.

According to the legend, it is the baker "Konrad Hackher" who, during a long siege of the city, baked bread from sawdust and threw it into the ditch clearly visible for the besiegers over the city wall. The impression that Augsburg would still have so much bread that one could throw it over the wall is said to have demoralized the besiegers so much that they fired at him with a crossbow out of anger. A hit struck off his arm, and soon afterwards the siege was broken off. Historically, the event belongs to the Thirty Years' War, more precisely to the siege of Augsburg during the years 1634/35, when Catholic Bavarian troops under Field Marshal von Wahl wanted to recapture the city occupied by the Protestant Swedes. The baker's deed is not reliably proven.

The statue is often visited by walkers strolling along the city wall. As it is said to be a fortunate thing to touch the stone figure's iron nose. This custom is particularly popular with lovers.[citation needed]

Bei den sieben KindelnEdit
 
Bei den sieben Kindeln

In the wall of the property Bei den Sieben Kindeln 3 ("At the seven infants 3") there is a recessed stone relief from the Roman period. Legend says that the commemorative plaque was commissioned by a Roman officer to commemorate the drowning of one of his children (therefore it is said to be "seven" children, although the plaque represents only six: the seventh child is drowned and lies in the coffin). According to current knowledge, the plate once formed the long side of a Sarcophagus.[citation needed]

Lazarethe plague housesEdit

 
17th-century "plague panel" of a skull wearing a wreath – depicting the triumph of death. Panels of this kind were placed on the walls of houses to remind and warn the populace against the plague in Augsburg during the 1632-1635 plague epidemic.

The city of Augsburg had two civic plague houses. The two civic plague houses, called Lazarethe, were established when the black death first appeared in Augsburg in 1349. Thereafter they were opened whenever a plague epidemic occurred in the city. As soon as a medical practitioner, such as a barber surgeon, diagnosed the plague the patients were transferred to the plague houses by order of the city council. The transfer to the plague houses was publicly announced, so as to prevent panic and the breakdown of economic life. In the second half of the 18th century, the plague houses were used to treat other diseases, such as smallpox and scurvy.[25]

IncorporationsEdit

Year Municipality Area
1 July 1910 Meringerau 9.5 km2
1 January 1911 Pfersee 3.5 km2
1 January 1911 Oberhausen 8.6 km2
1 January 1913 Lechhausen 27.9 km2
1 January 1913 Hochzoll 4.4 km2
1 April 1916 Kriegshaber 59 km2
1 July 1972 Göggingen
1 July 1972 Haunstetten
1 July 1972 Inningen

PopulationEdit

Historical developmentEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
163516,432—    
164519,960+21.5%
180626,200+31.3%
183029,019+10.8%
187151,220+76.5%
189075,629+47.7%
190089,109+17.8%
1910102,487+15.0%
1916146,226+42.7%
1925165,522+13.2%
1933176,575+6.7%
1939185,369+5.0%
1950185,183−0.1%
1961208,659+12.7%
1970211,566+1.4%
1975252,000+19.1%
1980246,600−2.1%
1985244,200−1.0%
1990256,877+5.2%
1995259,699+1.1%
2000254,982−1.8%
2005262,676+3.0%
2010264,708+0.8%
2015281,111+6.2%
2019296,582+5.5%
Largest groups of foreign residents[26]
Nationality Population (31 December 2017)
  Turkey 11,701
  Romania 7,242
  Italy 4,280
  Croatia 4,123
  Poland 2,581
  Syria 2,392
  Iraq 2,369
  Greece 2,129
  Hungary 1,907
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,823
  Russia 1,746
  Kosovo 1,650
  Bulgaria 1,639
  Ukraine 1,512
  Serbia 1,312
  Afghanistan 1,256
Total 64,627

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Augsburg is twinned with:[27]

TransportEdit

RoadsEdit

The main road link is autobahn A 8 between Munich and Stuttgart.

Public transportEdit

Public transport is very well catered for. It is controlled by the Augsburger Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund (Augsburg transport and tariff association, AVV) extended over central Swabia. There are seven rail Regionalbahn lines, five tram lines, 27 city bus lines and six night bus lines, as well as several taxi companies.

The Augsburg tramway network is now 35.5 km-long after the opening of new lines to the university in 1996, the northern city boundary in 2001 and to the Klinikum Augsburg (Augsburg hospital) in 2002. Tram line 6, which runs 5.2 km from Friedberg West to Hauptbahnhof (Central Station), opened in December 2010.[28]

Intercity busEdit

There is one station for intercity bus services in Augsburg: Augsburg Nord, located in the north of the city.[29]

RailwayEdit

 
The front of the station

Augsburg has seven stations, the Central Station (Hauptbahnhof), Hochzoll, Oberhausen, Haunstetterstraße, Morellstraße, Messe and Inningen. The Central Station, built from 1843 to 1846, is Germany's oldest main station in a large city still providing services in the original building. It is currently being modernized and an underground tram station is built underneath it. Hauptbahnhof is on the Munich–Augsburg and Ulm–Augsburg lines and is connected by ICE and IC services to Munich, Berlin, Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Stuttgart. As of December 2007, the French TGV connected Augsburg with a direct High Speed Connection to Paris. In addition EC and night train services connect to Amsterdam, Paris and Vienna and connections will be substantially improved by the creation of the planned Magistrale for Europe.

