The counties of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges län) are the top-level geographic subdivisions of Sweden. Sweden is today divided into 21 counties; however, the number of counties has varied over time, due to territorial gains/losses and to divisions and/or mergers of existing counties. This level of administrative unit was first established in the 1634 Instrument of Government on Lord Chancellor Count Axel Oxenstierna's initiative, and superseded the historical provinces of Sweden (Swedish: landskap) in order to introduce a more efficient administration of the realm. At that time, they were what the translation of län into English literally means: fiefdoms. The county borders often follow the provincial borders, but the Crown often chose to make slight relocations to suit its purposes.

Counties of Sweden
Sveriges län (Swedish)
CategoryUnitary state
LocationSweden
Number21
PopulationsLeast: Gotland, 61,001
Most: Stockholm, 2,415,139
AreasSmallest: Blekinge, 2946.4 km2
Largest: Norrbotten, 98244.8 km2
Government
Subdivisions

In every county there is a county administrative board (länsstyrelse) headed by a governor (landshövding), appointed by the government, as well as a separate regional council (region). In the county of Gotland however, the county's only municipality has adopted regional responsibilities.

The aims of the county administrative board are to supervise local state administration (that is not otherwise assigned to other government agencies), and to coordinate political goals with the central government. The regional council is the elected regional political assembly that oversees the municipal affairs of the county, primarily in regard to public healthcare, public transport, and culture.

Beginning in the 2000s, many major government agencies have reorganised from a countybased subdivisional structure into larger geographical or functional areas. This include the Swedish Tax Agency (1 January 2004), the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1 January 2005), the Swedish Public Employment Service (1 January 2008), and the Swedish Police Authority (1 January 2015).

List of counties edit

ISO NUTS CoA County (Län) Administrative centre Governor Area
(km2)
Population
(2021-12-31)[1]
Density
SE-AB SE110     Stockholm Stockholm Anna Kinberg Batra 6,519.3 2,415,139 370
SE-C SE121     Uppsala Uppsala Stefan Attefall 8,207.2 395,026 48.1
SE-D SE122     Södermanland Nyköping Beatrice Ask 6,102.3 301,801 49.5
SE-E SE123     Östergötland Linköping Carl Fredrik Graf [sv] 10,602.0 469,704 44.3
SE-F SE211     Jönköping Jönköping Helena Jonsson 10,495.1 367,064 35.0
SE-G SE212     Kronoberg Växjö Maria Arnholm 8,466.0 203,340 24.0
SE-H SE213     Kalmar Kalmar Allan Widman 11,217.8 247,175 22.0
SE-I SE214     Gotland Visby Anders Flanking 3,151.4 61,001 19.4
SE-K SE221     Blekinge Karlskrona Ulrica Messing 2,946.4 158,937 53.9
SE-M SE224     Skåne Malmö, Kristianstad Anneli Hulthén 11,034.5 1,402,425 127
SE-N SE231     Halland Halmstad Anders Thornberg 5,460.7 340,243 62.3
SE-O SE232     Västra Götaland Gothenburg, Vänersborg Sten Tolgfors 23,948.8 1,744,859 72.9
SE-S SE311     Värmland Karlstad Georg Andrén [sv] 17,591.0 283,196 16.1
SE-T SE124     Örebro Örebro Lena Rådström Baastad 8,545.6 306,792 35.9
SE-U SE125     Västmanland Västerås Johan Sterte [sv] 5,145.8 278,967 54.2
SE-W SE312     Dalarna Falun Helena Höij 28,188.8 288,387 10.2
SE-X SE313     Gävleborg Gävle Per Bill 18,198.9 287,767 15.8
SE-Y SE321     Västernorrland Härnösand Carin Jämtin 21,683.8 244,193 11.3
SE-Z SE322     Jämtland Östersund Marita Ljung [sv] 49,341.2 132,054 2.68
SE-AC SE331     Västerbotten Umeå Helene Hellmark Knutsson 55,186.2 274,563 4.98
SE-BD SE332     Norrbotten Luleå Lotta Finstorp [sv] 98,244.8 249,693 2.54

Map edit

With county codes, which were official until 1974.

Each county region contains a number of municipalities (kommuner), the existence of which is partly at the discretion of the central government. Since 2004 their number has been 290, thus an average of 13.8 municipalities per county.

Until 1968, the City of Stockholm had its own "county code" A, which is still used interchangeably with AB in some contexts, and County of Stockholm had county code B. L was for Kristianstad County and M was for Malmöhus County but since they were merged to form Skåne County, M is usually used. O used to stand for Gothenburg and Bohus County but has been used for Västra Götaland County since it was merged with Skaraborg County (R) and Älvsborg County (P).

History edit

Older subdivisions edit

Sweden's provinces, or landskap, and the "lands", or landsdelar, lack political importance today but are common denominations culturally and historically. The provinces had their own laws and justice systems and could have large cultural and religious differences. The province of Småland (literally small land) historically was several provinces with its own laws. Here burial tradition in the era before the Viking Age could differ significantly from province to province. The province of Norrbotten is a relatively recent creation; it was part of Västerbotten which extended all the way to Österbotten into today's Finland before 1809. Finnish and Swedish Lappland was also one province until 1809.

Historically, the provinces were grouped in three lands: Götaland, being southern and western Sweden; Svealand being eastern and south-eastern, and Norrland being the entire northern half. The names of the first two refer to ancient tribes, and the third is a geographical reference. They are still commonly used as geographical references. The boundaries have changed over time, with the most significant in 1658 (the cession of provinces from Denmark-Norway to Sweden) and 1812 (due to the loss of Finland to Russia in 1809). In 1812, some provinces were moved from Götaland to Svealand.

Finland edit

After the Finnish War, Sweden was forced to cede the counties in Finland to Russia following the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in (1809). However, the counties were upheld in Finland until a reform in 1997. They are still in use in Sweden, 370 years later.

The counties in Finland established in 1634 were: Turku and Pori County, Nyland and Tavastehus County, Viborg and Nyslott County, Ostrobothnia County and Kexholm County. Over time the number of subdivisions in Finland increased to twelve, until a reorganization in 1997 reduced their number to six provinces, while keeping the administrative model intact. The counties in Finland were abolished in 2010.

Abolished counties edit

Abolished counties in current-day Sweden proper were:

Counties in Swedish-ruled Finland were:

Proposed regions edit

 
Six or nine new administrative regions.

Under the aegis of the Swedish government, Ansvarskommittén has been investigating the possibilities of merging the current 21 counties into 6 to 9 larger regions. These proposals are from their final report, delivered in 2007:[2]

A model for this comes from the merger of some counties into Skåne County and Västra Götaland County in 1997 and 1998, respectively, which is now considered a success.

The counties are discussing the proposal. An obstacle is that Stockholm County does not want to merge with any other county, while its neighbours want to merge with Stockholm. After this discussion the following proposal has in 2016 emerged:

  1. Norrbotten, Västerbotten, Västernorrland and Jämtland county
  2. Dalarna, Gävleborgs, Södermanlands, Uppsala, Västmanland and Örebro county
  3. Östergötland, Jönköping, Kalmar and Kronoberg county
  4. Gotland and Stockholm county
  5. Halland, Värmland and Västra Götaland county
  6. Blekinge and Skåne county

The main difference is that the proposed Bergslagen is divided to other counties, and Stockholm is on its own (plus the small Gotland which has air connections to Stockholm)

Riksområden edit

 
Current statistical regions (riksområden).

The counties in Sweden correspond to the third level of division in the European Union's system of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics. For the purpose of creating regions corresponding to the second level, counties have been grouped into eight Riksområden, or National Areas: Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland, Upper Norrland, Småland and the islands, West Sweden and South Sweden.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Folkmängd i riket, län och kommuner 31 december 2021 och befolkningsförändringar 2021". Statistics Sweden (in Swedish). 22 February 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  2. ^ "Regional utveckling och regional samhällsorganisation". Government Offices of Sweden (in Swedish). 23 March 2007. SOU 2007:13.

External links edit