Gustaf Mannerheim as regent of Finland (sitting) and his adjutants (from the left) Lt. Col. Lilius, Cap. Kekoni, Lt. Gallen-Kallela, Ensign Rosenbröijer.

A regent is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.[1] Currently there is only one ruling Regency in the world, sovereign Liechtenstein. The following is a list of regents.

Regents in various current monarchiesEdit

Those who held a regency briefly, for example during surgery, are not necessarily listed, particularly if they performed no official acts; this list is also not complete, presumably not even for all monarchies included. The list includes some figures who acted as regent, even if they did not themselves hold the title of regent.

BelgiumEdit

CambodiaEdit

DenmarkEdit

JapanEdit

JordanEdit

  • Prince Naif bin Al-Abdullah from the 20 July to 5 September 1951, due to the schizophrenia of his brother King Talal, who was in a Swiss mental hospital.
  • A regency council (Ibrahim Hashem, Suleiman Toukan, Abdul Rahman Rusheidat and chairing Queen Mother Zein al-Sharaf Talal) took over during the king's ailment & continued after the king's forced abdication (on 11 August 1952), serving from 4 June 1952 to 2 May 1953, until King Hussein came of age.
  • Crown Prince Hassan, from 4 July 1998 to 19 January 1999 while his brother King Hussein was undergoing cancer treatments.

LesothoEdit

LiechtensteinEdit

LuxembourgEdit

Malaysia and its constitutive monarchiesEdit

TerengganuEdit

  • Tengku Muhammad Ismail (eight-years of age at the time), co-reigned with the three-member Regency Advisory Council (Majlis Penasihat Pemangku Raja) from 2006 to 2011. His father, Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin the Sultan of Terengganu was elected as 13th King of Malaysia. The Malaysian constitution does not allow a simultaneous reign as both the King of Malaysia and as Monarch of the King's native state (deemed absent on the State throne). Sultan Mizan was crowned as King on 13 December 2006 and the prince as the Regent (Pemangku Raja) of Terengganu effective on the same date.

MonacoEdit

MoroccoEdit

NepalEdit

NetherlandsEdit

NorwayEdit

OmanEdit

QatarEdit

Saudi ArabiaEdit

  • 30 March 1964 – 2 November 1964 Crown Prince Faisal (b. 1906 – d. 1975) –Regent for his brother King Saud, and later his successor
  • 1 January 1996 – 21 February 1996 formally, but de facto until 1 August 2005 Crown Prince Abdullah (b. 1924 – d. 2015) –Regent for his brother King Fahd, and later his successor

SpainEdit

SwazilandEdit

SwedenEdit

ThailandEdit

United Kingdom and its predecessor realmsEdit

Kingdom of Great BritainEdit

Kingdom of EnglandEdit

Kingdom of ScotlandEdit

Regents in various former MonarchiesEdit

The same notes apply; inclusion in this list reflects the political reality, regardless of claims to the throne.

Afghan monarchiesEdit

Before the 1881 unification, there were essentially four rulers' capitals: Kabul, Herat, Qandahar and Peshawar (the last now in Pakistan); all their rulers belonged to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Dorrani with Ahmad Shah Abdali. They belong either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan (typically styled padshah, king) or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan (typically with the style Amir, in full Amir al-Mo´menin "Leader of the Faithful"). The Mohammadzay also furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as (Minister-)regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.

AustriaEdit

For most of the reign of the epileptic and severely disabled Emperor Ferdinand I (1835-1848), Ferdinand's uncle, Archduke Ludwig (from 1836 to 1848), acted as a de facto regent.

BrazilEdit

 
Maria Leopoldina acting as regent of the Kingdom of Brazil in 1822, as depicted in Sessão do Conselho de Estado
 
Princess Isabel taking oath as regent of the Empire of Brazil, c. 1870

BulgariaEdit

ChinaEdit

EgyptEdit

EthiopiaEdit

FinlandEdit

After the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia, the throne of the Grand Duke of Finland was vacant and according to the constitution of 1772, a regent was installed by the Finnish Parliament during the first two years of Finnish independence, before the country was declared a republic.

FranceEdit

GreeceEdit

German monarchiesEdit

AnhaltEdit

BadenEdit

BavariaEdit

BrunswickEdit

HanoverEdit

Hesse-KasselEdit

LippeEdit

Mecklenburg-SchwerinEdit

Mecklenburg-StrelitzEdit

PrussiaEdit

Saxe-Coburg and GothaEdit

Saxe-MeiningenEdit

Saxe-WeimarEdit

WaldeckEdit

HawaiiEdit

  • Queen Kaʻahumanu, between 1824–1832 during the rule of the infant Kamehameha III; she was also Kuhina Nui (co-ruler), regent, of Kamehameha II
  • Elizabeth Kīnaʻu, between 5 June 1832 – 17 March 1833 after Kaʻahumanu's death and before Kamehameha III became 20 years old[3]

HungaryEdit

IcelandEdit

IndiaEdit

MaduraiEdit

Mughal Empire

TravancoreEdit

Both before and during the British raj (colonial rule), most of India was ruled by several hundred native princely houses, many of which have known regencies, under the raj subject to British approval

Vakataka KingdomEdit

IraqEdit

In the short-lived Hashemite kingdom, there were three regencies in the reign of the third and last king Faysal II (b. 1935 – d. 1958; also Head of the 'Arab Union', a federation with the Hashemite sister-kingdom Jordan, from 14 February 1958) :

  • 4 April 1939 – 1 April 1941 Prince 'Abd al-Ilah (1st time) (b. 1913 – d. 1958)
  • 1 April 1941 – 1 June 1941 Sharaf ibn Rajih al-Fawwaz (b. 1880 – d. 1955)
  • 1 June 1941 – 2 May 1953 Crown Prince 'Abd al-Ilah (2nd time)

ItalyEdit

Italian former principalitiesEdit

MantuaEdit

ParmaEdit

SavoyEdit

KoreaEdit

MongoliaEdit

MyanmarEdit

PortugalEdit

RomaniaEdit

RussiaEdit

SerbiaEdit

Serbian regents abroadEdit

Tibetan EmpireEdit

TurkeyEdit

 
The regent Yariri (r.) and his successor Kamani (l.), on a relief from Carchemish. An example of regency from ancient history.

VietnamEdit

YugoslaviaEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "A person appointed to administer a State because the Monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."
  2. ^ a b Pryde, E. B., ed. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-521-56350-5.
  3. ^ "Kuhina Nui 1819–1864". Centennial Exhibit. State of Hawaii Department of Accounting and General Services. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
  4. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 95.