Berat (pronounced [bɛˈɾat]; Albanian definite form: Berati) is the ninth most populous city of Albania and the seat of Berat County and Berat Municipality.[2] By air, it is 71 kilometres (44 miles) north of Gjirokastër, 70 kilometres (43 miles) west of Korçë, 70 kilometres (43 miles) south of Tirana, and 33 kilometres (21 miles) east of Fier.

Photomontage of Berat
Flag of Berat
Official logo of Berat
Berat is located in Albania
Coordinates: 40°42′08″N 19°57′30″E / 40.70222°N 19.95833°E / 40.70222; 19.95833
Country Albania
 • MayorErvin Demo (PS)
 • Municipality380.21 km2 (146.80 sq mi)
80 m (260 ft)
 • Municipality
 • Municipality density160/km2 (410/sq mi)
 • Municipal unit
Demonym(s)Beratase (f)
Beratas (m)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal Code
Area Code(0)11
Official nameHistoric Centres of Berat and Gjirokastra
Criteriaiii, iv
Reference no.569
RegionBerat County
Historical population

Berat is located in the south of the country. It is surrounded by mountains and hills, including Tomorr on the east that was declared a national park. The river Osum (total length 161 km (100 mi)) runs through the city before it empties into the Seman within the Myzeqe Plain. The municipality of Berat was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Berat, Otllak, Roshnik, Sinjë, and Velabisht, that became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the city Berat.[2] The total population is 60,031 (2011 census),[a][4] in a total area of 380.21 km2 (146.80 sq mi).[5] The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 32,606.[4]

Berat, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2008, comprises a unique style of architecture with influences from several civilizations that have managed to coexist for centuries throughout the history. Like many cities in Albania, Berat comprises an old fortified city filled with churches and mosques painted with grandiose wealth of visible murals and frescos. Berat is one of the main cultural centres of the country.[6]



The name Berat has been derived through Albanian sound changes from the Old Slavonic language Bělgrad (Бѣлградъ) or Belgrád / Beligrad (Белград / Белиград), meaning "White City".[7][8]

It is believed to have been the site of the ancient city Antipatreia (Ancient Greek: Ἀντιπάτρεια, "City of Antipater") or Antipatrea in Latin, while during the early Byzantine Empire the name of the town was Pulcheriopolis (Byzantine Greek: Πουλχεριόπολις, "City of Pulcheria").[9][10][7] It was recorded in Medieval Latin as Belogradum, Bellegradum, in Turkish as Belgrad, in Italian as Belgrado,[7] and in Greek as Βελλέγραδα, Bellegrada.[citation needed] In the Republic of Venice the city was known as Belgrado di Romania ("Rumelian Belgrade"), while in the Ottoman Empire it was also known as Belgrad-i Arnavud ("Albanian Belgrade") to distinguish it from Belgrade in Serbia.[9]

Today, in Aromanian, Berat is known as Birat.[11]



Early development


Ceramic finds from the 7th century BCE initially attest to a settlement of the rocky hill of Berat by the Illyrians.[12] Berat has been identified with ancient Antipatrea.[13] Probably since the mid-4th century BCE the Illyrians went through a dynamic development, founding their own cities like Dimale and Byllis; however it is uncertain whether this development among Illyrians involved also Berat, or whether the foundation of the city is to be attributed to Cassander of Macedon.[14] The founding date is unknown, although if Cassander is the founder, it would date back after he took control of southern Illyria around 314 BCE.[13]

Antipatrea was involved in the Illyrian Wars and Macedonian Wars,[15] and it is mentioned as a city of Dassaretia in southern Illyria. Along with Chrysondyon, Gertous and Creonion, Antipatrea was one of the Dassaretan towns around which the Illyrian dynast Skerdilaidas and the Macedonian king Philip V fought in 217 BCE. The city eventually was conquered by Philip V until Roman intervention.[16][17] Antipatrea was described as the largest settlement with significant walls and referred to as the only urbs in the area, in contrast with other settlements that were described as castella or oppida.[18] As reported by Roman historian Livy, in 200 BCE the Roman legatus Lucius Apustius "stormed and subdued Antipatrea by force of arms and, after killing the men of military age and granting all the plunder to the soldiers, he demolished the walls and burned the city".[19][15] In Roman times it was included within Epirus Nova, in the province of Macedonia.[20] The town became part of the unstable frontier of the Byzantine Empire following the fall of the western Roman Empire and, along with much of the rest of the Balkan peninsula, it suffered from repeated invasions by Slavs. During the Roman and early Byzantine period, the city was known as Pulcheriopolis.

