The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.

Events

1280

1281

By place edit

Byzantine Empire edit
  • Spring – Siege of Berat: A Byzantine relief force under Michael Tarchaneiotes arrives at the strategically important citadel of Berat. Tarchaneiotes avoids a confrontation with the Angevines and relies on ambushes and raids instead. He manages to capture the Angevin commander, Hugh of Sully, a few of Sully's guards escape and reach their camp – where they report his capture. Panic spreads among the Angevin troops at this news and they begin to flee towards Avlon. The Byzantines take advantage of their disordered flight and attacks, joined by the troops in the besieged citadel. Tarchaneiotes takes an enormous booty, a small remnant of the Angevin army manages to cross the Vjosa River and reach the safety of Kanina.[10]
  • October 18 – Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) is excommunicated by Pope Martin IV without any warning or provocation. Martin authorizes Charles I, king of Sicily, to make a Crusade against Michael, who has re-established his rule in Constantinople. Charles prepares an expedition in Sicily and assembles a fleet of 100 ships, and 300 more in Naples, Provence, and the Greek territories, which carry some 8,000 cavalrymen.[11]
Europe edit
Middle East edit
  • September – Two Mongol armies (some 50,000 men) advance into Syria. One, is commanded by Abaqa Khan – who attacks the Mamluk fortresses along the Euphrates frontier. The second one, led by his brother Möngke Temür makes contact with Leo III, king of Cilician Armenia, and then marches down through Aintab and Aleppo into the Orontes valley. Where he is joined by knights of the Hospitaller Order and some French mercenaries. Meanwhile, Sultan Qalawun assembles his Mamluk forces at Damascus.[14]
  • October 29Battle of Homs: In a pitched battle, Mamluk forces (some 30,000 men) led by Qalawun destroy the Mongol center, Möngke Temür is wounded and flees. He orders a retreat, followed by a disorganized army. The Armenian-Georgian auxiliaries under Leo III fight their way back northwards. The Mongol army recrosses the Euphrates without losses, the river remains the frontier between the Mongols and the Mamluk Sultanate.[15]
  • Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, becomes bey of the Söğüt tribe in central Anatolia after the death of his father, Ertuğrul Ghazi. Osman's accession to power is not peaceful, as he has to fight his relatives before he gets hold of the clan's leadership. One of Osman's major rivals is his uncle Dündar Bey, who rebels against him.[16]
Asia edit

By topic edit

Markets edit
Religion edit

1282

By place edit

Europe edit

By topic edit

Education edit
Markets edit
  • The form for the Trial of the Pyx, during which it is confirmed that newly minted coins conform to required standards, is established.
  • The first evidence is discovered of the existence of consolidated public debt in Bruges, confirming the expansion of use of annuities, to fund government expenditure to the Low Countries.[31]
Nature edit
Technology edit
Religion edit

1283

By place edit

Europe edit
British Isles edit
Levant edit
Africa edit
Asia edit

By topic edit

The arts, culture and literature edit
Markets edit
  • The German city of Goslar starts making efforts to redeem its already issued annuities, a sure indication of financial difficulty, and maybe an early sign of the 13th century crisis.[44]

1284

By place edit

Europe edit
England edit
  • March 3Statute of Rhuddlan: King Edward I (Longshanks) brings Wales under direct rule after the Welsh Wars (1277–1283). He appoints sheriffs and bailiffs for the northern territories while the southern areas are left under the control of the Marcher Lords. English law is introduced in criminal cases, though the Welsh are allowed to maintain their customary laws in some cases of property disputes.[48][49][50]
  • Edward I (Longshanks) arranges a Round Table event and tournament at Nefyn in Wales. He promises the Welsh that he will provide them with a Prince of Wales.
Africa edit

By topic edit

Art and Culture edit
Cities and Towns edit
Education edit
Health edit
Markets edit
  • The Republic of Venice begins coining the ducat, a gold coin that is to become the standard of European coinage, for the following 600 years.

1285

By place edit

Europe edit
England edit
Levant edit
  • April 17 – Mamluk forces under Sultan Qalawun (the Victorious) appear with specially built war engines before the Crusader fortress of Margat and begin a siege. For a month, the Mamluks can make no progress and the assaults on the stronghold are repelled. Qalawun then invites a delegation of Knights Hospitaller to come and see the damage his engineers have done to the 'impregnable' fortifications. They understood they have no real choice and are forced to surrender on May 25. The Hospitallers are allowed to retire with all their possessions, on horseback and fully armed. The rest of the garrison is promised a safe-conduct to Tortosa – while Qalawun establishes a Mamluk garrison which he uses as a basis for further campaigns against the Crusader States.[59]
Asia edit

By topic edit

Art and Culture edit
Markets edit
  • The first record is made of an emission of life annuities, by the city of Lübeck. It is the first instance of issue of public debt in Germany, and it confirms a trend of consolidation of local public debt over north-western Europe (see 1228).[61]
  • The County of Champagne is integrated into the kingdom of France; the region loses its haven characteristics for foreign merchants, and the Fairs of Troyes quickly dwindle into economic insignificance.[62]
Religion edit

