Guardian of Scotland

The Guardians of Scotland were regents who governed the Kingdom of Scotland from 1286 until 1292 and from 1296 until 1306. During the many years of minority in Scotland's subsequent history, there were many guardians of Scotland and the post was a significant constitutional feature in the course of development for politics in the country.

Great Seal appointed for the Government of the Realm after death of King Alexander III.

Guardians of Scotland during the First Interregnum 1286–1292Edit

The First Interregnum began upon the death of Alexander III of Scotland in 1286. Alexander's only surviving descendant was Margaret, Maid of Norway, who was a young child and living in Norway where her father Eric II was king. She was finally sent to Great Britain in 1290, but she died before arriving in Scotland. The next king of Scots was not determined until completion of an arbitration in 1292.

The following persons served as guardians during the First Interregnum:

In a letter (written in Old French) from the Scots Parliament of 1290, sitting at Birgham, confirming the Treaty of Salisbury, the guardians of Scotland are listed as:[1]

"... Guillaume de Seint Andreu et Robert de Glasgu evesques, Johan Comyn et James Seneschal de Escoce, gardeins du reaume de Escoce..."

English translation: "William [Fraser] of St Andrews and Robert [Wishart] of Glasgow bishops, John Comyn and James the Steward of Scotland, guardians of the kingdom of Scotland".

Guardians of Scotland during the Second Interregnum 1296–1306Edit

Guardians of the Kingdom of Scotland
(Time in office)
Sir William Wallace
Sir Robert the Bruce
John Comyn III
William de Lamberton
Sir Ingram de Umfraville
Sir John de Soules

Guardians during the minority and reign of David IIEdit

The Guardians during the minority and reign of David II were:

Guardians during the reign of Robert IIEdit

Guardians during the infirmity of King Robert II

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Margaret: Manuscript - 1290, 14 March, Birgham - Parliamentary Records - Letters: confirmation of the treaty of Salisbury" (in Old French and English). Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707, University of St Andrews. Retrieved 3 October 2009.


  • Mack, James Logan (1926). The Border Line. Pub. Oliver & Boyd. pp. 317–322.
  • McNaught, Duncan (1912). Kilmaurs Parish and Burgh. Pub. A.Gardner. p. 9.

External linksEdit