The AVV operates seven Regionalbahn lines from the main station to:

Starting in 2008, the regional services are planned to be altered to S-Bahn frequencies and developed long term as integrated into the Augsburg S-Bahn.

Air transportEdit

Until 2005 Augsburg was served by nearby Augsburg Airport (AGB). In that year all air passenger transport was relocated to Munich Airport. Since then, the airport is used almost entirely by business airplanes.[30]

EconomyEdit

 
Statue of Archangel Michael in Augsburg
 
KUKA's industrial robots

Augsburg is a vibrant industrial city. Many global market leaders namely MAN, EADS or KUKA produce high technology products like printing systems, large diesel engines, industrial robots or components for the Airbus A380 and the Ariane carrier rocket. After Munich, Augsburg is considered the high-tech centre for Information and Communication in Bavaria and takes advantage of its lower operating costs, yet close proximity to Munich and potential customers. In 2018 the Bavarian State Government recognized this fact and promoted Augsburg to Metropole.[31]

Major companiesEdit

Water Management SystemEdit

Water Management System of Augsburg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
 
Water Management System in Meitingen
LocationGermany
CriteriaCultural: (ii), (iv)
Reference1580
Inscription2019 (43rd Session)
Area112.83 ha (278.8 acres)
Buffer zone3,204.23 ha (7,917.8 acres)

The water systems of Augsburg were built between the 14th century and today. A network of canals, water towers, pumping equipment and hydroelectric power stations have provided drinking water and power for the city for centuries.[33]

On 6 July 2019, the Water Management System of Augsburg was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[34]

EducationEdit

Augsburg is home to the following universities and colleges:

MediaEdit

The local newspaper is the Augsburger Allgemeine first published in 1807.[citation needed]

Notable peopleEdit

 
Holbein's house

SportsEdit

 
FC Augsburg against Borussia Dortmund in the Bundesliga at the SGL arena in November 2012.

FC Augsburg is a football team based in Augsburg and plays in the WWK ARENA to the south of the city centre. FC Augsburg secured promotion to Bundesliga in 2011 and have remained there ever since, qualifying for the Europa League for the first time in 2015 and securing mid-table finishes across the last few seasons. The club, nicknamed the Fuggerstädter or simply as FCA, reached the last 32 in the 2015-16 Europa League with a 1-0 aggregate defeat to Liverpool. The WWK ARENA, nicknamed the “Anfield of the B17 Highway” following the Liverpool UEL match, opened in July 2009 and also hosted games of the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. The 30,660 capacity arena is easily accessible from the city centre or the adjacent B17 dual carriageway.

The city is home to a DEL (first-division) ice hockey team, the Augsburger Panther. The original club, AEV, was formed in 1878, the oldest German ice sport club and regularly draws around 4000 spectators, quite reasonable for German ice hockey. Home games are played at the Curt Frenzel Stadion: a recently rebuilt (2012–2013) indoor rink and modern stadium and the club reached the 2018/19 DEL semi finals, eventually losing in the winner-takes-all game 7 to EHC Red Bull München (4-3 series defeat). Consequently, the Panthers qualified for the Champions Hockey League. Augsburg is also home to one of the most traditional German Baseball clubs, the Augsburg Gators and 2 American Football Clubs, the Raptors and Augsburg Storm, and in nearby Königsbrunn there's the Königsbrunn Ants.

For the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, a Lech dam protective diversionary canal for river ice was converted into the world's first artificial whitewater slalom course: the Eiskanal and remains a world-class venue for whitewater competition and served as prototype for two dozen similar foreign courses.

Local city nicknamesEdit

While commonly called Fuggerstadt (Fuggers' city) due to the Fuggers residing there, within Swabia it is also often referred to as Datschiburg: which originated sometime in the 19th century refers to Augsburg's favorite sweet: the Datschi made from fruit, preferably prunes, and thin cake dough.[38] The Datschiburger Kickers charity football team (founded in 1965) reflects this in its choice of team name.[39][40]

