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Jönköping (/ˈjɜːn(t)ʃɜːpɪŋ/,[3][4] Swedish: [²jœnːˌɕøːpɪŋ] (About this soundlisten)) is a city in southern Sweden with 93,797 inhabitants (2015).[5] Jönköping is situated at the southern end of Sweden's second largest lake, Vättern, in the province of Småland.

Jönköping
Collage of Jönköping
Collage of Jönköping
Coat of arms of Jönköping
Coat of arms
Jönköping is located in Jönköping
Jönköping
Jönköping
Jönköping is located in Sweden
Jönköping
Jönköping
Coordinates: 57°46′58″N 14°09′38″E / 57.78278°N 14.16056°E / 57.78278; 14.16056Coordinates: 57°46′58″N 14°09′38″E / 57.78278°N 14.16056°E / 57.78278; 14.16056
CountrySweden
ProvinceSmåland
CountyJönköping County
MunicipalityJönköping Municipality
City status1284
Area
 • City44.82 km2 (17.31 sq mi)
Elevation
104 m (341 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2015)[1]
 • City93,797
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
 • Metro
134,785[2]
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
551 xx
Area code(s)(+46) 36
Vehicle registration1544
ClimateDfb
Websitewww.jonkoping.se

The city is the seat of Jönköping Municipality, which has a population of 134,785 (2016) and is Småland's most populous municipality. Jönköping is also the seat of Jönköping County which has a population of 341,235 (2013). Jönköping is the seat of a district court and a court of appeal as well as the Swedish National Courts Administration. It is the seat of the Swedish Board of Agriculture.[6]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
The Sofia Church in Jönköping, Neo-Gothic style, 1888

Jönköping is an old trading centre (Köping) situated at a natural crossroads for routes following the rivers Nissan and Lagan, and the road connecting the provinces of Östergötland and Västergötland, a result of the town's geographical position at the southern end of lake Vättern, which divides the two provinces.

On 18 May 1284 Jönköping became the first City in Sweden to be granted its rights by king Magnus Ladulås, who ruled mostly from Vättern's largest island Visingsö. The first part of the city's name, "Jön", is derived from a creek, "Junebäcken", in Talavid, in what is now the western part of the city. The second part of the name "köping", is, as mentioned above, an old word for a trading centre or market place.[7]

The geographical position of the city also left it vulnerable to attack via the river routes that led south, mainly from Danes. At that time the provinces of what is today southern Sweden — Scania, Halland and Blekinge — belonged to Denmark. The city was plundered and burned several times until it was fortified during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Jönköping was known for its matchstick industry between 1845–1970.[8] The phosphorus match was invented in 1831, and these matches became very popular because one could strike it against any surface to ignite it. However, the problem was that they ignited too easily, caused a lot of accidents and was toxic. In 1844, Swedish professor Gustav Erik Pasch patented a new invention, ”Safety matches - Strike against the box only”[9]. To prevent the matches from igniting so easily, Gustav Erik Pasch separated the chemicals in the match head and placed the phosphorus on a separate surface on the outside of the box for striking ignition. Johan Edvard and Carl Frans Lundström took Pasch's patent and improved it. Later, they manufactured their new Safety matches in their factory in Jönköping[10]. Today it is an important Nordic logistical center, with many companies' central warehouses (such as Elkjøp, IKEA, Electrolux and Husqvarna) situated there.

PresentEdit

The urban area of Jönköping today includes the eastern industrial town of Huskvarna, with which it has grown together.

Elmia, a major trade fair and exhibition centre, is situated in Jönköping. Elmia Wood is the world’s largest forestry fair, and those for subcontractors, trucks, caravans and railways are the biggest of their kind in Europe. Since 2001, Elmia has been the site of the world's largest LAN party, DreamHack, with two events every year, Dreamhack Summer and Dreamhack Winter.

DemographyEdit

PopulationEdit

As of 2018, Jönköping has a total population of 139 222[11].

Gender 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Female 66 404 66 987 67 823 68 722 69 426
Male 65 736 66 323 67 474 68 759 69 796
Total 132 140 133 310 135 297 137 481 139 222

Population changesEdit

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Population increase 1 342 1 170 1 987 2 184 1 741
Born 1 677 1 662 1 715 1 615 1 688
Deceased 1 169 1 217 1 101 1 202 1 253

Average age 2018Edit

Area Female Male Female and Male
Jönköping 41,3 39,1 40,2

Notable peopleEdit

EducationEdit

High schoolsEdit

Tertiary educationEdit

ClimateEdit

Jönköping's climate was humid continental (Köppen Dfb) bordering on subarctic with long, cold winters and short, warm summers during the 1961–1990 period. However, the window between subarctic and oceanic is very small in this marine-influenced climate type, and in recent years the climate has more resembled very cold oceanic. However, figures are slightly skewed due to the weather station being located at the airport which is at an elevation of 228 metres (748 ft), whereas the city centre is at 100 metres (330 ft). This likely renders up to between half a degree to a full degree milder temperatures in the urban centre.

Climate data for Jönköping Airport 2002–2018; extremes since 1901
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
14.7
(58.5)
18.7
(65.7)
26.3
(79.3)
28.6
(83.5)
33.2
(91.8)
33.4
(92.1)
34.2
(93.6)
26.8
(80.2)
21.4
(70.5)
14.1
(57.4)
12.6
(54.7)
33.4
(92.1)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
6.6
(43.9)
13.1
(55.6)
18.8
(65.8)
24.4
(75.9)
26.7
(80.1)
28.2
(82.8)
27.1
(80.8)
22.4
(72.3)
16.0
(60.8)
10.5
(50.9)
7.4
(45.3)
29.6
(85.3)
Average high °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
0.7
(33.3)
4.6
(40.3)
11.0
(51.8)
16.3
(61.3)
19.5
(67.1)
21.9
(71.4)
20.3
(68.5)
16.3
(61.3)
9.8
(49.6)
5.0
(41.0)
2.0
(35.6)
10.6
(51.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−2.3
(27.9)
0.4
(32.7)
5.4
(41.7)
10.3
(50.5)
13.7
(56.7)
16.4
(61.5)
15.2
(59.4)
11.7
(53.1)
6.4
(43.5)
2.6
(36.7)
−0.5
(31.1)
6.4
(43.5)
Average low °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−5.2
(22.6)
−3.9
(25.0)
−0.2
(31.6)
4.3
(39.7)
7.9
(46.2)
10.8
(51.4)
10.1
(50.2)
7.0
(44.6)
3.0
(37.4)
0.2
(32.4)
−2.9
(26.8)
2.2
(35.9)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −18.1
(−0.6)
−16.1
(3.0)
−14.2
(6.4)
−7.3
(18.9)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.0
(33.8)
4.7
(40.5)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.3
(29.7)
−5.7
(21.7)
−9.4
(15.1)
−13.6
(7.5)
−21.6
(−6.9)
Record low °C (°F) −33.0
(−27.4)
−35.4
(−31.7)
−30.0
(−22.0)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−7.2
(19.0)
−1.4
(29.5)
0.2
(32.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
−7.3
(18.9)
−13.3
(8.1)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−35.4
(−31.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.2
(1.70)
32.0
(1.26)
27.7
(1.09)
29.9
(1.18)
48.3
(1.90)
79.4
(3.13)
80.4
(3.17)
85.6
(3.37)
50.4
(1.98)
58.0
(2.28)
52.1
(2.05)
49.5
(1.95)
636.5
(25.06)
Source #1: SMHI Average Data 2002–2018[12]
Source #2: SMHI Open Data[13]
Panorama of central Jönköping

SportEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Population in the country, counties and municipalities by sex and age". Statistics Sweden. 27 May 2013. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013.
  2. ^ http://www.scb.se/hitta-statistik/statistik-efter-amne/befolkning/befolkningens-sammansattning/befolkningsstatistik/pong/tabell-och-diagram/kvartals--och-halvarsstatistik--kommun-lan-och-riket/kvartal-3-2016/
  3. ^ "Jönköping" (US) and "Jönköping". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Jönköping". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  5. ^ http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/sv/ssd/START__MI__MI0810__MI0810A/LandarealTatort/?rxid=8f5b9e8f-3a94-4ca6-8b53-c3ce838a7d6a
  6. ^ "Swedish Board of Agriculture – How to find our headquarters". Swedish Board of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  7. ^ Wahlberg, Mats, ed. (2003). Svenskt ortnamnslexikon (PDF) (in Swedish) (1st ed.). Uppsala: Swedish Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research. p. 158. ISBN 91-7229-020-X. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  8. ^ Ohlsen, Becky; Kaminski, Anna; Lundgren, K (1 June 2012). Lonely Planet Sweden (5th ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 1741797268.
  9. ^ Wisniak, Jaime (May 2005). "Matches-The manufacture of fire". CSIR. 12(3): 369–380 – via NISCAIR.
  10. ^ "History of matches". Swedish Match. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  11. ^ "Population Statistics". Jönköping Municipality (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  12. ^ "Monthly & Yearly Statistics". SMHI. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  13. ^ "SMHI öppna data för Huskvarna". SMHI. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  14. ^ http://www.atpworldtour.com/en/news/jonkoping-challenger-2016-feature

External linksEdit

KML is from Wikidata