The First Bulgarian Empire under Presian I captured the town in the 9th century, and the city received the Slavic name Bel[i]grad ("White City"), Belegrada (Βελέγραδα) in Greek, which persisted throughout the medieval period, changing to Berat under Ottoman rule. The town became one of the most important towns in the Bulgarian region Kutmichevitsa. The Bulgarian governor Elemag surrendered the city to the emperor Basil II in 1018, and the city remained in Byzantine hands until the Second Bulgarian Empire retook the city in 1203 during the rule of Kaloyan. During the 13th century, it fell to Michael I Ducas, the ruler of the Despotate of Epirus.

The entrance of the citadel, with the 13th century Byzantine Holy Trinity Church

Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos sent letters to the Albanian leaders of Berat and Durrës in 1272 asking them to abandon their alliance with Charles I of Naples, leader of the Kingdom of Albania, who had captured and incorporated it at the same period in the Kingdom of Albania.[21][22][23] However, they sent the letters to Charles as a sign of their loyalty.[24] In 1274 Michael VIII recaptured Berat and after being joined by Albanians who supported the Byzantine Empire, marched unsuccessfully against the Angevin capital of Durrës.[25] In 1280-1281 the Sicilian forces under Hugh the Red of Sully laid siege to Berat. In March 1281 a relief force from Constantinople under the command of Michael Tarchaneiotes was able to drive off the besieging Sicilian army.[26] Later in the 13th century Berat again fell under the control of the Byzantine Empire.

Andrea I Muzaka first ruler of the Principality of Muzaka in 1280.

The fortress of Tomorr in the early 14th century is attested as Timoro(n) under Byzantine control. In 1337, the Albanian tribes which lived in the areas of Belegrita (the region of Mt. Tomorr near Berat) and Kanina rose in rebellion, and seized the fortress of Tomorr.[27][28][29] There is little detail about the rebellion in primary sources. John VI Kantakouzenos mentions that the Albanians in those areas rebelled despite the privileges which Andronikos III Palaiologos had given them a few years earlier.[28] Andronikos led an army mainly composed of Turkish mercenaries, and defeated the Albanians, killing many and taking prisoners.[28] In 1345 (or maybe 1343) the town passed to the Serbian Empire.[30] After its dissolution in 1355 Berat came under suzerainty of its former governor, John Komnenos Asen (1345-1363), Alexander Komnenos Asen (1363-1372) and Zeta of Balša II (1372-1385). In 1385 Berat was captured by the Ottomans, before the Battle of Savra. According to some sources, the Ottomans probably remained in Berat for some time with intention to use it as foothold to capture Valona.[31] By 1396, the Albanian Muzaka family took over control of Berat, which became the capital of the Principality of Berat.[32][33] In 1417 Berat became a part of the Ottoman Empire.[34] In 1455 Skanderbeg, a commander with an Albanian force of 14,000 and small number of Catalan soldiers unsuccessfully tried to capture Berat from an Ottoman force of 40,000.[35]

Modern period

Halveti Tekke

During the early period of Ottoman rule, Berat fell into severe decline.[dubiousdiscuss] By the end of the 16th century it had only 710 houses. However, it began to recover by the 17th century, and became a major craft centre specializing in wood carving.

During the first part of the sixteenth century, Berat was a Christian city and did not contain any Muslim households.[36] The urban population of this period (1506-1583) increased little, with the addition of 17 houses.[37] Following their expulsion and arrival from Spain, a Jewish community existed in Berat that consisted of 25 families between 1519 and 1520.[38][39]

Toward the latter part of the sixteenth century, Berat contained 461 Muslim houses and another 187 belonged to newcomers from the surrounding villages of Gjeqar, Gjerbës, Tozhar, Fratar, and Dobronik.[37] Conversion to Islam of the local urban population in Berat had increased during this time and part of the newcomer population were also Muslim converts who had Islamic names and Christian surnames.[37] Factors such as tax exemptions for Muslim urban craftsmen in exchange for military service drove many of the incoming rural first generation Muslim population to Berat.[40] Followers of Sabbatai Zevi existed in Berat among Jews during the mid-seventeenth century.[39] The Berat Jewish community took an active role in the welfare of other Jews, such as managing to attain the release of war-related captives present in Durrës in 1596.[39]

By the early seventeenth century, urban life in Berat started to resemble Ottoman and Muslim patterns.[41] From 1670 onward, Berat became a Muslim-majority city and of its 30 neighbourhoods, 19 were populated by Muslims.[42] Factors attributed to the change of the urban religious composition in Berat was pressure to covert in some neighbourhoods, and a lack of Christian priests able to provide religious services.[42]

The city of Berat in 1813, illustration by Charles Robert Cockerell (1788-1863).

In the 18th century, Berat was one of the most important Albanian cities during the Ottoman period.[43]

In the early modern era the city was the capital of the Pashalik of Berat founded by Ahmet Kurt Pasha. Berat was incorporated in the Pashalik of Yanina after Ibrahim Pasha of Berat was defeated by Ali Pasha in 1809. In 1867, Berat became a sanjak in Yannina (Yanya) vilayet. Berat replaced a declining Vlorë as centre of the sanjak (province) in the nineteenth century.[44] The sanjak of Berat and the city itself were under the dominance of the Albanian Vrioni family.[44] The Jewish community of Yanina renewed the Jewish community of Berat in the nineteenth century.[39]

Berat depicted by Edward Lear, 15 October 1848.[45]

A Greek school was operating in the city already from 1835.[46] In the late Ottoman period, the population of Berat was 10–15,000 inhabitants, with Orthodox Christians numbering some 5,000 people of whom 3,000 spoke the Aromanian language and the rest the Albanian language.[47][48]

During the 19th century, Berat played an important part in the Albanian national revival. Christian merchants in Berat supported the Albanian movement.[49] The Albanian revolts of 1833–1839 greatly impacted the city, especially with revolts that occurred in October 1833. The city's castle was surrounded by 10,000 people. Berat's mütesellim, Emin Aga, was forced to leave the city in the hands of the revolt's leaders. On October 22, 1833 the revolt's leaders drafted their requests to the Sublime Porte: they would no longer accept allow that Berat give soldiers to the Ottoman government. They also demanded that Albania's local administration be led by Albanian people. The Ottoman government accepted the rebels' requests and nominated some Albanian officials in the city and declared an amnesty as well.[50] In August 1839 a new uprising took place in Berat. The inhabitants attacked the Ottoman forces and besieged them in the castle. Meanwhile, the rebellion spread out to the regions of Sanjak of Vlorë. The rebels leaders sent a petition to Sultan Abdulmejid I to have Albanian officials in administration and to put Ismail Pasha, the nephew of Ali Pasha as a general governor. In September 1839 the rebels captured the castle, however once again the Ottoman government postponed the application of reforms in Albania.[51]

Berat became a major base of support for the League of Prizren, the late 19th century Albanian nationalist alliance, while the city was also represented in the formation of southern branch of the league in Gjirokastër.[52] In the First World War, a census by Austro-Hungarian occupation forces counted 6745 Orthodox Christians and 20,919 Muslims in the Berat region.[53]

20th and 21st century


During the Second World War, Jews were concealed in the homes and basements of 60 families from the Muslim and Christian communities in Berat.[38] Albanian Muslims in the city let Jewish people worship in the local mosque, and a Star of David can still be seen on the walls of the city's main Islamic place of worship.[54]

From 23 to 30 October 1944, the second session of the Council of National Liberation of Albania was held in Berat, where the National Liberation Movement-controlled Anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee became the Provisional Democratic Government of Albania, with Enver Hoxha as its prime minister and minister of defence.

During the Communist era, Berat became a place of internal exile for those who were deemed public enemies, and their families. Starting in the 1950s, the village served as a political internment center from which the internees could not leave without permission.[55] Each day, internees were required to sign up at the Security Office or the police.[55] In 1963, a Deportation-Internment Commission report indicated that there were 30 interned in Berat, which consisted in part of internees those interned due to risk of escape.[55] The rest are convicted for ordinary causes. In 1967, Albanian author Ismail Kadare was sent to Berat, where he spent two years.[56][57] Relatives of those who had fled abroad, or sympathized with Titoist Yugoslavia were also deported to Berat.[58][59][60]

In the modern period, a Romani community numbering 200-300 lives in Berat and its outskirts whereas others in a few nearby villages, at times living in difficult economic circumstances with some seasonally migrating to Greece for work.[61][62] Some Aromanian-speakers and Greek-speakers can be found in the town and nearby villages.[63]



Berat lies on the right bank of the river Osum, a short distance from the point where it is joined by the Molisht river. The old city centre consists of three parts: Kalaja (on the castle hill), Mangalem (at the foot of the castle hill) and Gorica (on the left bank of the Osum). It has a number of buildings of architectural and historical interest. The pine forests above the city, on the slopes of the towering Tomorr mountains, provide a backdrop of appropriate grandeur. The Osumi river has cut a 915-metre deep gorge through the limestone rock on the west side of the valley to form a precipitous natural fortress, around which the town was built on several river terraces.

According to an Albanian legend, the Tomorr mountain was originally a giant, who fought with another giant (mountain) called Shpirag over a young woman. They killed each other and the girl drowned in her tears, which then became the Osum river.

Mount Shpirag, named after the second giant, is on the left bank of the gorge, above the district of Gorica. Berat is known to Albanians as the city of "One above another Windows" (a similar epithet is sometimes applied to Gjirokastra), or The City of Two Thousand Steps. It was proclaimed a 'Museum City' by the dictator Enver Hoxha in June 1961.



Berat has a Mediterranean climate (Csa) under the Köppen climate classification.[64][65][66] Summers are characterised as hot and dry with a maximum average of 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) in July.[65] Conversely, winter brings mild and wet weather with an average of 7.2 °C (45.0 °F) in January.[65] The lowest minimum temperature recorded in Berat was estimated at −12.2 °C (10.0 °F) and its highest maximum temperature at 47.1 °C (116.8 °F).[65]

Climate data for Berat (1991 - 2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 14.4
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 2.0
Record low °C (°F) −10
Average precipitation mm (inches) 145
Source: METEOALB Weather Station[citation needed]



By the 18th century the economy and society of Berat was closely connected to the city's craft guilds partly related to various tax exemptions that existed since the late Middle Ages. By 1750 there were twenty-two guilds, the most important of which were the tanners', the cobblers' and other leather-working guilds. Other guilds included metal-working, silver-smithing and silk-making ones.[43]

Present-day Berat houses Albania's military industry with the nearby Kuçovë base and Poliçan factory as well as a developing tourist economy as of recent years thanks to its historical sites.[citation needed]




Panorama of Berat

The coexistence of religious and cultural communities over several centuries, beginning in the 4th century BC into the 18th century is apparent in Berat. The town also bears testimony to the architectural excellence of traditional Balkan housing construction, which date to the late 18th and the 19th centuries. Some of the landmarks of that historical period could be seen in the Berat Castle, churches of the Byzantine era such as the Church of St. Mary of Blaherna (13th century), the Bachelors' Mosque, the National Ethnographic Museum, the Sultan's Mosque (built between 1481 and 1512), Leaden Mosque (built in 1555) and the Gorica Bridge.[67][68][69][70]

View of the Citadel of Berat

Berat Castle is built on a rocky hill on the right bank of the river Osum and is accessible only from the south. After being burned down by the Romans in 200 BC the walls were strengthened in the 5th century under Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II, and were rebuilt during the 6th century under the Emperor Justinian I and again in the 13th century under the Despot of Epirus, Michael Komnenos Doukas, cousin of the Byzantine Emperor. The main entrance, on the north side, is defended by a fortified courtyard and there are three smaller entrances. The surface that the fortress encompasses made it possible to house a considerable portion of the town's inhabitants. The buildings inside the fortress were built during the 13th century and because of their characteristic architecture are preserved as cultural monuments. The population of the fortress was Christian, and it had about 20 churches (most built during the 13th century) and only one mosque, for the use of the Muslim garrison, (of which there survives only a few ruins and the base of the minaret). The churches of the fortress have been damaged through the years and only some remain.[citation needed]

The Church of St. Mary of Blachernae dating from the 13th century, has 16th century mural paintings by Nikollë Onufri, son of the most important post-medieval Albanian painter, Onufri. In a small tree - planted square, on a hillside inside the walls of the fortress, stands the 14th century Church of the Holy Trinity. It is built in the form of a cross and has Byzantine murals. Outside the ramparts is the Church of St. Michael (Shën Mehill), built in the 13th century. This church is reached by a steep but perfectly safe path. Near the entrance, after a guardhouse, is the little Church of St. Theodore (Shen Todher), which have wall paintings by Onufri himself. The most interesting is the cathedral of St. Nicholas, which has been well restored and is now a museum dedicated to Onufri. Onufri was the greatest of the 16th century painters in Albania. Not only was he a master of the techniques of fresco and icons, but he was the first to introduce a new colour in painting, shiny red, which the French called "Onufri's Red". In addition, Onufri introduced a certain realism and a degree of individuality in facial expression.[71]

The UNESCO Site of Berat.

The first inscription recording Onufri's name was found in 1951, in the Shelqan church. The Kastoria church has a date 23 July 1547 and a reference to Onufri's origin : I am Onufri, and come from the town of Berat. Onufri's style in painting was inherited by his son, Nikolla (Nicholas), though not so successful as his father. In Onufri's museum can be found works of Onufri, his son, Nikolla and other painters'. There are also numbers of icons and some fine examples of religious silversmith's work (sacred vessels, icon casings, covers of Gospel books, etc.). Berat Gospels, which date from the 4th century, are copies (the originals are preserved in the National Archives in Tirana). The church itself has an iconostasis of carved wood, with two icons of Christ and the Virgin Mary. The bishop's throne and the pulpit are also notable. Near the street running down from the fortress is the Bachelors' Mosque (Xhami e Beqareve), built in 1827. This has a portico and external decoration of flowers, plants, and houses. The 'Bachelors' were the young shop-assistants (in practice generally unmarried), whom the merchants in Berat used as their own private militia.[citation needed]

The King Mosque (Albanian: Xhamia e Mbretit), the oldest in the town built in the reign of Bayazid II (1481–1512),[6] is notable for its fine ceiling. It is museum in the modern period.[6]

The Lead Mosque (Xhamia e Plumbit), built in 1555 and so called from the covering of its cupola. This mosque is the centre of the town.[72]

Berat as seen from the Castle.

The Halveti Tekke (Teqe e Helvetive) is thought to have been built in the 15th century. It was rebuilt by Ahmet Kurt Pasha in 1782. It belongs to the Khalwati Sufi order.

Near of tekke is purported to be the grave of Sabbatai Zevi, an Ottoman Jew who was banished to Dulcigno (present day Ulcinj), who created controversy among his followers upon his conversion to Islam.[73]

A Jewish history museum named "Solomon Museum" is located in southern Berat, and contains exhibits about the Holocaust in Albania and the survival of Jews during the war in the country.[38]

The Ethnographic Museum

The town is known for its historic architecture and scenery and is known as the "Town of a Thousand Windows", due to the many large windows of the old decorated houses overlooking the town.[citation needed]

It is unclear whether it really means "Thousand" (një mijë) or "One over Another" (një mbi një) windows. Indeed, the quarter is built in a very steep place and windows seem to be one over another. Similar views can be seen in Melnik, Bulgaria, Gjirokastër in Albania, as well as Catanzaro in Italy, where an Albanian minority once lived.[citation needed]

The Citadel overlooks the river and the modern city as well as the old Christian quarter across the river. It is a well preserved area containing narrow streets, Turkish houses and Orthodox churches.[citation needed]

The Onufri Museum

Modern Berat consists of three parts divided by the Osum River: Gorica ("little mountain" in Old Church Slavonic), Mangalem and Kalaja, the latter being a residential quarter within the old Byzantine citadel that overlooks the town. The town also has a 15th-century mosque and a number of churches of the Albanian Orthodox Church, whose autocephaly was proclaimed there in 1922. Several of the churches house works by the renowned 16th century painter Onufri.[citation needed]

The St. Michael's Church of Berat

Berat National Ethnographic Museum opened in 1979.[69] It contains a diversity of everyday objects from throughout Berat's history. The museum contains non-movable furniture which hold a number of household objects, wooden case, wall-closets, as well as chimneys and a well. Near the well is an olive press, wool press and many large ceramic dishes, revealing a glimpse of the historical domestic culture of Berat's citizens.[69] The ground floor has a hall with a model of a medieval street with traditional shops on both sides. On the second floor is an archive, loom, village sitting room, kitchen and sitting room.[67][70][74]

Gorica Bridge, which connects two parts of Berat, was originally built from wood in 1780 and was rebuilt with stone in the 1920s.[68] The seven-arch bridge is 129 metres (423 ft) long and 5.3 metres (17 ft) wide and is built about 10 metres (33 ft) above the average water level.[68] According to local legend, the original wooden bridge contained a dungeon in which a girl would be incarcerated and starved to appease the spirits responsible for the safety of the bridge.[67][68]



In addition to secondary schools, the city hosted the Albanian University in Berat, a private institution that terminated its programs in 2019.



The football (soccer) club is KS Tomori Berat.

Twin towns – sister cities


Berat is twinned with:

Notable people

Margarita Tutulani

See also



  1. ^ The municipality of Berat consists of the administrative units of Otllak, Roshnik, Sinjë, Velabisht and Berat.[3][2] The population of the municipality results from the sum of the listed administrative units in the former as of the 2011 Albanian census.


  1. ^ "Cities of Albania". 15 April 2024.
  2. ^ a b c "Law nr. 115/2014" (PDF) (in Albanian). p. 6366. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  3. ^ "A new Urban–Rural Classification of Albanian Population" (PDF). Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). May 2014. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Population and housing census - Berat 2011" (PDF). INSTAT. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  5. ^ "Correspondence table LAU – NUTS 2016, EU-28 and EFTA / available Candidate Countries" (XLS). Eurostat. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Norris 1993, p. 56. [1]
  7. ^ a b c Elsie, Robert (2010). Historical Dictionary of Albania (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-8108-7380-3.
  8. ^ Demiraj, Shaban (2006). The origin of the Albanians: linguistically investigated. Academy of Sciences of Albania. p. 148. ISBN 978-99943-817-1-5. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020.
  9. ^ a b Fishta, Gjergj (2005). The highland Lute. Translated by Elsie, Robert; Mathie-Heck, Janice. London: I.B.Tauris. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-84511-118-2. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  10. ^ Hammond, N.G.L.; Walbank, F.W. (1988). A History of Macedonia: Volume III: 336–167 B.C. Oxford University Press. p. 391. ISBN 978-0-19-814815-9. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  11. ^ "Arumunët Albania, nr. 40". Arumunët Albania (in Albanian and Aromanian). No. 40. 2014. p. 15.
  12. ^ Zindel et al. 2018, pp. 278, 280
  13. ^ a b Cohen & Walbank 1995, p. 76
  14. ^ Fiedler et al. 2021, p. 137: "Die Illyrier durchliefen eine dynamische Ent-wicklung mit Gründung eigener Städte wohl ab dem mittleren 4. Jh. v. Chr. wie Dimal und Byllis68. Ob hierzu auch Antipatreia (Berat)69 am östlichen Eingang zur Myzeqe-Ebene nur 40 km von Babunjë entfernt gehörte oder die Stadt erst durch Kassander (neu?) gegründet wurde, ist derzeit offen."
  15. ^ a b Astin 1998, p. 262
  16. ^ Šašel Kos 1997, p. 331
  17. ^ Morton 2017, pp. 37, 42
  18. ^ Morton 2017, p. 23
  19. ^ Baker 2020, p. 59
  20. ^ Hoti 2022, pp. 245, 249
  21. ^ Lala, Etleva; Gerhard Jaritz (2008). "Regnum Albaniae and the Papal Curia" (PDF). Central European University. p. 32. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  22. ^ Wirth, Peter (2 March 1977). Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des oströmischen Reiches von 565-1453: Regesten von 1204-1282. C.H.Beck. p. 114. ISBN 978-3-406-00738-5. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  23. ^ Norris, Harry Thirlwall (1993). Islam in the Balkans: religion and society between Europe and the Arab world. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-87249-977-5.
  24. ^ Nicol 2010, p. 16.
  25. ^ Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The late Byzantine army: arms and society, 1204-1453. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8122-1620-2. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
  26. ^ Norwich, John Julius. The Decline and Fall of the Byzantine Empire. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996) p. 246-247
  27. ^ Nicol 2010, p. 108: The Albanians in the district between Balagrita and Kanina had against risen in rebellion, in spite of the privileges which the emperor had recently granted themtquote (..) Balagrita lay in the region of Mount Tomor (Tomorit) near Berat.
  28. ^ a b c Fine 1994, p. 253
  29. ^ Osswald, Brendan (2007). "The Ethnic Composition of Medieval Epirus". In Ellis, Steven G.; Klusáková, Lud'a (eds.). Imagining Frontiers, Contesting Identities. Edizioni Plus. p. 134. ISBN 978-88-8492-466-7. In 1337, the Albanians of Epirus Nova invaded the area of Berat and appeared for the first time in Epirus, seizing the fortresses of Skrepario, Timoro and Klisoura.
  30. ^ Nicol, Donald M. (1984). The Despotate of Epiros 1267-1479: A Contribution to the History of Greece in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-521-26190-6. Berat may have fallen by 1343.
  31. ^ Gibbons, Herbert Adam (21 August 2013). The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire: A History of the Osmanlis Up To the Death of Bayezid I 1300-1403. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-135-02982-1.
  32. ^ Ćurčić, Slobodan; Aimos; Preservation, Society for the Study of the Medieval Architecture in the Balkans and its (1997). Secular medieval architecture in the Balkans 1300-1500 and its preservation. Aimos, Society for the Study of the Medieval Architecture in the Balkans and its Preservation. p. 114. ISBN 978-960-86059-1-6. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  33. ^ Fine, John V. A.; Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 391. ISBN 0-472-08260-4. 1396. By this time the family of Musachi had gained control of Berat.
  34. ^ Kiel 1990, p. 48. "In 1417, Berat became part of the Ottoman Empire when this strong city succumbed to a surprise attack."
  35. ^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1976). The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Volume II. The Fifteenth Century. American Philosophical Society. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-87169-127-9.
  36. ^ Ergo 2010, pp. 34, 37.
  37. ^ a b c Ergo 2010, p. 36.
  38. ^ a b c Mema, Briseida (30 September 2019). "Albania's endangered Jewish museum reopens". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  39. ^ a b c d Giakoumis, Konstantinos (2010). "The Orthodox Church in Albania Under the Ottoman Rule 15th-19th Century". In Schmitt, Oliver Jens (ed.). Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa [Religion and culture in Albanian-speaking southeastern Europe]. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. p. 96. ISBN 978-3-631-60295-9.
  40. ^ Ergo 2010, p. 33.
  41. ^ Ergo, Dritan (2010). "Islam in the Albanian lands (XVth-XVIIth Century)". In Schmitt, Oliver Jens (ed.). Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa [Religion and culture in Albanian-speaking southeastern Europe]. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. p. 34. ISBN 978-3-631-60295-9.
  42. ^ a b Skendi, Stavro (1967a). The Albanian national awakening. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4008-4776-1.
  43. ^ a b Amin, Camron Michael; Fortna, Benjamin C.; Frierson, Elizabeth Brown (21 April 2006). The modern Middle East: a sourcebook for history. Oxford University Press. p. 569. ISBN 978-0-19-926209-0. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  44. ^ a b Kiel, Machiel (1990). Ottoman architecture in Albania, 1385-1912. Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. p. 52. ISBN 978-92-9063-330-3.
  45. ^ Elsie, Robert (ed.). "Albania in the Painting of Edward Lear (1848)".
  46. ^ "Σχολή Βελεγράδων. [School of Berat]". Κάτοπρον Ελληνικής Επιστήμης και Φιλοσοφίας (University of Athens) (in Greek). Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  47. ^ Clayer, Nathalie (2007). Aux origines du nationalisme albanais: La naissance d'une nation majoritairement musulmane en Europe [The origins of Albanian nationalism: The birth of a predominantly Muslim nation in Europe]. Paris: Karthala. p. 109. ISBN 978-2-84586-816-8. "Berat, au nord, en avait 10 a 15 000"
  48. ^ Koukoudis, Asterios (2003). The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora. Thessaloniki: Zitros Publications. p. 358. ISBN 978-960-7760-86-9. "Berat... At the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century, of the 5,000 or so Orthodox Christians in the town, some 3,000 were Vlach-speaking and the rest Albanian-speaking."
  49. ^ Biondich, Mark (2011). The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878. Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-19-929905-8.
  50. ^ Thëngjilli 1978, p. 16-20.
  51. ^ Pollo 1984, p. 126
  52. ^ Skendi, Stavro (1953). "Beginnings of Albanian Nationalist and Autonomous Trends: The Albanian League, 1878-1881". American Slavic and East European Review. 12 (2): 219–232. doi:10.2307/2491677. JSTOR 2491677. The southern branch of the League was formed at Gjinokastër (Argyrokastro), where; Albanian leaders held a meeting at which the districts of Janina, Gjinokastër, Delvina, Përmet, Berat, Vlora (Valona), Filat, Margariti, Ajdonat, Parga, Preveza, Arta, Tepelena, Kolonja, and Korca were represented.
  53. ^ Odile, Daniel (1990). "The historical role of the Muslim community in Albania". Central Asian Survey. 9 (3): 5. doi:10.1080/02634939008400712. "20,919 Muslims and 6745 Orthodox Christians lived in the region of Berat"
  54. ^ "Prime Minister Edi Rama Speaks on Albania's History With Jewish WWII Refugees". 17 June 2020. Archived from the original on 17 May 2022. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  55. ^ a b c Ermal Frashëri. "Framework Study - On prison system, internment and forced labor during communist regime in Albania with a focus on establishing a museum of memory in the former internment camp in Tepelena" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2020.
  56. ^ Morgan 2011, pp. 106–107
  57. ^ Fayé, Éric (1993). Kadaré, Ismail (ed.). œuvres completes: tome 1. Editions Fayard. pp. 10–25.
  58. ^ Lek Pervizi: In the Circles of hell,Album, ISKK, Tirana, 2012.
  59. ^ Lek Pervizi, Tri stinet e nje jete, Lezhe, 2017.
  60. ^ Pearson, Owen (11 July 2006). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism 1940-1945. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 399. ISBN 978-1-84511-104-5. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  61. ^ De Soto, Hermine; Beddies, Sabine; Gedeshi, Ilir (2005). Roma and Egyptians in Albania: From social exclusion to social inclusion (PDF). Washington D.C.: World Bank Publications. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-8213-6171-9.
  62. ^ Koinova, Maria (2000). Roma of Albania (PDF) (Report). Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe-Southeast Europe (CEDIME-SE). p. 7.
  63. ^ Winnifrith, Tom (2002). Badlands, Borderlands: A History of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania. Duckworth. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7156-3201-7. Berat was the seat of a Greek bishopric in medieval and modern times, and today Vlach- and even Greek-speakers can be found in the town and villages near by
  64. ^ "Climate: Berat". Climate-Data. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  65. ^ a b c d "Dokumenti i Raportit Përfundimtar të Vlerësimit Strategjik Mjedisor të Planit të Përgjithshëm të Territorit të Bashkisë" (PDF) (in Albanian). Bashkia Berat. pp. 15–18. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  66. ^ "Dokumenti i Planit të Përgjithshëm të Territorit të Bashkisë Berat" (PDF) (in Albanian). Bashkia Berat. pp. 14–19. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  67. ^ a b c "UNESCO.orgHistoric Centres of Berat and Gjirokastra". Retrieved 7 September 2010.
  68. ^ a b c d "The Castle". Castle Park. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  69. ^ a b c "Ethnographic Museum". Berat Museum. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  70. ^ a b "National Ethnographic Museum, Berat". Albania Shqiperia. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  71. ^ "Kisha e Shën Mëri Vllahernës" (in Albanian). Retrieved 6 November 2010.[permanent dead link]
  72. ^ Garwood, Duncan (2009). Mediterranean Europe. Lonely Planet. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-74104-856-8. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  73. ^ The Halveti Tekke Retrieved 6 May 2024.
  74. ^ "Berat". Albanian Canadian League Information Service. Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2010.
  75. ^ "Amasya Belediyesi Kardeş Şehirleri". (in Turkish). Amasya. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  76. ^ "Kardeş Belediyeler". (in Turkish). Bağcılar. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  77. ^ "Bérat. Réception des représentants de la ville jumelle Albanaise". (in French). La Depeche. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  78. ^ "Fermo Internazionale". (in Italian). Fermo. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  79. ^ "Konkretizohet marrëveshja e binjakëzimit mes qyteteve Berat-Karmiel". (in Albanian). Ambasada e Republikës së Shqipërisë në Izrael. 20 July 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  80. ^ "Побратимени градове". (in Bulgarian). Lovech. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  81. ^ "Municipiul Ploiești (Menu) => Orașe înfrățite". (in Romanian). Ploiești. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  82. ^ "Prizreni binjakëzohet me Beratin". (in Albanian). Prizren Press. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  83. ^ "Bratimljenje" (PDF). (in Montenegrin). Zajednica opština Crne Gore. January 2013. p. 53. Retrieved 8 March 2021.



Further reading