1286

By place edit

Europe edit
England & Scotland edit
Levant edit
  • June 4 – The 15-year-old Henry II sails from Cyprus and lands in Acre, but is refused entry into the citadel. There, he stays for six weeks in the palace to negotiate an agreement to take over the city from the Angevins.[69]
  • August 15 – Henry II is crowned king of Jerusalem at Tyre. After the ceremony, he returns to Acre for the festivities. A few weeks later, Henry returns to Cyprus and appoints his uncle Philip of Ibelin as regent (bailiff).[70]
Africa edit
Asia edit

By topic edit

Art and Culture edit

1287

By place edit

Europe edit
  • January 17 – Aragonese forces led by King Alfonso III (the Liberal) conquer the island of Menorca. He signs the "Treaty of San Agayz" with Sultan Abû 'Umar ibn Sa'îd on January 21. Alfonso accepts a policy of free trade for merchants and their property. He also concludes an alliance against the Marinids with Abu Said Uthman I, ruler of the Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen (modern Algeria). He proposes to supply him with five to ten galleys (with food and other goods) in exchange for 500 elite Zayyanid horsemen.[72]
  • Alfonso III (the Liberal) is forced to make concessions to the nobility after an aristocratic uprising (called the Union of Aragon). In particular, he grants his barons a "Bill of Rights", known as the Privilegium Generale. This leaves a heritage of disunity and further dissent among the nobility, who increasingly see little reason to respect the throne, and brings the Crown of Aragon to the point of anarchy. Alfonso, who is not pleased with the anti-royalist movement, is forced to accept the Magna Carta (Great Charter).[73]
  • JuneRabban Bar Sauma, Chinese Nestorian monk and diplomat, travels from Constantinople to Italy. There he arrives in Naples and witnesses a sea battle in the harbour between the Aragonese and the Angevin fleets. Bar Sauma goes to Rome, but arrives too late to meet Pope Honorius IV, who recently died. He instead is engaged in negotiations with the cardinals, who are in a conclave to elect a successor, and visits the St. Peter's Basilica. Bar Sauma goes to Genoa, where he receives a warm welcome.[74]
  • June 23Battle of the Counts: An Aragonese-Sicilian fleet (some 50 galleys) under Admiral Roger of Lauria defeat a larger Angevin fleet of 70 galleys near Naples. After a feigned retreat, Roger attacks the Angevin galleys from all sides. During the battle, which last much of the day, the Angevin fleet is scattered, leaving about 40 galleys to be captured, along with 5,000 prisoners. After the victory, without any authorization from King James II, Roger makes a truce with the Neapolitans (who are allies of the Angevins).
  • September – Rabban Bar Sauma arrives in Paris, and is received in an audience by King Philip IV (the Fair). He spends one month at the royal court, during his stay, Philip himself escorts him around the Sainte-Chapelle (or Holy Chapel) to see the collection of Passion relics by late King Louis IX (the Saint). Philip gives Bar Sauma many presents and sends one of his noblemen, Gobert de Helleville, to return with him to Mongol lands. In response, he attempts to form a military alliance with France and England.[75]
  • December 14 – A huge storm and associated storm tide in the North Sea and English Channel, known as St. Lucia's flood in the Netherlands, kills thousands and reshapes the coastline of the Netherlands and England. In the Netherlands, a fringing barrier between the North Sea and a shallow lake collapses, causing the fifth-largest flood in recorded history – which creates the Zuider Zee inlet, and kills over 50,000 people. It also gives sea access to Amsterdam, allowing its development as an important port city.
  • Winter – Mongol invasion of Poland: Mongol forces (some 30,000 men) under Talabuga Khan and Nogai Khan, attack Poland for the third time. The cities of Lublin, Sandomierz and Sieradz are devastated by the invaders. Nogai Khan besieges Kraków and launches an unsuccessful assault on the fortified city, suffering heavy casualties in the process.
England edit
  • February – South England flood: A large storm hits the south coast, this has a powerful effect on the Cinque Ports, two of which are hit (Hastings and New Romney). The storm destroys Old Winchelsea on Romney Marsh and nearby Broomhill. The course of the Rother River is diverted away from New Romney, which is almost destroyed, ending its role as a port; the Rother runs instead to the sea at Rye – whose prospects as a port are enhanced. A cliff collapses at Hastings, ending its role as a trade harbor and demolishing a part of Hastings Castle. New Winchelsea is established on higher ground.[76]
  • June 8 – Welsh forces led by Rhys ap Maredudd revolt in Wales against King Edward I (Longshanks). Although Maredudd has assisted the English in the past, he accuses Edward of treating him unfairly over taxes. The rebels burn several towns, including Swansea and Carmarthen. They capture most of Ystrad Tywi, heartland of Deheubarth (the revolt will not be suppressed until 1288).
  • Summer – Edward I (Longshanks) replies to the Welsh rebellion by raising an army at Gloucester commanded by Edmund of Almain. The English forces besiege Dryslwyn Castle, which lasts for three weeks before the castle falls after the curtain walls are undermined. Rhys ap Maredudd manages to escape and goes into hiding before the stronghold is finally captured in late September.
  • December – Parts of Norfolk are flooded, the port of Dunwich in Suffolk is further devastated, and in The Fens through the storm and the violence of the sea, the monastery of Spalding and many churches are overthrown and destroyed: "The whole country in the parts of Holland was, for the most part, turned into a standing pool so that an intolerable multitude of men, women and children were overwhelmed with the water, especially in the town of Boston, a great part thereof was destroyed."[77]
Middle East edit
  • Spring – Arghun Khan, Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate, sends an embassy under Rabban Bar Sauma with the mission of contracting a military alliance against the Mamluk Sultanate and take the city of Jerusalem. He travels with a large retinue (bearing gifts and letters) and 30 riding animals from Tabriz through Armenia to Trebizond. Bar Sauma arrives in Constantinople and receives an audience with Emperor Andronikos II (Palaiologos).[78]
  • March – Mamluk forces under Sultan Qalawun (the Victorious) capture Latakia, last remnant of the Principality of Antioch. The city port falls easily into his hands, but the defenders retire to the citadel at the mouth of the harbour. Finally, Qalawun forces the Crusader garrison to surrender on April 20.[79]
  • October 19Bohemond VII, ruler of Tripoli, dies childless. He is succeeded by his sister Lucia, who is married to Charles I of Naples' former Grand Admiral, Narjot de Toucy. But the nobles, not pleased with this decision, offer the county to Bohemond's mother, Dowager-Princess Sibylla of Armenia.[80]
  • Winter – Two unidentified 'merchants' travel from Alexandria to Cairo to warn Qalawun of the economic dangers posed by Genoese domination in the eastern Mediterranean, which leaves the Mamluk trade at their mercy. Qalawun accepts the invitation to intervene, and breaks the truce with Tripoli.[81]
Africa edit
Asia edit

By topic edit

Art and Culture edit
  • The Altar of St. James in Pistoia Cathedral, Italy – a masterwork of the silversmithing trade containing nearly a ton of silver – is begun; it will not be completed for nearly 200 years.
Economy edit
  • The Italian city of Siena exacts a forced loan from its taxpayers for the first time, a common feature of medieval public finance.[84]
Religion edit

1288

By place edit

Europe edit
England & Scotland edit
Levant edit
  • Spring – Genoa orders Admiral Benedetto Zaccaria to send five galleys to support Genoese suzerainty of Tripoli. Princess Lucia, sister of the late Count Bohemond VII, arrives in Acre, where the Knights Hospitaller escort her to the frontier with Tripoli. The commune refuses to accept her as new ruler and places the city under Genoese protection. After negotiations, Lucia offers to confirm Genoa's existing commercial privileges in Tripoli.[91]
Asia edit

By topic edit

Art and Culture edit
Markets edit
  • June 16Petrus, bishop of Västerås, buys 1/8 of the Stora Kopparberg copper mine in Falun, Sweden. During the reign of King Magnus III, nobles and foreign merchants from Lübeck take interests in the mining area.
  • The Flemish city of Ghent seeks rights to start redeeming its already issued annuities. It is a clear indication of financial difficulty, and maybe an early sign of the crisis of the 13th Century.[93]
Religion edit
Technology edit
  • The oldest-known bronze handgun in the world is dated to this year, a Chinese gun found in Acheng District, that was once used to suppress the rebellion of the Mongol prince Nayan.

1289

By place edit

Europe edit
England edit
Levant edit
  • February 9 – Sultan Qalawun (the Victorious) marches the Mamluk army out of Cairo, leaving his son Al-Ashraf Khalil commanding Cairo's Citadel, supported by Viceroy Baydara al-Mansuri. The army moves via Salihiya, across Sinai and through Jordan to Damascus. He orders the regional governors of Syria to mobilize in Damascus, where many infantry volunteers have assembled.[97]
  • March – The 19-year-old King Henry II sends his younger brother Almalric, with a company of knights and 4 galleys to Tripoli (modern Lebanon). Meanwhile, many non-combatant citizens flee to Cyprus. The Mamluk army arrives before Tripoli and begins the attack with siege engines, while building buches (wooden defensive structures) outside the city on March 25.[98]
  • April 26Siege of Tripoli: Mamluk forces under Qalawun (the Victorious) capture Tripoli after a month-long siege, thus extinguishing the County of Tripoli. Qalawun orders the city to be razed to the ground, a widespread massacre kills every man found by the Mamluks, while the women and children are taken as slaves.[99]
  • July–August – Admiral Benedetto Zaccaria, having escaped from Tripoli, starts a naval campaign against Mamluk shipping and raids Tinnis in Egypt. In response, Qalawun closes Alexandria to Genoese merchants.[100]

By topic edit

Education edit
Markets edit

Significant people edit

Births

1280

1281

1282

1283

1284

1285

1286

1287

1288

1289

Deaths

1280

1281

1282

1283

1284

1285

1286

1287

1288

1289

References edit

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