Among younger people, the city is commonly called "Aux" for short.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Liste der Oberbürgermeister in den kreisfreien Städten, Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik, accessed 19 July 2021.
  2. ^ "Tabellenblatt "Daten 2", Statistischer Bericht A1200C 202041 Einwohnerzahlen der Gemeinden, Kreise und Regierungsbezirke". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik (in German). June 2021.
  3. ^ "Augsburg". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  4. ^ "Augsburg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  5. ^ "Und-wieder-5000-Menschen-mehr-Augsburg-waechst-und-waechst". www.augsburger-allgemeine.de. 17 February 2015.
  6. ^ ""Great honor": Augsburg water management system recognized as a World Heritage". tellerreport.com. 6 July 2019.
  7. ^ John G. Kelcey; Norbert Müller (7 June 2011). Plants and Habitats of European Cities. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-0-387-89684-7.
  8. ^ Jecmen, Gregory; Spira, Freyda (2012). Imperial Augsburg: Renaissance Prints and Drawings, 1475-1540. National Gallery of Art (U.S.). p. 25. ISBN 9781848221222.
  9. ^ Tore Janson (2007). A Natural History of Latin. OUP Oxford. p. 169. ISBN 9780191622656.
  10. ^ Jecmen, Gregory; Spira, Freyda (2012). Imperial Augsburg: Renaissance Prints and Drawings, 1475-1540. National Gallery of Art (U.S.). p. 25. ISBN 9781848221222.
  11. ^ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/after-almost-500-years-german-utopia-is-still-going-strong-180973787/
  12. ^ Behringer, Wolfgang (2003). Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria: Popular Magic, Religious Zealotry and Reason of State in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 95. ISBN 9780521525107.
  13. ^ Hays, J. N. (2005). Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history. ABC-CLIO. p. 98]. ISBN 1851096582.
  14. ^ Prak, Maarten; Epstein, S. R. (2008). Guilds, Innovation and the European Economy, 1400–1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN 9781139471077.
  15. ^ Tlusty, B. Ann (2012). Augsburg During the Reformation Era: An Anthology of Sources. Hackett Publishing Company. pp. xviii. ISBN 9781603849203.
  16. ^ "Leopold Mozart: Biography & History". allmusic.com. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  17. ^ Wolfgang Sofsky, William Templer, The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp: Princeton University Press: 1999, ISBN 0-691-00685-7, page 183
  18. ^ Edward Victor. Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Campaign Diary February 1944". Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  20. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Augsburg – Chapter 11: Election results of the Town Council since 1946[permanent dead link] (PDF; 2,6 MB)
  21. ^ "Kommunalwahlen in Bayern 2014". kommunalwahl2014.bayern.de. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  22. ^ ePaper 14. January 2014: Results of the Bundestagswahl 2014 in Augsburg (PDF; 12,1 MB)
  23. ^ "Germany Bavaria Museums and Galleries Römisches Museum Augsburg". bavaria.by. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  24. ^ Tarbin, Stephanie; Broomhall, Susan (2008). Women, Identities and Communities in Early Modern Europe. Ashgate Publishing Company. p. 122. ISBN 9780754661849.
  25. ^ Tlusty, Ann B.; Häberlein, Mark (2020). A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Augsburg. BRILL. p. 53. ISBN 9789004416055.
  26. ^ "Strukturdaten nach Stadtbezirk" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  27. ^ "Augsburgs Partnerstädte – Freundschaften und Begegnungen auf drei Kontinenten". augsburg.de (in German). Augsburg. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  28. ^ "Railway Gazette: Urban rail news in brief". Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  29. ^ "Augsburg: Stations". Travelinho.com. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  30. ^ "Augsburg Airport (EDMA)". flughafen-augsburg.de. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  31. ^ "Verordnung zur Änderung der Verordnung über das Landesentwicklungsprogramm Bayern" (PDF). Bayerisches Staatsministerium der Finanzen, für Landesentwicklung und Heimat. 21 February 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  32. ^ "BÖWE SYSTEC GmbH | Kuvertiersysteme, Kartenversandsysteme, Sortieranlagen, Lesetechnologie und Software". boewe-systec.com. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  33. ^ James Douet (2018). "The Water Industry as World Heritage" (PDF). The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH). p. 32.
  34. ^ "Seven more cultural sites added to UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO. 6 July 2019.
  35. ^ "Universität Augsburg". uni-augsburg.de. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  36. ^ "Oskar Schindler's collaborator, Mietek Pemper, has died". Agence France-Presse. The Gazette (Montreal). 15 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  37. ^ Martin, Douglas (18 June 2011). "Mietek Pemper, 91, Camp Inmate Who Compiled Schindler's List". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  38. ^ Augsburger Stadtlexikon – Datschiburg Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed: 18 November 2008
  39. ^ Datschiburger Kickers website Archived 6 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine accessed: 18 November 2008
  40. ^ Augsburger Stadtlexikon – Datschiburger Kickers (in German) accessed: 18 November 2008

ReferencesEdit

  • Die Chroniken der schwäbischen Städte, Augsburg, (Leipzig, 1865–1896).
  • Werner, Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg, (Augsburg, 1900).
  • Lewis, "The Roman Antiquities of Augsburg and Ratisbon", in volume xlviii, Archæological Journal, (London, 1891).
  • Michael Schulze, Augsburg in one day. A city tour Lehmstedt Verlag, Leipzig 2015, ISBN 978-3957970176.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit