Falun (Swedish pronunciation: [ˇfɑːlɵn]) is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010. It is also the capital of Dalarna County. Falun forms, together with Borlänge, a metropolitan area with close to 100,000 inhabitants.
Falun seen from the Sveriges Radio building
|• City||27.1716 km2 (10.4910 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,052.65 km2 (792.53 sq mi)|
|Elevation||110 m (360 ft)|
(31 December 2010)
|• Density||1,372/km2 (3,550/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||(+46) 23|
Faluån is a river, flowing through the city, separating it into two sides. Falu copper mine is located on one of the sides which during many centuries was one of Sweden's main business. This side of the river was usually called "the mining side", where not many plants grew due to the toxic smoke which contaminated the soil. On the other side of the river, where the smoke did not reach, set many large villas, which made this side to be called "the delightful side". The centre of Falun consists of classical pedestrian streets with small shops. in 1998, the city reclaimed the award of "the city centre of the year" in Sweden.
The year 2001, the city, the copper mine and mining areas of Falun were added to the list of world heritage sites by the United Nations, which means that the city is worth preserving, as it is considered to be of interest for all of humanity. Dalarna University, with its 18 000 students, has a campus located in Falun - close to the national ski stadium where the ski world championship has taken place a number of times, including the last one in 2015.
The town of Falun is known to have existed in the 14th century as a market place for the surrounding lands. Mining for copper had been a local business since the mid-13th century, or possibly as early as 1000, and the organisation for the extracting of copper and gold from Stora Kopparberget is believed to be the oldest still-existing enterprise in the world, proved active since 1347, when its charter was granted by King Magnus IV of Sweden. The first share in the company is dated as early as 1288.
However, an enterprise at that time was nothing more than a cooperative among the owners, each contributing with a share of money for construction, tools, etc., necessary to run the organisation. Depending on their contributions they could use the facilities and share the profits in proportion to the relative sizes of their individual contributions.
The city of Falun received its privileges in 1641. By then Falun was already one of the largest cities in Sweden, with about 6000 inhabitants. Soon, however, the importance of the copper mine began to decrease. In 1687, parts of the mine collapsed in a landslide, creating a 100 m deep pit. Even though the mine remained in use for the next 300 years, the production gradually diminished, until it closed down in 1992.
During World War II, Falun was the place where the authorities "interned" British and American airmen who happened to land in Sweden, or reached the country after landing in German-controlled territories. Unlike civilian refugees from Germany, who were kept in internment camps throughout the country, British and American airmen were placed in hotels and bed and breakfast establishments in the Falun area, and enjoyed relative freedom.
Falun has a humid continental climate.
Winter is the longest season lasting approximately from mid-November until the end of March, although March daytime temperatures tend to be mild. With an average high temperature of 23 °C (73.4 °F), July is the warmest month. However, the all-time heat record was set on August 4, 2014 when 35.1 °C (95.2 °F) was measured. This was in turn the highest measured temperature of the intense heat wave that summer that affected most of Scandinavia. The climate of Falun is more continental than most of Sweden since it is relatively far from large bodies of waters moderating temperatures. As a result, the highs of July in Falun are normally warmer than many areas much further south in the country. Winters, however, are cold but also highly variable due to the proximity to some maritime influence that often brings mild temperatures above freezing, moderating average temperatures. The most precipitation occurs during the summer months of July and August. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Falun is −40.0 °C (−40.0 °F). The weather station has however, not recorded below −37.2 °C (−35.0 °F) according to the open data.
|Climate data for Falun (2002–2018 averages; sunshine in Borlänge; extremes since 1901)|
|Record high °C (°F)||12.2
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||5.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.9
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||−20.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||41.0
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||47.7||74.8||164.0||213.8||238.5||257.7||256.8||210.9||157.8||107.3||54.4||47.0||1,830.7|
|Source #1: SMHI Open Data|
|Source #2: SMHI average data 2002–2018|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Stora Gruvstugan was designed by Eric Geisler and built between 1771-1785 in a Rococo Style, also referred to as Late Baroque. The building is situated by Falun Copper Mine and used to be the main office to the copper mine. in 1882 the building was rebuilt into Berslagets museum. In the beginning of 1920, the mining came close to the structure which made it fragile and extensive repairs was made to the building.
Västra Skolan was built in 1915, based on a design by the city architect in Falun, Klas Boman. The building functioned as a school up until 2010. The tower was a replica of Kristine Kyrka from which one could view the entire low built city.
Egnellska Huset was built in 1903 and was designed by Falun's first city architect, Klas Boman. The building functioned as a modern residential building. The building was initially a light yellow color and then later recolored in a more bright yellow color. After two separate fires in 2007 and 2008, the building was restored to its original appearance.
Falugatan is a street in Falun and has since the 15th century functioned as a connection between eastern and western Falun. Thanks to its location by the river, this site became an important commerce site for city. When Falun, officially became a city, in 1641, it was this street that named the city to Falun. The street kept it appearance up until the 1960s when Falun was modernized architectural. During the 1960', four of the five 18th century buildings were demolished and today, the Körsnerska Huset is the only one remaining in its original appearance.
Centralpalatset is a building located on Stora Torget in Falun and is a monumental building, decorated in Art Nouveau. It was built between 1895-1896 and was designed by the local architect Ferdinand Boberg. The author Selma Lagerlöf lived in the building, and it was here she wrote The Wonderful Adventures of Nils. In 1947, the initial balconies were removed and in 1955 the whole building was facing a renovation where the facade was redesigned and the whole house scaled down, making it shorter and flatter
Wiklunds Glas was a building on Åsgatan in Falun and was designed in a combination between Art Nouveau and Renaissance in the Low Countries. The building was designed by the Architect J.Wernfeldt and functioned as a location for a glass company. The building was demolished in 1971 when Falun was modernized.
Geislerska Huset was built sometime between 1765 and 1768 by Eric Geisler. The building was built by a technique which later became referred to as Eric Geisler Technique. It was the oldest building in the world built with copper slag stone. The building was demolished in 1977 and on the site today is an office building.
Rådhuset (Town Hall) is located on Stora Torget in Falun. Was built between 1649 and 1653, initially as a one floor building, but in the 1960s a second floor was added onto the building. In 1761, the building was destroyed in a fire, but was quickly rebuilt and is still, today, standing on the same site.
Varmbadhuset a community swimming pool facility in Falun. It was designed in a National Romantic Style by the city architect Klas Boman and built in 1911. In the 1960s a sport center was planned out for Falun and Varmbadhuset lost its importance and faced demolition in 1974, despite strong protests from the residents in Falun. On the site today is the police station.
In 1961, an architectural competition was organized in Falun. The neighborhood (Falan) between the western side of Stora Torget and Faluån was to be modernized. The competition was won by Uhlin och Malms Arkitektkontor in Stockholm. The final design was built in 1968 with two buildings along the western side of the Plaza. Since 1968, the buildings have been rebuilt many times.
There is a number of elementary schools in Falun, as well as a number of gymnasiums.
For education, the city holds part of the University College of Dalarna (Högskolan Dalarna).
In sports, Falun hosts the annual Swedish Ski Games at its skiing arena Lugnet, Falun. The city's most successful sport team is the bandy team Falu BS which has played in the Swedish top division for many years. Also, IBF Falun, the floorball male and female teams have been very successful. Falu FK play in Division 2 Norra Svealand.
The city lost out to Calgary, Alberta, Canada, in 1981 for the 1988 Winter Olympics. Again, Falun applied for the 1992 Winter Olympics but lost out to Albertville, France, in 1986. The city lost despite the best efforts of one of ABBA's singers who recorded a single in support of the bid.
Falun is the hometown of 'The Battle', one of the world's most famous snowboard competitions.
Lake Runn is visited both during the winter, for ice skating, and summer for its wide variety of watersports. The lake itself is over 60 sq kilometres of water and has over 50 islands. The sailing and fishing opportunities in particular are tremendous. Framby Udde Resort offers many of these in partnership with other small businesses. See for example www.runnsailing.com for sailing dinghy hire.
Iron and Copper byproducts from the mine are still used as a paint ingredient, in the production of the nationally well known and culturally important Falu Red paint, particularly used on wooden houses.
Notable residents and former residentsEdit
- Sture Bergwall, falsely convicted of serial murder
- Ferdinand Boberg, architect
- Joakim Brodén, founder and lead vocalist of power metal band Sabaton
- Jenny Rissveds, Olympic Champion Rio 2016, U23 Mountain Bike World Champion 2016
- Civil War, power metal band
- Elma Danielsson, social democrat
- Björn Dixgård, musician (Mando Diao)
- Mattias Ekström, racing driver
- Jorian Engelbrektsson, pinball champion
- Maria Hjorth, golfer
- In Mourning, progressive death metal band
- Fet-Mats Israelsson, "petrified" miner lost in the Falun mine for 42 years, subject of much literature. See below.
- Patrick Johansson, drummer
- Tomas Jonsson, ice hockey player
- Anders Kallur, ice hockey player
- Jenny Kallur, athlete, World Championships finalist 2005 in 100 m hurdles
- Susanna Kallur, athlete, World Record Holder 60 meter hurdles
- Selma Lagerlöf, author, 1909 Nobel prize laureate for literature
- Lina Leandersson, actress
- Bertil Lintner, journalist
- Marcus Ljungqvist, road bicycle racer
- Ernst Rolf, actor and singer
- Sabaton, power metal band
- Georg Skarstedt, actor
- Walter Steiner, ski jumper
- Ulf Stenlund, tennis player
- Georg Stiernhielm, civil servant, linguist and poet
- Gunnar Säve-Söderbergh, palaeontologist
- The Tallest Man on Earth, musician
- Twilight Force, power metal band
- Putte Wickman, jazz clarinetist
In popular cultureEdit
Annual music festivalEdit
Starting in 2008 Falun has been the home of a rock and metal festival called Sabaton Open Air: Rockstad Falun
- "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2008-12-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "History of Falun Mine". Retrieved 28 December 2010.[permanent dead link]
- Jöran Granberg, [Memories of the Framby Internment Camp in Falun Sweden, 1942-1944], 2008
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2012-04-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "August Monthly Weather (Swedish)". SMHI. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "Open Data" (in Swedish). Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
- "Monthly Data". Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. 23 April 2019.
- Falun Staden Som Försvann. 2011.
- http://www.falun.se/www/falun/org/gamlafalun.nsf/doc/46829F0F9EF941A6C125793400467272[permanent dead link]